Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Intracranial Hemorrhages: Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.Intracranial Hemorrhage, Hypertensive: Bleeding within the SKULL that is caused by systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.Capillary Fragility: The susceptibility of CAPILLARIES, under conditions of increased stress, to leakage.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Familial: A familial disorder marked by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Amyloidosis: A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Hematoma: A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.Retinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System: A vascular anomaly composed of a collection of large, thin walled tortuous VEINS that can occur in any part of the central nervous system but lack intervening nervous tissue. Familial occurrence is common and has been associated with a number of genes mapped to 7q, 7p and 3q. Clinical features include SEIZURES; HEADACHE; STROKE; and progressive neurological deficit.Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES due to TRAUMA. Hemorrhage may involve any part of the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the BASAL GANGLIA. Depending on the severity of bleeding, clinical features may include SEIZURES; APHASIA; VISION DISORDERS; MOVEMENT DISORDERS; PARALYSIS; and COMA.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.Aphasia, Wernicke: Impairment in the comprehension of speech and meaning of words, both spoken and written, and of the meanings conveyed by their grammatical relationships in sentences. It is caused by lesions that primarily affect Wernicke's area, which lies in the posterior perisylvian region of the temporal lobe of the dominant hemisphere. (From Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p141; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p846)Cystatins: A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.Postpartum Hemorrhage: Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).Rupture, Spontaneous: Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)JapanBrain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Streptococcus anginosus: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is the most frequently seen isolate of that group, has a proclivity for abscess formation, and is most often isolated from the blood, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tract.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Vitreous Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage into the VITREOUS BODY.Eye Hemorrhage: Intraocular hemorrhage from the vessels of various tissues of the eye.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Autonomic Dysreflexia: A syndrome associated with damage to the spinal cord above the mid thoracic level (see SPINAL CORD INJURIES) characterized by a marked increase in the sympathetic response to minor stimuli such as bladder or rectal distention. Manifestations include HYPERTENSION; TACHYCARDIA (or reflex bradycardia); FEVER; FLUSHING; and HYPERHIDROSIS. Extreme hypertension may be associated with a STROKE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp538 and 1232; J Spinal Cord Med 1997;20(3):355-60)Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Moyamoya Disease: A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Cystatin C: An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage: Bleeding within the subcortical regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA). It is often associated with HYPERTENSION or ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS. Clinical manifestations may include HEADACHE; DYSKINESIAS; and HEMIPARESIS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.Postoperative Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Choroid Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage from the vessels of the choroid.Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage: Bleeding from a PEPTIC ULCER that can be located in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Anterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Putaminal Hemorrhage: Intracranial bleeding into the PUTAMEN, a BASAL GANGLIA nucleus. This is associated with HYPERTENSION and lipohyalinosis of small blood vessels in the putamen. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of hemorrhage, but include HEMIPARESIS; HEADACHE; and alterations of consciousness.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Hematoma, Subdural: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Retrobulbar Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage within the orbital cavity, posterior to the eyeball.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cerebral Ventriculography: Radiography of the ventricular system of the brain after injection of air or other contrast medium directly into the cerebral ventricles. It is used also for x-ray computed tomography of the cerebral ventricles.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Brain Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC); and CEREBELLUM.Shock, Hemorrhagic: Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Intracranial Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Intracranial Hypertension: Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Glasgow Coma Scale: A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.

*  Statins and Cerebral Blood Flow in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

SAH secondary to traumatic or mycotic aneurysms. *Pre-ictal statin therapy. *Contraindication to stain therapy ... Resting Cerebral Blood Flow During Peak Period of Vasospasm Risk [ Time Frame: 7-10 days after hemorrhage ]. Resting cerebral ... subarachnoid hemorrhage. vasospasm. cerebral blood flow. cerebral metabolism. autoregulation. statin. Vasospasm associated with ... Hemorrhage. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Pathologic Processes. Intracranial Hemorrhages. Cerebrovascular Disorders. Brain Diseases ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00795288?recr=Open&cond="Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors"&rank=19

*  Cerebral vasospasm : neurovascular events after subarachnoid hemorrhage (전자도서, 2013) [WorldCat.org]

Mario Zuccarello;] -- The book contains 48 articles presented at the 11th International Conference on Cerebral Vasospasm held ... "도서관에서 가져오기! Cerebral vasospasm : neurovascular events after subarachnoid hemorrhage. [ ... Cerebral Hemodynamic Changes After Wartime Traumatic Brain Injury / Alexander Razumovsky, Teodoro Tigno, Sven M. Hochheimer, ... Cerebral vasospasm : neurovascular events after subarachnoid hemorrhage. 저자:. Mario Zuccarello. 출판사:. Vienna ; New York : ...

*  A Treatise on apoplexy, cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral embolism, cerebral gout, cerebral . John A. Lidell - ?????? OZON.ru ?...

... cerebral embolism, cerebral gout, cerebral . ?????? John A. Lidell ?????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ?????? -?????? OZON.ru ... On Gunshot Wounds of Arteries, Traumatic Hemorrhage and Traumatic Aneurism (Classic Reprint) John A. Lidell ... A Treatise on apoplexy, cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral embolism, cerebral gout, cerebral .. 24653286 ... cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral embolism, cerebral gout, cerebral . ?????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? 3500 ...

*  Epididymo-orchitis following intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy.

12192495 - Cerebral hemorrhage in henoch-schoenlein syndrome.. 25189735 - Current concepts in the pathogenesis of traumatic ... 7602715 - Contralateral intracerebral hemorrhage after carotid endarterectomy.. 11338075 - Necrotizing fasciitis in crohn's ...

*  NewYork-Presbyterian/Queens - Glossary - Non-Traumatic Emergencies

cerebral hemorrhage - a type of stroke occurs when a defective artery in the brain bursts, flooding the surrounding tissue with ... Home , Content Library of Adult English Medical Content , Non-Traumatic Emergencies Glossary - Non-Traumatic Emergencies. A , B ... cerebral embolism - a brain attack that occurs when a wandering clot (embolus) or some other particle forms in a blood vessel ... cerebral thrombosis - the most common type of brain attack; occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms and blocks blood flow in ...

*  Acute middle cerebral artery occlusion: reappraisal of the role of endovascular revascularization.

... and intracerebral hemorrhage ris.... Next Document: Understanding and treating blast traumatic brain injury in the combat ... The natural history of untreated acute middle cerebral artery occlusion is poor, leading to long-term disability in ,70% and ... However, intravenous tissue type plasminogen activator has been shown to be effective in recanalizing middle cerebral artery ... Previous Document: Transient focal neurological episodes, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, ...

*  Animal Models of Acute Neurological Injuries II: Injury and Mechanistic Assessments, Volume 1, Book by Jun Chen (Hardcover) |...

Cerebral Vasospasm 33. Introduction to Problems of Post-Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Delayed Cerebral Vasospasm Ryszard M. Pluta 34 ... hemorrhage, vasospasm, and traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. Animal Models of Acute Neurological Injuries II: Injury ... as well as extensive sections on subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral vasospasm, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Designed to provide ... Biochemical Assessments of Cerebral Vasospasm: Measurement of cGMP, PKC, and PTK in Cerebral Arteries Masayo Koide and Shigeru ...

*  Books by Subject - Lane Medical Library - Stanford University School of Medicine

Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage -- Cerebral edema -- Herniation syndromes -- Skull fracture -- Inflammation -- Multiple ... Balloon Embolization of a Traumatic Carotid-Cavernous Fistula -- CASE 43. Coil Embolization of a Traumatic Carotid-Cavernous ... Cerebral microangiopathy -- Primary intracerebral hemorrhage --- Amyloid angiopathy -- Vascular dissection -- Impaired venous ... Management of Pediatric Cerebral Aneurysm -- CASE 59. Transarterial Embolization of a Dural Sinus Malformation -- PART IX. ...

*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Endogenous Nitric-Oxide Synthase Inhibitor ADMA after Acute Brain Injury | HTML

... after traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Therefore, we examined whether ADMA and the enzymes involved in NO- and ADMA- ... metabolism after traumatic brain injury (TBI) show variations in NO availability and controversial effects of exogenous nitric ... Cerebral blood volume alterations in the perilesional areas in the rat brain after traumatic brain injury-Ccomparison with ... NO is one of the key players in the development of cerebral vasospasm after traumatic and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage ( ...

*  APOE (Human) ELISA Kit - (KA4736) - Products - Abnova

Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy. *Cerebral Hemorrhage. *Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic. *Cerebral Infarction. *Cerebral Palsy ...

*  Caspase inhibitors prevent endothelial apoptosis and cerebral vasospasm in dog model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Abstract Apoptosis in the endothelium of major cerebral arteries may play a role in the initiation and maintenance of cerebral ... Post Traumatic Disorders. *Pre-Clinical Drug Development. *Primary care epidemiology. *Renal epidemiology ... Caspase inhibitors prevent endothelial apoptosis and cerebral vasospasm in dog model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.. ... Abstract Apoptosis in the endothelium of major cerebral arteries may play a role in the initiation and maintenance of cerebral ...

*  Misc

A cerebral hemorrhage (or intracerebral hemorrhage, ICH), is a subtype of intracranial hemorrhage that occurs within the brain ... Intracerebral hemorrhage can be caused by brain trauma, or it can occur spontaneously in hemorrhagic stroke. Non-traumatic ... Cerebral hemorrhage - Homeopathy Treatment and Homeopathic Remedies. Date: January 22, 2009 Author: Dr. Manish Bhatia Leave a ...

*  Rehab Nursing CRRN Review ch. 9 by Kassie clary on Prezi

Cerebral hemorrhages are classified by:. location. subarachnoid. extradural. subdural. vessel type:. arterial. venous. ... traumatic. degenerative. bleeds can be slow and occur over a long period of time, or could be rapid in onset. Basil ganglia- ... CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGES. Subarachnoid, Extradural, Subdural. Vessel type-arterial, venous and capillary. Origin-trauma, ...

*  Babinski's reflex and Progressive confusion - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at RightDiagnosis

4. Cerebral hemorrhage. 5. Cerebral malaria. 6. Concussion. 7. Dehydration. 8. Diabetic Ketoacidosis. 9. East African ... 4. Traumatic Brain Injury. Show causes with descriptions ». , Start Again ». Results: Causes of Babinski's reflex OR ...

*  Hypernatremia for the Prevention and Treatment of Cerebral Edema in Traumatic Brain Injury - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Hemorrhage. Pathologic Processes. Intracranial Hemorrhage, Traumatic. Intracranial Hemorrhages. Cerebrovascular Disorders. ... Traumatic Brain Injury Subdural Hematoma Cerebral Contusion Head Injury Cerebral Edema Drug: Induced, sustained hypernatremia ... Hypernatremia for the Prevention and Treatment of Cerebral Edema in Traumatic Brain Injury. This study has been withdrawn prior ... In brain-injured states, the normal regulation of this process is disturbed and cerebral edema can develop. Cerebral edema ...

*  O-034 cerebral angiography for evaluation of patients with ct angiogram negative subarachnoid hemorrhage: an 11-year experience...

Background and purpose CT Angiography (CTA) is increasingly used to evaluate non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) given ... O-034 cerebral angiography for evaluation of patients with ct angiogram negative subarachnoid hemorrhage: an 11-year experience ... O-034 cerebral angiography for evaluation of patients with ct angiogram negative subarachnoid hemorrhage: an 11-year experience ... No cause of hemorrhage was identified in patients presenting with isolated IVH or xanthochromia. Diffuse SAH was due to ...

*  John R Lynch

Risk of cerebral vasopasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage reduced by statin therapy: A multivariate analysis of an institutional ... and improve cerebral blood flow after experimental traumatic brain injury. Haichen Wang. Department of Medicine, Division of ... Cerebral vasospasm remains a major source of morbidity after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We demonstrate that ... Leukocytosis as an independent risk factor for cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Matthew J ...

*  Secondary insults related to nursing interventions in neurointensive care: a descriptive pilot study. - Free Online Library

... traumatic brain injury (n = 4), intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 3), malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (n = 2), and ... ASDH = acute subdural hematoma; SAH = subarachnoid hemorrhage; EDH = epidural hematoma; ICH = intracerebral hemorrhage; mMCAl ... intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. These patients have a primary injury causing cellular damage, and the ... There are, for example, treatment goals of ICP , 20 mm Hg, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) , 60 mm Hg, and systolic blood ...
https://thefreelibrary.com/Secondary insults related to nursing interventions in neurointensive ...-a0384340737

*  Central Benzodiazepine Receptor Distribution After Subcortical Hemorrhage Evaluated by Means of [123I]Iomazenil and SPECT |...

Clinical syndromes in cerebral hemorrhage. In: Fields WS, ed. Pathogenesis and Treatment of Cerebrovascular Disease. ... Benavides J, Serrano A, Duval D, Bourdiol F, Toulmond S, Scatton B. Autoradiographic detection and quantitation of traumatic ... To investigate the potential neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex remote from subcortical hemorrhage, we evaluated the ... Four patients showed putaminal hemorrhage and one thalamic hemorrhage on the initial CT scan. All of the patients showed ...

*  Needle-stick injury | definition of needle-stick injury by Medical dictionary

... intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH); cerebral contusions; concussion (with ... traumatic brain injury. Abbreviation: TBI. Any injury involving direct trauma to the head, accompanied by alterations in mental ... Acute traumatic injury of the spinal cord. Signs and symptoms depend upon the vertebral level injured and degree of injury. ... Synonym: post-traumatic hypoxia. smoke inhalation injury. Inhalation injury.. spinal cord injury. Abbreviation: SCI. ...
medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/needle-stick injury

*  subarachnoid hemorrhage

cerebral hemorrhage*glasgow outcome scale*cerebral arteries*basilar artery*glasgow coma scale*brain injuries*hydrocephalus* ... GCS motor score, pupillary reaction, hypoxia, hypotension, initial head CT classification, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage or ... Late cerebral ischemia carries high morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to reduced cerebral blood ... We are investigating cerebral vasospasm which is an important cause of cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)... ...

*  Effect of backrest position on intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure in individuals with brain injury: a...

Effect of backrest position on intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure in individuals with brain injury: a ... the representation of brain-injured patients including those with traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage (traumatic or ... Cerebral autoregulation is the most important mechanism for maintaining CPP. It maintains a relatively constant cerebral blood ... On the contrary, it may put some individuals at risk for increasing ICP and cerebral ischemia due to impaired cerebral ...
https://thefreelibrary.com/Effect of backrest position on intracranial pressure and cerebral ...-a0123707216

*  Dr. Roger Kaye, MD - Norwalk, CT - Neurosurgery | Healthgrades.com

Cerebral Hemorrhage. *Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak (CSF Leak). *Degenerative Disc Disease. *Epilepsy. *Hydrocephalus ...

*  Guidelines for the management of spontaneous ich

Guidelines for the Management of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the ... mic cardiac and cerebral events in ICH survivors. Frequent alcohollobar location and increased recurrence.190,191 Hemorrhage in ... traumatic brain injury or aneurysmal subarachnoid hemor-ICP Monitoring and Treatment rhage. In a 1997 series of 108 ... 3. Morgenstern et al Intracerebral Hemorrhage Guideline 2109S pontaneous, nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a ...

Cerebral hemorrhageSubarachnoid hemorrhagePulmonary hemorrhageCerebral softeningCerebral amyloid angiopathySilent strokeIntracranial hemorrhageHess test: The Hess test or Rumpel-Leede test is a medical test used to assess capillary fragility.Rumpel-Leede-Hess test, Gothlin's test at TheFreeDictionary.Cerebral blood flow: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is the blood supply to the brain in a given period of time.Tolias C and Sgouros S.Dense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.AmyloidosisPenumbra (medicine): In pathology and anatomy the penumbra is the area surrounding an ischemic event such thrombotic or embolic stroke. Immediately following the event, blood flow and therefore oxygen transport is reduced locally, leading to hypoxia of the cells near the location of the original insult.List of kanji by stroke count: This Kanji index method groups together the kanji that are written with the same number of strokes. Currently, there are 2,186 individual kanji listed.Postoperative hematoma: Postoperative hematomas are a cutaneous condition characterized by a collection of blood below the skin, and result as a complication following surgery.Retinal haemorrhageInfectious intracranial aneurysm: An infectious intracranial aneurysm (IIA, also called mycotic aneurysm) is a cerebral aneurysm that is caused by infection of the cerebral arterial wall.Thrombolysis: Thrombolysis is the breakdown (lysis) of blood clots by pharmacological means, and commonly called clot busting. It works by stimulating secondary fibrinolysis by plasmin through infusion of analogs of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), the protein that normally activates plasmin.Gross Motor Function Classification System: The Gross Motor Function Classification System or GMFCS is a 5 level clinical classification system that describes the gross motor function of people with cerebral palsy on the basis of self-initiated movement abilities. Particular emphasis in creating and maintaining the GMFCS scale rests on evaluating sitting, walking, and wheeled mobility.Cerebral arteriovenous malformationTranscortical sensory aphasia: Transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA) is a kind of aphasia that involves damage to specific areas of the temporal lobe of the brain, resulting in symptoms such as poor auditory comprehension, relatively intact repetition, and fluent speech with semantic paraphasias present.Bakri balloon: The Bakri™ Balloon http://www.cookmedical.ABCD² score: The ABCD2 score is a clinical prediction rule used to determine the risk for stroke in the days following a transient ischemic attack (TIA, a condition in which temporary brain dysfunction results from oxygen shortage in the brain). It usefulness was questioned in a 2015 review as it was not found to separate those who are low from those who are at high risk of future problems.Niigata UniversityTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingGlasgow-Blatchford score: The Glasgow-Blatchford bleeding score (GBS) is a screening tool to assess the likelihood that a patient with an acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) will need to have medical intervention such as a blood transfusion or endoscopic intervention. The tool may be able to identify patients who do not need to be admitted to hospital after a UGIB.Gross examinationStreptococcus anginosus: Streptococcus anginosus is a species of Streptococcus.HyperintensityHypertensionAntithrombotic: An antithrombotic agent is a drug that reduces the formation of blood clots (thrombi).http://cancerweb.HyperreflexiaCerebral vasospasm: Cerebral vasospasm is the prolonged, intense vasoconstriction of the larger conducting arteries in the subarachnoid space which is initially surrounded by a clot.Great cerebral vein: The great cerebral vein is one of the large blood vessels in the skull draining the cerebrum (brain). It is also known as the "vein of Galen" (VG), named for its discoverer, the Greek physician Galen.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Senile plaquesAnticoagulant: Anticoagulants are a class of drugs that work to prevent the coagulation (clotting) of blood. Such substances occur naturally in leeches and blood-sucking insects.Thrombolytic drug: Thrombolytic drugs are used in medicine to dissolve blood clots in a procedure termed thrombolysis. They limit the damage caused by the blockage or occlusion of a blood vessel.Amyloid: Amyloids are insoluble fibrous protein [species|aggregates] sharing specific structural traits. They are insoluble and arise from at least 18 inappropriately folded versions of proteins and polypeptides present naturally in the body.Aortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.A Mess of Blues: "A Mess Of Blues" is a song written by Doc Pomus and Mort Shuman that was originally recorded by Elvis Presley for RCA Records in 1960, reaching number 32 in the US charts and number 2 in the UK charts.Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a worldwide project that provides reliable clinical data for the research of pathology principle, prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Multiple research groups contribute their findings of the biological markers to the understanding of the progression of Alzheimer’s disease in the human brain.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Amyloid precursor proteinAge adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Forrest classification: Forrest classification is a classification of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage used for purposes of comparison and in selecting patients for endoscopic treatment.http://books.Intracranial pressure monitoringRecurrent artery of Heubner: Heubner's artery (also known as the recurrent artery of Heubner or Medial Striate A.), named after the German paediatrician Otto Heubner is a branch from the anterior cerebral artery, typically from the proximal A2 segment or distal A1 segment, or at the level of the optic chiasm.Posterior cerebral artery: The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is one of a pair of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the posterior aspect of the brain (occipital lobe) in human anatomy. It arises near the intersection of the posterior communicating artery and the basilar artery and connects with the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) and internal carotid artery via the posterior communicating artery (PCommA).Striate arteries: Striate arteries or Ganglionic arteries arise from the middle cerebral artery and supply deep structures in the cerebrum including the internal capsule and reticular formation. Strokes in these vessels are common and can cause extensive damage.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.HydrocephalusSuperficial velocity: Superficial velocity (or superficial flow velocity), in engineering of multiphase flows and flows in porous media, is a hypothetical (artificial) flow velocity calculated as if the given phase or fluid were the only one flowing or present in a given cross sectional area. Other phases, particles, the skeleton of the porous medium, etc.Subdural hematomaGuitar picking: Guitar picking is a group of hand and finger techniques a guitarist uses to set guitar strings in motion to produce audible notes. These techniques involve plucking, strumming, brushing, etc.Intravascular volume status: In medicine, intravascular volume status refers to the volume of blood in a patient's circulatory system, and is essentially the blood plasma component of the overall volume status of the body, which otherwise includes both intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid. Still, the intravascular component is usually of primary interest, and volume status is sometimes used synonymously with intravascular volume status.Bifrontal craniotomy: a bifrontal craniotomy is a surgical process which is used to target different tumors or malfunctioning areas of the brain.http://www.

(1/39) Suicide after traumatic brain injury: a population study.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the rates of suicide among patients who have had a traumatic brain injury. METHODS: From a Danish population register of admissions to hospital covering the years 1979-93 patients were selected who had had either a concussion (n=126 114), a cranial fracture (n=7560), or a cerebral contusion or traumatic intracranial haemorrhage (n=11 766). All cases of deaths by the end of the study period were identified. RESULTS: In the three diagnostic groups there had been 750 (0.59%), 46 (0.61%), and 99 (0.84%) cases of suicide respectively. Standardised mortality ratios, stratified by sex and age, showed that the incidence of suicide among the three diagnostic groups was increased relative to the general population (3.0, 2.7, and 4.1 respectively). In all diagnosis groups the ratios were higher for females than for males, and lower for patients injured before the age of 21 or after the age of 60. The presence of a codiagnosis relating to substance misuse was associated with increased suicide rates in all diagnosis groups. There was a tendency, among patients with cerebral contusions or traumatic intracranial haemorrhages, for suicide risk to increase with duration of stay in hospital. Cox regression analyses for proportional hazards confirmed that there was a significantly greater risk of suicide among patients with cerebral contusions or traumatic intracranial haemorrhages than among patients with concussion or cranial fractures (hazard ratios=1.42 and 1.50 respectively). There was, however, no evidence of a specific risk period for suicide after injury. CONCLUSION: The increased risk of suicide among patients who had a mild traumatic brain injury may result from concomitant risk factors such as psychiatric conditions and psychosocial disadvantage. The greater risk among the more serious cases implicates additionally the physical, psychological, and social consequences of the injuries as directly contributing to the suicides.  (+info)

(2/39) The structural basis of moderate disability after traumatic brain damage.

The objective was to discover the nature of brain damage in survivors of head injury who are left with moderate disability. Macroscopic and microscopic examination was carried out on the brains of 20 persons who had died long after a head injury that had been treated in a neurosurgical unit. All had become independent but had various disabilities (moderate disability on the Glasgow outcome scale) Most deaths had been sudden, which had led to their referral from forensic pathologists. Post-traumatic epilepsy was a feature in 75%. An intracranial haematoma had been evacuated in 75%, and in 11 of the 15 with epilepsy. Diffuse axonal injury was found in six patients, five of the mildest type (grade 1) and one of grade 2. No patient had diffuse thalamic damage but one had a small focal ischaemic lesion in the thalamus. No patient had severe ischaemic brain damage, but three had moderate lesions which were bilateral in only one. No patient had severe cortical contusions. In conclusion, the dominant lesion was focal damage from an evacuated intracranial haematoma. Severe diffuse damage was not found, with diffuse axonal injury only mild and thalamic damage in only one patient.  (+info)

(3/39) Giant cell glioblastoma manifesting as traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage--case report.

A 33-year-old male presented with intracerebral hemorrhage in the left temporoparietal region after a traffic accident. Ten months later, the traumatic hemorrhage was found to originate in an underlying giant cell glioblastoma. Our case indicates that non-traumatic underlying pathologies, such as vasculopathies, coagulopathies, or tumors, should be considered in the differential diagnoses of intracerebral hemorrhage occurring in unusual locations after traumatic accidents.  (+info)

(4/39) Magnetization transfer MR imaging in patients with posttraumatic epilepsy.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intractable epilepsy is a well-recognized complication following head trauma, and many factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis. This study was performed to determine the severity of tissue damage after severe head injury as assessed with magnetization transfer (MT) MR imaging and the relationship of this damage with seizure intractability. METHODS: Forty-four patients, 13 without seizures (disease controls) and 31 with seizures, underwent T1-weighted MT MR imaging 1-10 years after head trauma. Phase-corrected gradient-echo (GRE) imaging was also performed in all patients to look for the presence of hemosiderin. All patients were evaluated for the presence of an MT abnormality beyond an abnormality seen on T2-weighted images, an MT abnormality within a T2 abnormality, and hemosiderin deposition. RESULTS: Patients with an MT abnormality beyond a T2 abnormality had a significantly higher intractability of seizures compared with those with an MT abnormality within a T2 abnormality (P <.05). In addition, the mere presence of hemosiderin deposit was not associated with seizure intractability; however, gliosis around the hemosiderin as seen on T1-weighted MT images was associated with seizure intractability. CONCLUSIONS: T1-weighted MT imaging may be of value in predicting the intractability of the seizure in delayed posttraumatic epilepsy.  (+info)

(5/39) Acute fatal haemorrhage during percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy.

Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) is associated with a number of life-threatening complications. We present a case of massive and fatal arterial haemorrhage that occurred in the intensive care unit during an elective PDT on an 86-year-old woman following earlier evacuation of a traumatic subdural haematoma. An avulsed right subclavian artery was found at post mortem. Previous thyroid surgery and aberrant arterial anatomy contributed to the fatal outcome.  (+info)

(6/39) Low doses of dexamethasone decrease brain water content of collagenase-induced cerebral hematoma.

Different doses of dexamethasone were evaluated for the treatment of cerebral trauma using a rat model of cerebral hematoma induced by intracerebral (IC) stereotaxic injections of collagenase. Control animals received an intracerebral collagenase injection followed by intraperitoneal (IP) saline injection. Sham operated animals received saline only (IC, IP). Forty-eight hours following the surgeries, the brains were removed from the euthanized animals. Cerebral hemispheres were separated and the 4 coronal sections (antero-posterior plane) were weighed. Each slice was dried for 24 h (100 degrees C) and weighed again to establish brain water content. In hematoma-induced saline treated rats, significant differences in brain water content were observed when compared to sham operated animals. Rats treated with 1 mg/kg dexamethasone had a significant brain water content decrease; however, no significant differences were observed with higher doses of dexamethasone. In conclusion, low doses of dexamethasone seem to be beneficial for the treatment of cerebral trauma.  (+info)

(7/39) Diffuse axonal injury associated with chronic traumatic brain injury: evidence from T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging at 3 T.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diffuse axonal injury is frequently accompanied by tissue tear hemorrhages. We examined whether high field strength T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging performed during the chronic stage of traumatic brain injury may have advantages in the evaluation of diffuse axonal injury as compared with T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging. METHODS: Prospective MR imaging of 66 patients (age range, 17-57 years) was performed using a 3-T system 3 to 292 months (median, 23.5 months) after traumatic brain injury. T1-, T2-, T2*-hypointense and T2-hyperintense foci of 1- to 15-mm diameter were registered in 10 brain regions by two readers separately. Foci that appeared hypointense both on the T1- and T2- and/or on the T2*-weighted images were defined as traumatic microbleeds. RESULTS: For 46 (69.7%) of the patients, T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging revealed traumatic microbleeds. Hyperintense foci were observed on the T2-weighted images of only 15 (22.7%) patients. T2*-weighted imaging showed significantly more traumatic microbleeds (P =.000) than did T1- and T2-weighted imaging. Interobserver agreement was strong (kappa = 0.79, tau = 0.749, P =.000). For 14 (21.2%) of the patients, T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging revealed traumatic microbleeds in the corpus callosum, whereas for only two (3%), hyperintense callosal lesions were seen on the T2-weighted images. Although a significant correlation existed between the total amount and callosal appearance of traumatic microbleeds and Glasgow Coma Scale scores (P =.000), no correlation existed with extended Glasgow Outcome Scale scores. CONCLUSION: T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging at high field strength is a useful tool for the evaluation of diffuse axonal injury during the chronic stage of traumatic brain injury. Diffuse axonal injury-related brain lesions are mainly hemorrhagic. The relevance of diffuse axonal injury for long-term clinical outcome is uncertain.  (+info)

(8/39) Endovascular management of intracranial pial arterio-venous fistulas.

From 1996-2002 we treated 5 consecutive cases of pial fistula. There were 3 patients with a single hole-single channel pial fistula and two patients had a complex pial fistula. Three patients presented with intracerebral hematoma and had a focal neurological deficit. One patient presented with history of seizures and 1 patient had headache. The results of the treatment were analyzed both clinically and angiographically. The follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 6 years. All fistulas were treated with concentrated glue. The glue cast included the distal part of the feeding artery, A-V connection and the proximal part of the vein. Post-embolisation angiography showed complete occlusion of two single-hole fistulas and one complex pial A-V fistula and near total occlusion of one single-hole and one complex pial A-V fistula. Four patients had excellent clinical outcome. One patient with single-hole fistula had a hemorrhagic venous infarct resulting in transient hemiparesis.  (+info)


  • We will determine if statin therapy improves CBF in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This collection of papers represents a cross-section of the enormous progress that has been made towards a thorough understanding and effective treatment of neurovascular events following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, including cerebral vasospasm. (worldcat.org)
  • It is of interest to clinicians who wish to apply state-of-the-art knowledge to their management of this devastating condition and to basic scientists wishing to expand their understanding of cerebrovascular and neural pathophysiology related to subarachnoid hemorrhage. (worldcat.org)
  • Furthermore, elevated levels of the endogenous NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were reported in cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) after traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, it is not surprising that NO is one of the key players in the development of cerebral vasospasm after traumatic and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) as well as in the development of secondary brain damage after severe TBI [ 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Caspase inhibitors prevent endothelial apoptosis and cerebral vasospasm in dog model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage. (omicsonline.org)
  • Abstract Apoptosis in the endothelium of major cerebral arteries may play a role in the initiation and maintenance of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). (omicsonline.org)
  • Background and purpose CT Angiography (CTA) is increasingly used to evaluate non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) given its excellent sensitivity for intracranial aneurysms. (bmj.com)
  • Cerebral vasospasm remains a major source of morbidity after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). (labome.org)
  • At a neurointensive care (NIC) unit, there are patients with different neurosurgical diagnoses, for example, traumatic brain injury, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. (thefreelibrary.com)

intracerebral hemorrhage

  • Transient focal neurological episodes, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and intracerebral hemorrhage ris. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A cerebral hemorrhage (or intracerebral hemorrhage, ICH), is a subtype of intracranial hemorrhage that occurs within the brain tissue itself. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage can be caused by brain trauma, or it can occur spontaneously in hemorrhagic stroke. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • With this ligand, we studied the central benzodiazepine receptor distribution in the cortex remote from subcortical hematoma in intracerebral hemorrhage patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • Five patients (four men and one woman) with unilateral intracerebral hemorrhage in the territory of perforating arteries were examined. (ahajournals.org)


  • The book contains 48 articles presented at the 11th International Conference on Cerebral Vasospasm held in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, in July 2011. (worldcat.org)
  • The successful previous volume on this topic provided a detailed benchwork manual for the most commonly used animal models of acute neurological injuries including cerebral ischemia, hemorrhage, vasospasm, and traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. (indigo.ca)
  • We tested the therapeutic effect of caspase inhibitors on endothelial apoptosis and on cerebral vasospasm in an established dog double-hemorrhage model. (omicsonline.org)
  • Caspase inhibitors may have potential in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm. (omicsonline.org)


  • Cerebral edema leads to increased intracranial pressure and mortality secondary to brain tissue compression, given the confines of the fixed-volume cranium. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • While studies utilizing bolus dosing of hyperosmolar therapy to target signs or symptoms of increased intracranial pressure secondary to cerebral edema are numerous, there is a paucity of studies relating to continuous infusion of hyperosmolar therapy for targeted sustained hypernatremia for the prevention and treatment of cerebral edema. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The most common kind of secondary insults after a nursing measure was high intracranial pressure [n = 93) followed by low cerebral perfusion pressure (n = 43) and low systolic blood pressure (n = 14). (thefreelibrary.com)


  • Cerebral edema is seen heterogenous group of neurological disease states that mainly fall under the categories of metabolic, infectious, neoplasia, cerebrovascular, and traumatic brain injury disease states. (clinicaltrials.gov)


  • cerebral embolism - a brain attack that occurs when a wandering clot (embolus) or some other particle forms in a blood vessel away from the brain - usually in the heart. (nyhq.org)

brain injury

  • Understanding and treating blast traumatic brain injury in the combat theater. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Previous results on nitric oxide (NO) metabolism after traumatic brain injury (TBI) show variations in NO availability and controversial effects of exogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-inhibitors. (mdpi.com)
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) triggers a cascade of changes inducing the development of secondary brain damage with nitric oxide (NO) playing an important role. (mdpi.com)
  • The investigators hypothesize that induced, sustained hypernatremia following traumatic brain injury will decrease the rate of cerebral edema formation and improve patient outcomes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The primary safety objective is to assess the safety and tolerability of sustained hypernatremia compared to the goal of avoiding hyponatremia in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Tume, Baines, and Lisboa (2011) studied what effects nursing interventions had on pediatric patients with traumatic brain injury. (thefreelibrary.com)


  • The pattern of SAH may suggest the cause of hemorrhage, and aneurysms should be sought in patients with diffuse or perimesencephalic SAH. (bmj.com)


  • Acute middle cerebral artery occlusion: reappraisal of the role of endovascular revascularization. (biomedsearch.com)


  • On SPECT images, the radioactivity ratio of the ipsilateral to the contralateral cerebral cortex (I/C ratio) or of the contralateral to the ipsilateral cerebellar hemisphere (C/I ratio) was measured. (ahajournals.org)


  • The primary objective of this project is to investigate the effect of statin therapy on cerebral blood flow in patients with aneurysmal SAH who are randomized to receive or not receive statins in a blinded design. (clinicaltrials.gov)


  • In patients with putaminal or thalamic hemorrhage, a disorder of higher cortical function is sometimes observed. (ahajournals.org)


  • cerebral hemorrhage - a type of stroke occurs when a defective artery in the brain bursts, flooding the surrounding tissue with blood. (nyhq.org)


  • 1 2 Small putaminal hemorrhage produces a syndrome of hemimotor and hemisensory defects. (ahajournals.org)

Head Injury

  • Furthermore, statin treatment improved cerebral hemodynamics following head injury. (labome.org)


  • We determined the yield of Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) among patients presenting with SAH or intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and a negative CTA. (bmj.com)
  • No cause of hemorrhage was identified in patients presenting with isolated IVH or xanthochromia. (bmj.com)
  • Methods Four patients with unilateral putaminal hemorrhage and one patient with right thalamic hemorrhage were studied (mean±1 SD age, 50.0±8.8 years). (ahajournals.org)
  • To investigate the potential neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex remote from subcortical hemorrhage, we evaluated the distribution of central BZD receptor binding in brain hemorrhage patients with [ 123 I]iomazenil and SPECT. (ahajournals.org)
  • Four patients showed putaminal hemorrhage and one thalamic hemorrhage on the initial CT scan. (ahajournals.org)


  • With recently introduced stent-based thrombectomy devices, neurointerventionalists have achieved complete recanalization rates of more than 90% in middle cerebral artery and 'T' occlusions, with a mean procedural recanalization time of less than one-hour and negligible complication rates. (biomedsearch.com)


  • 3 However, the cerebral cortex responsible for such functions and the cortex remote from the hematoma usually present a normal appearance on CT scan. (ahajournals.org)


  • However, intravenous tissue type plasminogen activator has been shown to be effective in recanalizing middle cerebral artery occlusions in only about one-third of cases. (biomedsearch.com)


  • Conclusions Central benzodiazepine receptor-[ 123 I]iomazenil binding was decreased in the ipsilateral cerebral cortex remote from the subcortical hematoma. (ahajournals.org)