Cetacea: An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)ArtiodactylaDolphins: Mammals of the families Delphinidae (ocean dolphins), Iniidae, Lipotidae, Pontoporiidae, and Platanistidae (all river dolphins). Among the most well-known species are the BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN and the KILLER WHALE (a dolphin). The common name dolphin is applied to small cetaceans having a beaklike snout and a slender, streamlined body, whereas PORPOISES are small cetaceans with a blunt snout and rather stocky body. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp978-9)Whales: Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.Porpoises: Mammals of the family Phocoenidae comprising four genera found in the North Pacific Ocean and both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean and in various other seas. They differ from DOLPHINS in that porpoises have a blunt snout and a rather stocky body while dolphins have a beak-like snout and a slender, streamlined body. They usually travel in small groups. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp1003-4)Minke Whale: The species Balaenoptera acutorostrata, in the family Balaenopteridae. It is the smallest of the WHALES in the family and though mainly oceanic, is often found in coastal waters including bays and estuaries.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.

*  World Cetacea Database - Phocaena Lesson, 1827
In: Perrin, W.F. (2017). World Cetacea Database. Accessed at http://www.marinespecies.org/cetacea/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id= ...
  http://www.marinespecies.org/cetacea/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=383473
*  Cetacea
... Whales, dolphins, and porpoises. Michel C. Milinkovitch and Olivier Lambert Click on an image to view larger version & ... Early Cetacea Fossils:. *Whale Origins. J. G. M. "Hans" Thewissen, Northeastern Ohio Universities. *Research on the Origin and ... Origin of Cetacea. The oldest known cetaceans are Eocene in age, appearing around 55 million years ago. These primitive toothed ... A new Ziphiidae (Cetacea) from the Early Miocene of Washington State (USA) and phylogenetic analysis of the major groups of ...
  http://tolweb.org/Cetacea/15977
*  History British Quadrupeds Including Cetacea - AbeBooks
A History of British Quadrupeds including the Cetacea by Bell, Thomas, FRS, FLS, FZS, FGS. and a great selection of similar ... History British Quadrupeds Including Cetacea. You Searched For: Title: history british quadrupeds including cetacea ... A History of British Quadrupeds, Including the Cetacea - 2 Vols. In One Bell, Thomas, F.R.S. F.L.S. V. P. Z.S. ... A History of British Quadrupeds, including the Cetacea. Bell Thomas & others.:. Published by London John Van Voorst Second ...
  https://www.abebooks.com/book-search/title/history-british-quadrupeds-including-cetacea/pics/
*  World Cetacea Database - Lagenorhynchus obliquidens Gill, 1865
2005). Cetacea. Pages 723--743 in Wilson, D.E. & D.M. Reeder (eds). Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic ... In: Perrin, W.F. (2017). World Cetacea Database. Accessed at http://marinespecies.org/cetacea/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=254981 ...
  http://www.marinespecies.org/cetacea/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=254981
*  World Cetacea Database - Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus, 1758
2005). Cetacea. Pages 723--743 in Wilson, D.E. & D.M. Reeder (eds). Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic ... In: Perrin, W.F. (2017). World Cetacea Database. Accessed at http://www.marinespecies.org/cetacea/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id= ...
  http://www.marinespecies.org/cetacea/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=137119
*  Cetacea - Wikipedia
Cetacea at Wikibooks "Cetacea". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). 1911. "Cetaceans". Encyclopedia of Earth. Scottish ... Cetacea are deliberate breathers who must be awake to inhale and exhale. When stale air, warmed from the lungs, is exhaled, it ... Cetacea skeletons The cetacean skeleton is largely made up of cortical bone, which stabilizes the animal in the water. For this ... Cetacea are known to teach, learn, cooperate, scheme and grieve. Smaller cetaceans, such as dolphins and porpoises, engage in ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cetacea
*  Cetacea Rocks - Wikipedia
Cetacea Rocks (63°43′S 61°37′W / 63.717°S 61.617°W / -63.717; -61.617Coordinates: 63°43′S 61°37′W / 63.717°S 61.617°W / - ... This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Cetacea Rocks" (content ... and named by the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee in 1960 after the zoological order Cetacea (whales and porpoises); these ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cetacea_Rocks
*  Cetacea
Berardius bairdii ; The Baird's beaked whale is found in the northern Pacific Ocean, the Sea of Japan and the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk. Specimens have been recorded as far north as the Bering Sea and as far south as the Baja California peninsula. This species, the largest of the beaked wh ...
  http://valleyanatomical.com/index.php?route=product/category&path=75_152
*  Molecular genetic study of the beluga (Delphinapterus leucas: Cetacea, Monodontidae) summering in the southern Sea of Okhotsk...
Cetacea, Monodontidae) summering in the southern Sea of Okhotsk as compared to North American populations, Russian Journal of ... Molecular genetic study of the beluga (Delphinapterus leucas: Cetacea, Monodontidae) summering in the southern Sea of Okhotsk ... Molecular genetic study of the beluga (Delphinapterus leucas: Cetacea, Monodontidae) summering in the southern Sea of Okhotsk ... Molecular genetic study of the beluga (Delphinapterus leucas: Cetacea, Monodontidae) summering in... Meschersky, I.; Kholodova ...
  https://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/molecular-genetic-study-of-the-beluga-delphinapterus-leucas-cetacea-WUHOMvanEC
*  Cetacea
"The order Cetacea (pronounced /sɨˈteɪʃ(i)ə/, L. cetus, whale, from Greek) includes the marine mammals commonly known as whales ...
  http://wikisum.blogspot.com/2010/07/cetacea.html
*  Species New to Science: [Cetology • 2005] Orcaella heinsohni | Australian Snubfin Dolphin • Description of A New Dolphin ...
n. (Cetacea, Delphinidae). Marine Mammal Science. 21(3): 365-400. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2005.tb01239.x ... ป้ายกำกับ: 2005, Australia, Cetacea - whale; dolphin, Mammalogy, Marine Mammal, Ocean: Pacific, patronym ... Cetology • 2005] Orcaella heinsohni , Australian Snubfin Dolphin • Description of A New Dolphin (Cetacea, Delphinidae) found ... Cetacea - whale; dolphin (53) Chameleon - Chamaeleonidae (24) Channidae - Snakehead (6) Characidae (24) Characiformes (35) ...
  http://novataxa.blogspot.com/2014/05/2005-orcaella-heinsohni.html
*  Minke Whale - Balaenoptera acutorostrata - Overview - Encyclopedia of Life
Cetacea Brisson, 1762 +*Mysticeti Flower, 1864 +*Balaenopteridae Gray, 1864 +*Balaenoptera Lacépède, 1804 + * Balaenoptera ...
  http://www.eol.org/pages/328570/overview
*  Bertha the Beluga Whale
Beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, are also known as the white whale, Belukha, Sea Canary (1). Full-grown belugas range between 3-4 metres in length and weigh between 1300-1500 kilograms (1). They have a stout, robust body with no dorsal fin, a short, broad neck, and a round head with a noticeable bump (or melon) on top of their small head (2). Their neck bones are not fused together, unlike other whales, and they can turn their heads from side to side (2). The melon allows them to crack through ice to allow access to the surface in order to breath (3). Belugas have 32-40 teeth altogether in both jaws, which they use to feed on fish, mollusks, and benthic invertebrates (1). They have small, dark eyes, located behind the corners of their mouths, and ears located behind the eyes, with no external flaps or lobes (3). They have a single blowhole, on top of their head, which is covered by a water-tight, muscular flap, that contracts to allow the beluga to breathe (1). Belugas are rather slow ...
  http://www.tolweb.org/treehouses/?treehouse_id=3383
*  The Canadian Encyclopedia
Cetacea. Cetacea, order of mammals consisting of whales, dolphins and porpoises. It includes about 80 living species, with ... Dolphin and Porpoise, are the common names for small, toothed mammals of the order Cetacea which also includes whales. ...
  http://www.encyclopediecanadienne.ca/en/browse/things/zoology/?page=4
*  Risso's dolphin - Wikipedia
"World Cetacea Database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved March 16, 2015.. ... "Order Cetacea". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Risso%27s_dolphin
*  Bowhead whale - Wikipedia
"Order Cetacea". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bowhead_Whale
*  Sperm whale - Wikipedia
It is a member of the unranked clade Cetacea, with all the whales, dolphins, and porpoises, and further classified into ... Hirota, K. & Barnes, L. G. (5 April 2006). "A new species of Middle Miocene sperm whale of the genus Scaldicetus (Cetacea; ... Lambert, O.; Bianucci, G. & de Muizon, C. (August 2008). "A new stem-sperm whale (Cetacea, Odontoceti, Physeteroidea) from the ... Bianucci, G. & Landini, W. (8 September 2006). "Killer sperm whale: a new basal physeteroid (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Late ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sperm_whale
*  Pilot whale - Wikipedia
Cetacea. 17: 165-73. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Mitchell, E. D. (1975). "Porpoise, dolphin, and small whale ... Kapel, F.O. (1975). "Preliminary notes on the occurrence and exploitation of smaller Cetacea in Greenland". Fish Res Board Can ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pilot_whale
*  Delphinapterus leucas - Wikimedia Commons
Cetacea • Subordo: Odontoceti • Familia: Monodontidae • Genus: Delphinapterus • Species: Delphinapterus leucas (Pallas, 1776) ...
  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Delphinapterus_leucas
*  EUR-Lex - 31992L0043 - EN - EUR-Lex
Padomes Direktīva 92/43/EEK. (1992. gada 21. maijs). par dabisko dzīvotņu, savvaļas faunas un floras aizsardzību. EIROPAS KOPIENU PADOME,. ņemot vērā Eiropas Ekonomikas kopienas dibināšanas līgumu un jo īpaši tā 130.s pantu,. ņemot vērā Komisijas priekšlikumu [1],. ņemot vērā Eiropas Parlamenta atzinumu [2],. ņemot vērā Ekonomikas un sociālo lietu komitejas atzinumu [3],. tā kā vides kvalitātes saglabāšana, aizsardzība un uzlabošana, kas iekļauj dabisko dzīvotņu un savvaļas faunas un floras aizsardzību, ir vispārīgs Kopienas pamatmērķis, kā norādīts Līguma 130.r pantā;. tā kā Eiropas Kopienas vides politikā un rīcības programmā (1987. līdz 1992. gads) [4] paredzēti pasākumi attiecībā uz dabas un tās resursu aizsardzību;. tā kā šīs direktīvas galvenais mērķis ir veicināt bioloģiskās daudzveidības saglabāšanu, ņemot vērā ekonomiskās, sociālās, kultūras un reģionālās prasības, šī direktīva palīdz sasniegt ...
  http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/LV/TXT/?uri=CELEX:31992L0043
*  Balaenoptera musculus - Wikimedia Commons
Cetacea • Subordo: Mysticeti • Familia: Balaenopteridae • Genus: Balaenoptera • Species: Balaenoptera musculus (Linnaeus, 1758) ...
  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Balaenoptera_musculus?uselang=de
*  Category:Tursiops australis - Wikimedia Commons
Cetacea • Subordo: Odontoceti • Familia: Delphinidae • Genus: Tursiops • Species: Tursiops australis Charlton-Robb, Gershwin, ...
  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Tursiops_australis
*  Feresa attenuata - Wikimedia Commons
Cetacea • Subordo: Odontoceti • Familia: Delphinidae • Genus: Feresa • Species: Feresa attenuata Gray, 1874 ...
  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Feresa_attenuata

AmbulocetidaeHippopotamus antiquus: Hippopotamus antiquus, sometimes called the European Hippopotamus, was a species of hippopotamus that ranged across Europe, becoming extinct some time before the last ice age at the end of the Pleistocene epoch. H.Taiji dolphin drive hunt: The Taiji dolphin drive hunt is a dolphin drive hunt that takes place in Taiji, Wakayama in Japan every year from September to March. According to the Japanese Fisheries Research Agency, 1,623 dolphins were caught in Wakayama Prefecture in 2007 for human consumption or resale to dolphinariums, and most of these were caught at Taiji.Acrophyseter: Acrophyseter is a genus of stem-sperm whales that lived around 6 million years ago, found in the Pisco Formation in Peru.Sembilang National ParkLarge ornamented Ediacaran microfossil: Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs) are microscopic acritarchs, usually over 100 μm in diameter, which are common in sediments of the Ediacaran period, . They largely disappear from the Ediacaran fossil record before , roughly coeval with the origin of the Ediacara biota.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)

(1/159) Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) clotting activity in human plasma in health and disease in various animal plasmas.

Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) is an agent in normal human plasma that corrects the impaired in vitro surface-mediated plasma reactions of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and kinin generation observed in Fitzgerald trait plasma. To assess the possible pathophysiologic role of Fitzgerald factor, its titer was measured by a functional clot-promoting assay. Mean +/- SD in 42 normal adults was 0.99+/-0.25 units/ml, one unit being the activity in 1 ml of normal pooled plasma. No difference in titer was noted between normal men and women, during pregnancy, or after physical exercise. Fitzgerald factor activity was significantly reduced in the plasmas of eight patients with advanced hepatic cirrhosis (0.40+/-0.09 units/ml) and of ten patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (0.60+/-0.30 units/ml), but was normal in plasmas of patients with other congenital clotting factor deficiencies, nephrotic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or sarcoidosis, or under treatment with warfarin. The plasmas of 21 mammalian species tested appeared to contain Fitzgerald factor activity, but those of two avian, two repitilian, and one amphibian species did not correct the coagulant defect in Fitzgerald trait plasmas.  (+info)

(2/159) Purification and properties of whale thyroid-stimulating hormone III. Properties of isolated multiple components.

Properties of the four purified components of whale thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) have been compared. The amino acid composition shows close similarity among these components. Their hexosamine and sialic acid contents are of the same magnitude, whereas the neutral sugar composition differs somewhat from each other. The molecular weight of whale TSH determined by sedimentation equilibrium is 29,000, and no difference in molecular weight as well as in Stokes radius as determined by gel filtration has been detected among these four components. The amino acid and carbohydrate compositions of whale TSH resemble those of TSH from other species, especially those of non-primate mammalian TSH. Whale TSH contains, unlike bovine TSH but like human TSH, 1-2 residues of sialic acid as a constituent carbohydrate.  (+info)

(3/159) Genealogy of families of SINEs in cetaceans and artiodactyls: the presence of a huge superfamily of tRNA(Glu)-derived families of SINEs.

Several novel (sub)families of SINEs were isolated from the genomes of cetaceans and artiodactyls, and their sequences were determined. From comparisons of diagnostic nucleotides among the short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) in these (sub)families, we were able to draw the following conclusions. (1) After the divergence of the suborder Tylopoda (camels), the CHRS family of SINEs was newly created from tRNA(Glu) in a common ancestor of the lineages of the Suina (pigs and peccaries), Ruminantia (cows and deer), and Cetacea (whales and dolphins). (2) After divergence of the Suina lineage, the CHR-1 SINE and the CHR-2 SINE were generated successively in a common ancestor of ruminants, hippopotamuses, and cetaceans. (3) In the Ruminantia lineage, the Bov-tA SINE was generated by recombination between the CHR-2 SINE and Bov-A. (4) In the Suina lineage, the CHRS-S SINE was generated from the CHRS SINE. (5) In this latter lineage, the PRE-1 family of SINEs was created by insertion of part of the gene for tRNA(Arg) into the 5' region of the CHRS-S family. The distribution of a particular family of SINEs among species of artiodactyls and cetaceans confirmed the most recent conclusion for paraphyly of the order Artiodactyla. The present study also revealed that a newly created tRNA(Glu)-derived family of SINEs was subjected both to recombination with different units and to duplication of an internal sequence within a SINE unit to generate, during evolution, a huge superfamily of tRNA(Glu)-related families of SINEs that are now found in the genomes of artiodactyls and cetaceans.  (+info)

(4/159) A review of virus infections of cataceans and the potential impact of morbilliviruses, poxviruses and papillomaviruses on host population dynamics.

Viruses belonging to 9 families have been detected in cetaceans. We critically review the clinical features, pathology and epidemiology of the diseases they cause. Cetacean morbillivirus (family Paramyxoviridae) induces a serious disease with a high mortality rate and persists in several populations. It may have long-term effects on the dynamics of cetacean populations either as enzootic infection or recurrent epizootics. The latter presumably have the more profound impact due to removal of sexually mature individuals. Members of the family Poxviridae infect several species of odontocetes, resulting in ring and tattoo skin lesions. Although poxviruses apparently do not induce a high mortality, circumstancial evidence suggests they may be lethal in young animals lacking protective immunity, and thus may negatively affect net recruitment. Papillomaviruses (family Papovaviridae) cause genital warts in at least 3 species of cetaceans. In 10% of male Burmeister's porpoises Phocoena spinipinnis from Peru, lesions were sufficiently severe to at least hamper, if not impede, copulation. Members of the families Herpesviridae, Orthomyxoviridae and Rhabdoviridae were demonstrated in cetaceans suffering serious illnesses, but with the exception of a 'porpoise herpesvirus' their causative role is still tentative. Herpes-like viruses and caliciviruses (Caliciviridae) give rise to cutaneous diseases in Monodontidae and Delphinidae. Antibodies to several serotypes of caliciviruses were found in odontocetes and mysticetes. An unrecognized Hepadnaviridae was detected by serology in a captive Pacific white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus obliquidens with chronic persistent hepatitis. Adenoviruses (Adenoviridae) were isolated from the intestinal tracts of mysticeti and a beluga Delphinapterus leucas but were not associated with any pathologies. We discuss the potential impact of Paramyxoviridae, Poxviridae and Papovaviridae on the dynamics of several odontocete populations.  (+info)

(5/159) Using protein structural information in evolutionary inference: transmembrane proteins.

We present a model of amino acid sequence evolution based on a hidden Markov model that extends to transmembrane proteins previous methods that incorporate protein structural information into phylogenetics. Our model aims to give a better understanding of processes of molecular evolution and to extract structural information from multiple alignments of transmembrane sequences and use such information to improve phylogenetic analyses. This should be of value in phylogenetic studies of transmembrane proteins: for example, mitochondrial proteins have acquired a special importance in phylogenetics and are mostly transmembrane proteins. The improvement in fit to example data sets of our new model relative to less complex models of amino acid sequence evolution is statistically tested. To further illustrate the potential utility of our method, phylogeny estimation is performed on primate CCR5 receptor sequences, sequences of l and m subunits of the light reaction center in purple bacteria, guinea pig sequences with respect to lagomorph and rodent sequences of calcitonin receptor and K-substance receptor, and cetacean sequences of cytochrome b.  (+info)

(6/159) Model dependence of the phylogenetic inference: relationship among carnivores, Perissodactyls and cetartiodactyls as inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

Some previous analysis of mitochondrial proteins strongly support the Carnivora/Perissodactyla grouping excluding Cetartiodactyla (Artiodactyla + Cetacea) as an outgroup, but the support of the hypothesis remains equivocal from the analysis of several nuclear-encoded proteins. In order to evaluate the strength of the support by mitochondrial proteins, phylogenetic relationship among Carnivora, Perissodactyla, and Cetartiodactyla was estimated with the ML method by using the updated data set of the 12 mitochondrial proteins with several alternative models. The analyses demonstrate that the phylogenetic inference depends on the model used in the ML analysis; i.e., whether the site-heterogeneity is taken into account and whether the rate parameters are estimated for each individual proteins or for the concatenated sequences. Although the analysis of concatenated sequences strongly supports the Carnivora/Perissodactyla grouping, the total evaluation of the separate analyses of individual proteins, which approximates the data better than the concatenated analysis, gives only ambiguous results, and therefore it is concluded that more data are needed to resolve this trichotomy.  (+info)

(7/159) Elemental analysis of cetacean skull lesions associated with nematode infections.

The elemental composition of both healthy and eroded cetacean skulls associated with nematode infections was evaluated. A total of 27 samples of eroded and non-eroded prepared museum cetacean skulls were characterised by elemental (CHN), X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray diffraction methods. The inorganic composition and crystal line structure (hydroxylapatite-like minerals) were similar for both types of skull samples, but the CHN values clearly differed. The results suggest that the carbon-rich fraction is lost in eroded areas, probably as a result of glycosaminoglycan-degrading Crassicauda enzymes.  (+info)

(8/159) Consistency of SINE insertion topology and flanking sequence tree: quantifying relationships among cetartiodactyls.

Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) have been used to generate unambiguous phylogenetic topologies relating eukaryotic taxa. The irreversible nature of SINE retroposition is supported by a large body of comparative genome data and is a fundamental assumption inherent in the value of this qualitative method of inference. Here, we assess the key assumption of unidirectional SINE insertion by comparing the SINE insertion-derived topology and the phylogenetic tree based on seven independent loci of five taxa in the order Cetartiodactyla (Cetacea + Artiodactyla). The data sets and analyses were largely independent, but the loci were, by definition, linked, and thus their consistency supported an irreversible pattern of SINE retroposition. Moreover, our analyses of the flanking sequences provided estimates of divergence times among cetartiodactyl lineages unavailable from SINE insertion analysis alone. Unexpected rate heterogeneity among sites of SINE-flanking sequences and other noncoding DNA sequences were observed. Sequence simulations suggest that this rate heterogeneity may be an artifact resulting from the inaccuracies of the substitution model used.  (+info)