Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Avena sativa: A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.Secale cereale: A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Trichothecenes: Usually 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes, produced by Fusaria, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma and other fungi, and some higher plants. They may contaminate food or feed grains, induce emesis and hemorrhage in lungs and brain, and damage bone marrow due to protein and DNA synthesis inhibition.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Phytic Acid: Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.Brachypodium: A plant genus in the family POACEAE. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for functional genomics studies.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Zearalenone: (S-(E))-3,4,5,6,8,10-Hexahydro-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecin-1,7(8H)-dione. One of a group of compounds known under the general designation of resorcylic acid lactones. Cis, trans, dextro and levo forms have been isolated from the fungus Gibberella zeae (formerly Fusarium graminearum). They have estrogenic activity, cause toxicity in livestock as feed contaminant, and have been used as anabolic or estrogen substitutes.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Psyllium: Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Prolamins: A group of seed storage proteins restricted to the POACEAE family. They are rich in GLUTAMINE and PROLINE.Endosperm: Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Luteoviridae: A family of RNA plant viruses infecting disparate plant families. They are transmitted by specific aphid vectors. There are three genera: LUTEOVIRUS; Polerovirus; and Enamovirus.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Gibberella: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Hypocreaceae, order Hypocreales including several pathogens of grains and cereals. It is also the source of plant growth regulators such as gibberellin and gibberellic acid.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Gliadin: Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Electrolysis: Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.ResorcinolsFabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Ochratoxins: Isocoumarins found in ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS and other FUNGI. Ochratoxin contaminated FOOD has been responsible for cases of FOODBORNE DISEASES.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.6-Phytase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and water to 1L-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate and orthophosphate. EC 188.8.131.52.Cemeteries: Areas set apart as burial grounds.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Glutens: Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.
General Mills monster-themed breakfast cerealsWheat middlings: Wheat middlings (also known as millfeed, wheat mill run, or wheat midds) is the middle of three grades into which flour and meal are classified: patents, middlings, and clears. Middlings are often used in animal feed.Leaf rust (barley): Leaf rust is a fungal disease of barley caused by Puccinia hordei. It is also known as brown rust and it is the most important rust disease on barley.John o' Groats: John o' Groats (Gaelic: Taigh Iain Ghròt) is a village in the Canisby parish of Caithness, in the far north of Scotland. John o' Groats lies on Britain's northeastern tip, and is popular with tourists as one end of the longest distance between two inhabited British points, with Land's End in Cornwall lying 876 miles to the southwest.Complete Wheat Bran Flakes: Kellogg's Complete Wheat Bran Flakes is a breakfast cereal containing 100% of the United States' Recommended Dietary Allowance of eleven vitamins and minerals, including vitamins B1, B3, B5, B6, B12, C, E, and Iron, Riboflavin, Folic Acid, and Zinc. One 3/4 cup serving contains 3 grams of protein, 5 grams of dietary fiber and 90 calories, 5 of which come from fat.Weedy rice: Weedy rice, also known as red rice, is a variety of rice (Oryza) that produces far fewer grains per plant than cultivated rice and is therefore considered a pest. The name "weedy rice" is used for all types and variations of rice which show some characteristic features of cultivated rice and grow as weeds in commercial rice fields.Crustless bread: Crustless bread is bread without crusts. Panko is made from such a bread, which is produced by passing an electric current through the dough.Southern corn leaf blight: Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) is a fungal disease of maize caused by the plant pathogen Bipolaris maydis (also known as Cochliobolus heterostrophus in its teleomorph state).Micronutrient Fortification Programs: The 2002 farm bill (P.L.Verrucarin A: Verrucarin A belongs in the class of trichothecenes, a group of sesquiterpene toxins produced by several fungi, namely from the Fusarium species, that are responsible for infecting food grains.Panicum coloratum: Panicum coloratum is a species of grass known by the common names kleingrass, blue panicgrassPanicum coloratum. Tropical Forages.Fusarium ear blight: 180px|thumb|right|Symptom on wheat caused by F. graminearum (right:inoculated, left:non-inoculated)Phytic acidBrachypodium sylvaticum: Brachypodium sylvaticum, commonly known as false brome, slender false brome or wood false brome, is a perennial grass native to Europe, Asia and Africa. It has a broad native range stretching from North Africa to Eurasia.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Triacetic acid lactoneTomato seed oil: Tomato seed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of tomatoes.Plant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.Paddock: A paddock has two primary meanings in different parts of the English-speaking world. In Canada, the USA and UK, a paddock is a small enclosure used to keep horses.Unifine mill: A Unifine mill is a single one-pass impact milling system which produces ultrafine-milled whole-grain wheat flour that requires no grain pre-treatment and no screening of the flour. Like the grist or stone mills that had dominated the flour industry for centuries, the bran, germ, and endosperm elements of grain are processed into a nutritious whole wheat flour in one step.International Baby Food Action Network: The International Baby Food Action Network, IBFAN, consists of public interest groups working around the world to reduce infant and young child morbidity and mortality. IBFAN aims to improve the health and well-being of babies and young children, their mothers and their families through the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding and optimal infant feeding practices.Mycotoxins in animal feed: Many species of fungi produce secondary metabolites called mycotoxins. These toxins can be very detrimental to both humans and animals.Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score: Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) is a method of evaluating the protein quality based on both the amino acid requirements of humans and their ability to digest it. The PDCAAS rating was adopted by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) in 1993 as "the preferred 'best'" method to determine protein quality.Prolamin: Prolamins are a group of plant storage proteins having a high proline content and found in the seeds of cereal grains: wheat (gliadin), barley (hordein), rye (secalin), corn (zein), sorghum (kafirin) and as a minor protein, avenin in oats. They are characterised by a high glutamine and proline content and are generally soluble only in strong alcohol solutions.Vegetable juiceSAFE FOODSChilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Fungicide use in the United States: A more accurate title for this page would be "Common plant pathogens to food crops in the United States".Starch gelatinization: Starch gelatinization is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites (the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygen) to engage more water. This irreversibly dissolves the starch granule in water.Squamosa promoter binding protein: The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SBP or SPL) family of transcription factors are defined by a plant-specific DNA-binding domain. The founding member of the family was identified based on its specific in vitro binding to the promoter of the snapdragon SQUAMOSA gene.First pass effect: The first-pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation. It is the fraction of drug lost during the process of absorption which is generally related to the liver and gut wall.Gibberella fujikuroi: Gibberella fujikuroi is a fungal plant pathogen. It causes bakanae disease in rice seedlings, by overloading them with the phytohormone gibberellin as its own metabolic byproduct.Hardening (botany): Hardening in botany is the process by which an individual plant becomes tolerant to the effects of freezing during a period of weeks to months. It is a three-stage process.Carbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Gliadin: Gliadin is a class of proteins present in wheat and several other cereals within the grass genus Triticum. Gliadins, which are a component of gluten, are essential for giving bread the ability to rise properly during baking.Fruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Acyrthosiphon pisum: Acyrthosiphon pisum, commonly known as the pea aphid (and colloquially known as the green dolphin, pea louse, and clover louse ), is a sap-sucking insect in the Aphididae family. It feeds on several species of legumes (plant family Fabaceae) worldwide, including forage crops, such as pea, clover, alfalfa, and broad bean, and ranks among the aphid species of major agronomical importance.Dry matter: The dry matter (or otherwise known as dry weight) is a measurement of the mass of something when completely dried.Electrolysis: In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction. Electrolysis is commercially highly important as a stage in the separation of elements from naturally occurring sources such as ores using an electrolytic cell.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.AlkylresorcinolLonchocarpus: Lonchocarpus is a plant genus in the legume family (Fabaceae). The species are called lancepods due to their fruit resembling an ornate lance tip or a few beads on a string.Tropical Asia: Through a crop-based biodiversity, natural resources and animals (birds, fruits, and forests), Tropical Asia is economically and physiogeographically rich. There are 16 countries of Tropical Asia ranging in size from around 610 km² (Singapore) to 3,000,000 km² (India).Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Plant perception (physiology): Plant perception is the ability of plants to sense and respond to the environment to adjust their morphology, physiology and phenotype accordingly. Other disciplines such as plant physiology, ecology and molecular biology are used to assess this ability.Monogastric: A monogastric organism has a simple single-chambered stomach, compared with a ruminant organism, like a cow, goat, or sheep, which has a four-chambered complex stomach. Examples of monogastric animals include omnivores such as humans, rats, dogs and pigs, and carnivores such as cats, and herbivores such as horses and rabbits.List of cemeteries in Estonia: This is a list of cemeteries in Estonia.Low-glycemic diet: A low-glycemic diet is one that selects foods on the basis of minimal alteration of circulating glucose levels. Glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are measures of the effect on blood glucose level after a food containing carbohydrates is consumed.Flower box: __NOTOC__Gluten exorphin: Gluten exorphins are a group of opioid peptides formed during digestion of the gluten protein. It has been hypothesized that people with autism and schizophrenia have abnormal leakage from the gut of these compounds, which then pass into the brain and disrupt brain functionAutism and Schizophrenia: Intestinal Disorders, Cade, et al.
(1/1696) Fusariotoxicosis from barley in British Columbia. I. Natural occurrence and diagnosis.
Clinical sickness was observed in domestic ducks, geese, horses and swine during October 1973. All species showed upper alimentary distress with mortalities occurring in the geese. Barley derived from a common source had been fed. Examination of the barley revealed invasion by Fusarium spp and detection of a high level of dermatitic fusariotoxins. (+info)
(2/1696) Fusariotoxicosis from barley in British Columbia. II. Analysis and toxicity of syspected barley.
Fusariotoxin T-2, a trichothecene, was tentatively identified in barley samples which caused field outbreaks of mycotoxicosis in British Columbia. Geese died when fed the contaminated barley experimentally but mice were little affected after long term feeding. The methods used in the laboratory for trichothecene extraction and identification of T-2 toxin are described. (+info)
(3/1696) Is whole grain intake associated with reduced total and cause-specific death rates in older women? The Iowa Women's Health Study.
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether nutrient-rich whole grains reduce mortality risk. METHODS: The study included 38,740 Iowa women, aged 55 to 69 years. A food frequency questionnaire was used to obtain data on grain intake. RESULTS: Median whole grain intake quintiles ranged from a median of 0.2 to more than 3 servings per day. Women with higher intakes had healthier lifestyles and less baseline disease. The total death rate decreased in increasing quintiles, and the pattern repeated for cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other causes combined. Adjusted for lifestyle and baseline disease, the relative hazard rate ratio for total death was about 0.85 in daily consumers of whole grain. Findings persisted in strata of baseline healthy and diseased and were not explained by dietary fiber. Rates of total mortality, but not cardiovascular disease mortality, were higher among frequent consumers of refined grain. CONCLUSIONS: Total mortality risk was inversely associated with whole grain intake and positively associated with refined grain intake. Refined grains contributed more than 20% of energy intake, and whole grains contributed 1%. Substitution of whole for refined grain may reduce chronic disease risk in the United States. (+info)
(4/1696) Caregiver behaviors and resources influence child height-for-age in rural Chad.
The purpose of this study was to identify caregiver characteristics that influence child nutritional status in rural Chad, when controlling for socioeconomic factors. Variables were classified according to the categories of a UNICEF model of care: caregiving behaviors, household food security, food and economic resources and resources for care and health resources. Sixty-four households with 98 children from ages 12 to 71 mo were part of this study. Caregivers were interviewed to collect information on number of pregnancies, child feeding and health practices, influence on decisions regarding child health and feeding, overall satisfaction with life, social support, workload, income, use of income, and household food expenditures and consumption. Household heads were questioned about household food production and other economic resources. Caregiver and household variables were classified as two sets of variables, and separate regression models were run for each of the two sets. Significant predictors of height-for-age were then combined in the same regression model. Caregiver influence on child-feeding decisions, level of satisfaction with life, willingness to seek advice during child illnesses, and the number of individuals available to assist with domestic tasks were the caregiver factors associated with children's height-for-age. Socioeconomic factors associated with children's height-for-age were the amount of harvested cereals, the sources of household income and the household being monogamous. When the caregiver and household socioeconomic factors were combined in the same model, they explained 54% of the variance in children's height-for-age, and their regression coefficients did not change or only slightly increased, except for caregiver's propensity to seek advice during child illnesses, which was no longer significant. These results indicate that caregiver characteristics influence children's nutritional status, even while controlling for the socioeconomic status of the household. (+info)
(5/1696) Subfamily divergence in the multigene family of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcS) in Triticeae and its relatives.
To investigate genetic mechanisms acting on multigene family in plants, we analyzed sequence variation in the rbcS gene of 13 species of Triticeae and one species each of related tribes (Bromeae and Aveneae). A total of 36 rbcS genes were analyzed. Based on dimorphism in the length of intron, the rbcSs of investigated species were classified into two subfamilies A and B. The difference in intron length was caused by an indel of about 200 bp in the middle of the intron. The two subfamilies of rbcS were present in the three tribes, indicating that the divergence of rbcS subfamilies occurred before the split of these tribes. Generally, variation between the two subfamilies of rbcS was larger than that within subfamily, but these two measures were about the same at the tribe level. This result suggested that divergence of the subfamilies of rbcS occurred at about the same time of tribe diversification. The level of nucleotide variation in the exon region between subfamilies was reduced in the Triticeae, but clear change was not detected in the intron sequence. This result suggested that the exon sequences between subfamilies of rbcS were homogenized without affecting the intron sequence in the Triticeae lineage. (+info)
(6/1696) Presence of specific IgG antibody to grain dust does not go with respiratory symptoms.
A high prevalence of work-related symptoms in relation to grain dust exposure has been reported in grain dust workers, but the role of the specific IgG antibody is unknown. To study the possible role of specific IgG (sIgG) and specific IgG4 (sIgG4) in the development of work-related symptoms, sIgG and sIgG4 subclass antibodies against grain dust antigens were determined by ELISA in sera from 43 workers and 27 non-exposed controls. They were compared with results of specific IgE antibodies, exposure intensity and the presence of respiratory symptoms. SIgG and sIgG4 antibodies were detectable in almost all sera of exposed workers, and the prevalence were significantly higher than those of controls (p<0.05). Higher sIgG4 was noted in workers with specific IgE (p<0.05). The correlation between sIgG and exposure duration was significant (p<0.05). There was no association between the prevalence of sIgG and sIgG4 and the presence of respiratory symptoms, or work stations. In conclusion, these results suggest that the existence of sIgG and sIgG4 might represent a response to grain dust exposure and may unlikely play a role in the etiology of respiratory symptoms. (+info)
(7/1696) Carbon assimilation by Claviceps purpurea growing as a parasite.
Carbon assimilation by Claviceps purpurea, growing as a parasite on cereals, has been investigated by supplying the host plant with 14CO2 in a closed system. The presence of the pathogen induced the plant to exude photosynthate which contained high levels of sucrose. During the period of 14CO2 supply, 14C was incorporated into the sucrose and so the path of carbon into the parasite could be traced. Hexoses, derived by the action of the fungal sucrase on sucrose, were assimilated by the pathogen and largely converted into polyols - mainly mannitol and, to a lesser extent, trehalose. The rate of carbohydrate metabolism decreased with maturation of the ergot, and also showed qualitative differences between the basal and apical regions of the ergot which were probably a function of nutrient supply. (+info)
(8/1696) Effect of the glycemic index and content of indigestible carbohydrates of cereal-based breakfast meals on glucose tolerance at lunch in healthy subjects.
BACKGROUND: Diets with a low glycemic index (GI) have been shown to improve glucose tolerance in both healthy and diabetic subjects. Two potential mechanisms are discussed in relation to long-term metabolic effects: a decreased demand for insulin in the postprandial phase and formation of short-chain fatty acids from fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates in the colon. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of the GI and the indigestible carbohydrate--resistant starch (RS) and dietary fiber (DF)--content of cereal-based breakfasts on glucose tolerance at a second meal (lunch) in healthy subjects. DESIGN: The effects of 7 test breakfasts with known GIs (GI: 52-99) and RS + DF contents (2-36 g) were evaluated. White-wheat bread was used as a reference breakfast (high GI, low RS + DF content). Glucose and insulin responses after the second meal were measured in healthy subjects. In addition, the satiating capacity of 4 of the 7 test breakfasts was estimated before and during the second meal. RESULTS: Two of the 4 low-GI breakfasts improved glucose tolerance at the second meal. Only these 2 breakfasts were capable of postponing the in-between-meal fasting state. There was no measurable effect of fermentable carbohydrates on glucose tolerance at the second meal. The highest satiety score was associated with the barley breakfast that had a low GI and a high RS + DF content. CONCLUSIONS: Glucose tolerance can improve in a single day. Slow absorption and digestion of starch from the breakfast meal, but not the content of indigestible carbohydrates in the breakfast meal, improved glucose tolerance at the second meal (lunch). (+info)