###### Chi-squaredistribution - Biology-Online Dictionary
Chi-square distribution a distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the the squares of any given ... The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Chi-square_distribution&oldid=57790" ... independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. ...
https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Chi-square_distribution
###### Classroom Activities: Chi-SquareDistributions - Texas Instruments - content
Students compare the chi-square distribution to the standard normal distribution and determine how the Chi-Square distribution ... Students compare the chi-square distribution to the standard normal distribution and determine how the Chi-Square distribution ... Problem 2 gives students the opportunity to explore the critical values for a Chi-Square Distribution. They find the critical ... In Problem 1, students will explore the characteristics of the Chi-Square Distribution. They will increase the degree of ...
https://education.ti.com/en/activity/detail?id=007651D02B044AE3A9CC03EA169DE7B3
###### A Powerful Variant-Set Association Test Based on Chi-SquareDistribution | Genetics
A Powerful Variant-Set Association Test Based on Chi-Square Distribution Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... A Powerful Variant-Set Association Test Based on Chi-Square Distribution. Zhongxue Chen, Tong Lin and Kai Wang ... A Powerful Variant-Set Association Test Based on Chi-Square Distribution. Zhongxue Chen, Tong Lin and Kai Wang ... A Powerful Variant-Set Association Test Based on Chi-Square Distribution. Zhongxue Chen, Tong Lin and Kai Wang ...
http://www.genetics.org/content/207/3/903
###### Chi-squaredistribution legal definition of Chi-squaredistribution
What is Chi-square distribution? Meaning of Chi-square distribution as a legal term. What does Chi-square distribution mean in ... Definition of Chi-square distribution in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Chi-square distribution legal definition of Chi-square distribution https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Chi-square+ ... 1] has a noncentral chi-square distribution then the distribution of X = [square root of [X. ...
http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Chi-square+distribution
###### IFA Services: Statistics, Chi-squaredistribution
Standard Normal Distribution. Remarks:. The Chi-Square distribution is based on a sum of squares, therefore the value of X^2 ... The Chi-square distribution, is derived from the > Normal distribution. It is the distribution of a sum of squared Normal ... The Chi-square distribution. Example:. Prob( X^2 >= , Degrees of Freedom=. ) <= X^2 = >. Degrees of Freedom = >. ... The importance of the Chi-square distribution stems from the fact that it describes the distribution of the Variance of a ...
http://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/Service/CGI-Inline/HTML/Statistics/ChiSquare_distribution.html
###### Chi-SquareDistribution
... The chi-square ( ) distribution is obtained from the values of the ratio of the sample variance and ... Chi-Square Probabilities. Since the chi-square distribution isn't symmetric, the method for looking up left-tail values is ... Properties of the Chi-Square. *Chi-square is non-negative. Is the ratio of two non-negative values, therefore must be non- ... There are many different chi-square distributions, one for each degree of freedom. ...
https://people.richland.edu/james/lecture/m113/chi_square.html
###### Chi-squaredistribution Forum
Chi-square distribution come together and discuss about Chi-square distribution. Please use the message board below to post ... F-distribution Forum. • Chi distribution Forum. • Exponential distribution Forum. • Erlang distribution Forum. • Linear ... Standard normal distribution Forum. • Iid Forum. • Noncentral chi-square distribution Forum. • Idempotent matrix Forum. • Rank ... There are no entries in Chi-square distribution forum. Become the first person to post messages in this forum by using the form ...
http://www.forumjar.com/forums/Chi-square_distribution
###### ChiSquareDistribution Archives - APB Consultant
I do not claim to be original author to many of the articles you find in my blog. I would like to thank all the original writers like Art Lewis and many others and websites like advisera.com and many others for the material available. I would also like to thank all my visitors like you for their continued support. I hope you would continue to support the blog by visiting us again for all the relevant information it contains. Remember that all this information is free and there is no need for registration for getting access to the information it contains.. ...
http://isoconsultantpune.com/tag/chi-square-distribution/
###### Should I use some sort of ChiSquareDistribution or another method... Any assistance is greatly appreciated. | Statistics Help...
Tags chi sq test chi square chi square help what test distribution dot product six sigma weighted average ... I think I need to steer towards some sort of Chi-Square Distribution. I also think I need some bounding built in to take care ... Should I use some sort of Chi Square Distribution or another method... Any assistance is greatly appreciated.. ...
###### chisquaredistribution, chi-square test statistic, definition, explained
Chi-square distribution The chi-square distribution has one parameter k, the degrees of freedom. The chi squared distribution ... Chi square. chi square test, chi square distribution, expected frequency, observed frequency. contingency table, significance ... Chi-square test explained. Chi-square test is based on the chi square distribution. It is used for the goodness-of-fit test ... chi square is greater than the critical value of chi square that cuts off the upper 5% of the distribution at our particular ...
http://symynet.com/fb/quantitative_research_methods/Statistics/chi_square/intro.htm
###### Code Example Center: DELPHI - How to show chi-squaredistribution curve
Propability density function (chi-square distribution).. var i, iK : integer; iX, iY, iGamma, iNumerator, iDenominator : double ...
https://codeexamplecenter.blogspot.com/2018/03/delphi-how-to-show-chi-square.html
###### Explain how the degrees of freedom affect a Chi-SquareDistribution. - Fox Essays
Explain how the degrees of freedom affect a Chi-Square Distribution.. 1. Find the critical value corresponding to a sample size ... Explain how the degrees of freedom affect a Chi-Square Distribution.Solution: 4. Using a data set of 40 LDL cholesterol levels ...
https://www.foxessays.com/explain-how-the-degrees-of-freedom-affect-a-chi-square-distribution/
###### dist chi plot: Visualize chisquaredistribution in rsquaredacademy/descriptr: Generate Descriptive Statistics & Explore...
Visualize how changes in degrees of freedom affect the shape of the chi square distribution. Compute & visualize quantiles out ... visualize chi square distribution dist_chi_plot() dist_chi_plot(df = 5) dist_chi_plot(df = 5, normal = TRUE) # visualize ... chi_plot(). , chi_prob(). and chi_per(). have been deprecated. Instead use dist_chi_plot(). , dist_chi_prob(). and dist_chi_ ... dist_chi_plot(df = 3, normal = FALSE) dist_chi_perc(probs = 0.95, df = 3, type = c('lower', 'upper')) dist_chi_prob(perc, df, ...
###### A Chi-Square Approximation for the F Distribution
In this paper, a simple chi-square approximation for the cumulative distribution of the F-distribution is obtained via an ... For example, it is used for testing: equality of variances of two independent normal distributions, equality of means in the ... This new approximation exhibits remarkable accuracy even when the degrees of freedom of the F distribution are small. ... F distribution is one of the most frequently used distributions in statistics. ...
https://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=82593
###### Chi-square+Test-Gender+distribution - Chisquare test 2-The student population at the state college consists of 55 female and...
... distribution from CHEM 115L at Grand Canyon. Chi square test 2-The student population at the state college consists of 55% ... Chi-square+Test-Gender+distribution - Chi square test 2-The.... This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the ... Chi square test 2-The student population at the state college consists of 55% female and 45% males. a- The college theater ... Is the gender distribution for theater goers significantly different from the distribution for the general college? Test at the ...
https://www.coursehero.com/file/6114423/Chi-squareTest-Genderdistribution/
###### ERIC - Noncentral Chi-Square versus Normal Distributions in Describing the Likelihood Ratio Statistic: The Univariate Case and...
Actually, when the null hypothesis is not trivially violated, the noncentral chi-square distribution cannot describe the LR ... noncentral chi-square distribution is commonly used to describe the behavior of the likelihood ratio (LR) statistic under ... it is widely believed that the noncentral chi-square distribution is justified by statistical theory. ... Due to the inaccessibility of the rather technical literature for the distribution of the LR statistic, ...
https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ789053
###### Appendix D: Statistical Tables - Introduction to Probability and Stochastic Processes with Applications [Book]
CHI-SQUARE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION - Selection from Introduction to Probability and Stochastic Processes with Applications [Book] ... APPENDIX D STATISTICAL TABLES D.1 BINOMIAL PROBABILITIES D.2 POISSON PROBABILITIES D.3 STANDARD NORMAL DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION D. ... D.3 STANDARD NORMAL DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION. D.4 CHI-SQUARE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION. ...
https://www.oreilly.com/library/view/introduction-to-probability/9781118294406/AppendixD.html
###### Statistics in a Nutshell - O'Reilly Media
The Chi-Square Distribution * The Chi-Square Test * Fisher's Exact Test * McNemar's Test for Matched Pairs ...
http://shop.oreilly.com/product/9780596510497.do
###### MAXILLARY BUCCALLY DISPLACED CANINES: A NEW INSIGHT INTO AN OLD PROBLEM. - Free Online Library
TABLE 2: CHI-SQUARE TEST FOR PEG LATERALS IN PATIENTS WITH BDC. ###Value###Df###Asymp. Sig.###Exact Sig.###Exact Sig.. ###(2 ... 18 Kazanci F, Celikoglu M, Miloglu O, Ceylan I, Kamak H. Frequency and distribution of developmental anomalies in the permanent ... The significance of association between peg lateral incisors with of BDC was analyzed with the chi-square test. Twenty eight ... The patterns of peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors were tested using the Pearson's Chi-square and Fisher exact tests.. ...
https://www.thefreelibrary.com/MAXILLARY+BUCCALLY+DISPLACED+CANINES%3A+A+NEW+INSIGHT+INTO+AN+OLD+...-a0499000753
###### Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy after d2-lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer: the role of n-ratio in patient selection. results of a...
For qualitative variables, Pearsons chi-square or Fishers exact test were used. The analysis of overall and disease-free ... However, by studying the distribution of these patients in different N-category N-ratio categories, individuals with N1 and N2 ... N-ratio distribution was uniform, with slightly higher number of NR0 and NR1 patients. ... distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. ...
http://ro-journal.biomedcentral.com.preview-live.oscarjournals.springer.com/articles/10.1186/1748-717X-7-169

(1/11846) Sex differences in the effects of early neocortical injury on neuronal size distribution of the medial geniculate nucleus in the rat are mediated by perinatal gonadal steroids.

Freezing injury to the cortical plate of rats induces cerebrocortical microgyria and, in males but not females, a shift toward greater numbers of small neurons in the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). The purpose of the current study was to examine a hormonal basis for this sex difference. Cross-sectional neuronal areas of the MGN were measured in male rats, untreated female rats and female rats treated perinatally with testosterone propionate, all of which had received either neonatal cortical freezing or sham injury. Both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had significantly smaller MGN neurons when compared to their sham-operated counterparts, whereas untreated females with microgyria did not. These differences were also reflected in MGN neuronal size distribution: both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had more small and fewer large neurons in their MGN in comparison to shams, while there was no difference in MGN neuronal size distribution between lesioned and sham females. These findings suggest that perinatal gonadal steroids mediate the sex difference in thalamic response to induction of microgyria in the rat cortex.  (+info)

(2/11846) Natural history of dysplasia of the uterine cervix.

BACKGROUND: A historical cohort of Toronto (Ontario, Canada) women whose Pap smear histories were recorded at a major cytopathology laboratory provided the opportunity to study progression and regression of cervical dysplasia in an era (1962-1980) during which cervical squamous lesions were managed conservatively. METHODS: Actuarial and Cox's survival analyses were used to estimate the rates and relative risks of progression and regression of mild (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 [CIN1]) and moderate (CIN2) dysplasias. In addition, more than 17,000 women with a history of Pap smears between 1970 and 1980 inclusive and who were diagnosed as having mild, moderate, or severe dysplasia were linked to the Ontario Cancer Registry for the outcome of any subsequent cervical cancers occurring through 1989. RESULTS: Both mild and moderate dysplasias were more likely to regress than to progress. The risk of progression from mild to severe dysplasia or worse was only 1% per year, but the risk of progression from moderate dysplasia was 16% within 2 years and 25% within 5 years. Most of the excess risk of cervical cancer for severe and moderate dysplasias occurred within 2 years of the initial dysplastic smear. After 2 years, in comparison with mild dysplasia, the relative risks for progression from severe or moderate dysplasia to cervical cancer in situ or worse was 4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.0-5.7) and 2.5 (95% CI = 2.2-3.0), respectively. CONCLUSION: The risk of progression for moderate dysplasia was intermediate between the risks for mild and severe dysplasia; thus, the moderate category may represent a clinically useful distinction. The majority of untreated mild dysplasias were recorded as regressing to yield a normal smear within 2 years.  (+info)

(3/11846) Low-dose combination therapy as first-line hypertension treatment for blacks and nonblacks.

To assess the efficacy and safety of bisoprolol/6.25-mg hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), amlodipine, and enalapril in black and nonblack patients, data from two comparative studies were pooled and subgroup analyses performed. Both studies had similar designs and included all three active treatments. The second study also included a placebo group. Subjects (n = 541) with a sitting diastolic blood pressure of 95-114 mmHg were titrated to achieve a diastolic blood pressure < or = 90 mmHg. The studies included 114 blacks and 427 nonblacks. Results of an intention-to-treat analysis of mean change from baseline after 12 weeks of treatment showed the following: 1) blood pressure was significantly lowered by all three active drugs compared with baseline or placebo; 2) in blacks, bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ resulted in significantly greater reductions of systolic and diastolic blood pressure than enalapril or placebo, but was not significantly different from amlodipine; 3) in nonblacks, bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ resulted in significantly greater reduction of diastolic blood pressure than amlodipine, enalapril, or placebo. The placebo-corrected change in blood pressure was greater for blacks than whites on the bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ combination, but this was not statistically significant. Bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ controlled diastolic blood pressure to < or = 90 mmHg in significantly more patients than enalapril or placebo in blacks and nonblacks. The difference in control rates was not significant versus amlodipine. The incidence of drug-related adverse events was similar between treatments; however, bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ had a lower discontinuation rate due to lack of blood pressure control or adverse experiences in both blacks and nonblacks.  (+info)

(4/11846) Extent and severity of atherosclerotic involvement of the aortic valve and root in familial hypercholesterolaemia.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of valvar and supravalvar aortic stenosis in homozygous and heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). DESIGN: Analysis of life time cholesterol exposure and prevalence of aortic atherosclerosis in 84 consecutive cases attending a lipid clinic. SETTING: A tertiary referral centre in London. PATIENTS: Outpatients with FH (six homozygous, 78 heterozygous). INTERVENTIONS: Maintenance of lipid lowering treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Calculated cholesterol x years score (CYS) and echocardiographic measurement of aortic root diameter, aortic valve thickness, and transaortic gradient. RESULTS: Four homozygotes with a mean (SD) CYS of 387 (124) mmol/1 x years had severe aortic stenosis (treatment started after seven years of age), whereas the other two had echocardiographic evidence of supravalvar thickening but no aortic valve stenosis (treatment started before three years of age). On multivariate analysis, mean transaortic gradient correlated significantly with CYS (mean = 523 (175) mmol/1 x years) in heterozygotes (p = 0.0001), but only two had severe aortic valve and root involvement. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia, aortic stenosis is common in homozygotes, and aortic root involvement is always present despite the lower CYS than in heterozygotes. It appears to be determined by short term exposure to high cholesterol concentrations in early life. Conversely, aortic root and valve involvement are rare in heterozygotes and occur only with severe, prolonged hypercholesterolaemia, possibly accelerating age related degenerative effects.  (+info)

(5/11846) Amino acid composition of protein termini are biased in different manners.

An exhaustive statistical analysis of the amino acid sequences at the carboxyl (C) and amino (N) termini of proteins and of coding nucleic acid sequences at the 5' side of the stop codons was undertaken. At the N ends, Met and Ala residues are over-represented at the first (+1) position whereas at positions 2 and 5 Thr is preferred. These peculiarities at N-termini are most probably related to the mechanism of initiation of translation (for Met) and to the mechanisms governing the life-span of proteins via regulation of their degradation (for Ala and Thr). We assume that the C-terminal bias facilitates fixation of the C ends on the protein globule by a preference for charged and Cys residues. The terminal biases, a novel feature of protein structure, have to be taken into account when molecular evolution, three-dimensional structure, initiation and termination of translation, protein folding and life-span are concerned. In addition, the bias of protein termini composition is an important feature which should be considered in protein engineering experiments.  (+info)

(6/11846) Prevalence of true vein graft aneurysms: implications for aneurysm pathogenesis.

BACKGROUND: Circumstantial evidence suggests that arterial aneurysms have a different cause than atherosclerosis and may form part of a generalized dilating diathesis. The aim of this study was to compare the rates of spontaneous aneurysm formation in vein grafts performed either for popliteal aneurysms or for occlusive disease. The hypothesis was that if arterial aneurysms form a part of a systemic process, then the rates of vein graft aneurysms should be higher for patients with popliteal aneurysms than for patients with lower limb ischemia caused by atherosclerosis. METHODS: Infrainguinal vein grafting procedures performed from 1990 to 1995 were entered into a prospective audit and graft surveillance program. Aneurysmal change was defined as a focal increase in the graft diameter of 1.5 cm or greater, excluding false aneurysms and dilatations after graft angioplasty. RESULTS: During the study period, 221 grafting procedures were performed in 200 patients with occlusive disease and 24 grafting procedures were performed in 21 patients with popliteal aneurysms. Graft surveillance revealed spontaneous aneurysm formation in 10 of the 24 bypass grafts (42%) for popliteal aneurysms but in only 4 of the 221 grafting procedures (2%) that were performed for chronic lower limb ischemia. CONCLUSION: This study provides further evidence that aneurysmal disease is a systemic process, and this finding has clinical implications for the treatment of popliteal aneurysms.  (+info)

(7/11846) Cryoglobulinaemia and rheumatic manifestations in patients with hepatitis C virus infection.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of cryoglobulinaemia and rheumatic manifestations in Korean patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: Forty nine Korean patients with HCV infection were recruited. The prevalence, concentration, and type of cryoglobulin (by immunofixation), rheumatoid factor (RF), antinuclear antibody (ANA), and various rheumatological symptoms were investigated and HCV genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction with genotype specific primer. RESULTS: The prevalence of cryoglobulin was 59% in Korean HCV patients and the concentration of cryoglobulin was 9.8 (7.9) g/l (mean (SD)). The type of cryoglobulinaemia was identified in 23 (80%) of 29 HCV patients with cryoglobulinaemia and they were all type III. There were no differences in age, sex, history of operation and transfusion, proportion of liver cirrhosis between the patients with cryoglobulinaemia and those without cryoglobulinaemia. The frequencies of RF and ANA were 14% and 3.4% respectively in HCV patients with cryoglobulinaemia. There was no difference in HCV genotype between the patients with cryoglobulinaemia and those without cryoglobulinaemia. Clinical features of HCV patients were as follows: arthralgia/arthritis (35%), cutaneous manifestation (37%), Raynaud's phenomenon (8%), paresthesia (44%), dry eyes (22%), dry mouth (10%), oral ulcer (33%), and abdominal pain (14%). However, these rheumatological symptoms did not differ between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Although the rheumatological symptoms were not different between HCV patients with and without cryoglobulinaemia, HCV patients showed various rheumatological manifestations. These result suggests that HCV infection could be included as one of the causes in patients with unexplained rheumatological symptoms.  (+info)

(8/11846) Fetal tachycardias: management and outcome of 127 consecutive cases.

OBJECTIVE: To review the management and outcome of fetal tachycardia, and to determine the problems encountered with various treatment protocols. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SUBJECTS: 127 consecutive fetuses with a tachycardia presenting between 1980 and 1996 to a single tertiary centre for fetal cardiology. The median gestational age at presentation was 32 weeks (range 18 to 42). RESULTS: 105 fetuses had a supraventricular tachycardia and 22 had atrial flutter. Overall, 52 fetuses were hydropic and 75 non-hydropic. Prenatal control of the tachycardia was achieved in 83% of treated non-hydropic fetuses compared with 66% of the treated hydropic fetuses. Digoxin monotherapy converted most (62%) of the treated non-hydropic fetuses, and 96% survived through the neonatal period. First line drug treatment for hydropic fetuses was more diverse, including digoxin (n = 5), digoxin plus verapamil (n = 14), and flecainide (n = 27). The response rates to these drugs were 20%, 57%, and 59%, respectively, confirming that digoxin monotherapy is a poor choice for the hydropic fetus. Response to flecainide was faster than to the other drugs. Direct fetal treatment was used in four fetuses, of whom two survived. Overall, 73% (n = 38) of the hydropic fetuses survived. Postnatally, 4% of the non-hydropic group had ECG evidence of pre-excitation, compared with 16% of the hydropic group; 57% of non-hydropic fetuses were treated with long term anti-arrhythmics compared with 79% of hydropic fetuses. CONCLUSIONS: Non-hydropic fetuses with tachycardias have a very good prognosis with transplacental treatment. Most arrhythmias associated with fetal hydrops can be controlled with transplacental treatment, but the mortality in this group is 27%. At present, there is no ideal treatment protocol for these fetuses and a large prospective multicentre trial is required to optimise treatment of both hydropic and non-hydropic fetuses.  (+info)

• ###### cumulative
• They find the critical values using a chart and then confirm the area between the critical values and in each tail using the cumulative Chi-Square command. (ti.com)
• Johnson and Kotz give a comprehensive review on the approximations to the cumulative distribution function (cdf) of the F distribution. (scirp.org)
• Computer code for evaluating the cumulative distribution function of the generalized chi-squared distribution has been published, but some preliminary manipulation of the parameters of the distribution is usually necessary. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### goodness
• The chi-squared distribution is used in the common chi-squared tests for goodness of fit of an observed distribution to a theoretical one, the independence of two criteria of classification of qualitative data, and in confidence interval estimation for a population standard deviation of a normal distribution from a sample standard deviation. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### gamma
• There are several other such variants for which the same term is sometimes used, or which clearly are generalizations of the chi-squared distribution, and which are treated elsewhere: some are special cases of the family discussed here, for example the noncentral chi-squared distribution and the gamma distribution, while the generalized gamma distribution is outside this family. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### differences
• Whereas group differences indicate differing score distributions on Y, DIF explicitly involves conditioning on θ. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### contingency
• So, we construct a contingency table that shows the distribution of one variable at each level of the other variable. (symynet.com)
• ###### value
• The Chi-Square distribution is based on a sum of squares, therefore the value of X^2 will always be larger than (or equal to) zero. (uva.nl)
• If we wish to reject H o at the .05 level, we will determine if our value of chi square is greater than the critical value of chi square that cuts off the upper 5% of the distribution at our particular degrees of freedom value. (symynet.com)
• If our value of chi square from the formula is greater than the critical value of chi square, we reject H o and conclude that the obtained frequencies differ from the expected frequencies more than would be predicted by chance. (symynet.com)
• The expected value of a chi-square random variable with 8 degrees of freedom is 8. (wikipedia.org)
• Define a new random variable Q. To generate a random sample from Q, take a sample from Z and square the value. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### population
• The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another. (biology-online.org)
• ###### standard
• Some important special cases relating to this particular form either omit the additional standard normal term and/or have central rather than non-central chi-squared distributions for the components of the summation. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### sample
• If the number of deaths at each hospital is large (say, five or more), then the usual chi-square distribution or other large-sample approach may be used, avoiding the need for simulations that would require a large amount of computer time. (thefreedictionary.com)
• ###### mean
• In practice it is rare - if not impossible - for an increase of X in a group mean to occur via an increase of each member's score by X.) This will shift the distribution X units in the positive direction, but will not have any impact on the variability within the group. (wikipedia.org)
• The most general form of generalized chi-squared distribution is obtained by extending the above consideration in two ways: firstly, to allow z to have a non-zero mean and, secondly, to include an additional linear combination of z in the definition of X. Note that, in the above formulation, A and B need not be positive definite. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### parameters
• distribution, where r is the degrees of freedom, which is the difference in the number of unconstrained parameters being estimated and the number of constrained parameters being estimated. (scirp.org)