Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Primary Prevention: Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.United StatesCommunicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Secondary Prevention: The prevention of recurrences or exacerbations of a disease or complications of its therapy.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Germinal Center: The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Child Day Care Centers: Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Accident Prevention: Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Ribonucleoprotein, U1 Small Nuclear: A nuclear RNA-protein complex that plays a role in RNA processing. In the nucleoplasm, the U1 snRNP along with other small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U2, U4-U6, and U5) assemble into SPLICEOSOMES that remove introns from pre-mRNA by splicing. The U1 snRNA forms base pairs with conserved sequence motifs at the 5'-splice site and recognizes both the 5'- and 3'-splice sites and may have a fundamental role in aligning the two sites for the splicing reaction.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Ribonucleoprotein, U4-U6 Small Nuclear: A nuclear RNA-protein complex that plays a role in RNA processing. In the nucleoplasm, the U4-U6 snRNP along with the U5 snRNP preassemble into a single 25S particle that binds to the U1 and U2 snRNPs and the substrate to form mature SPLICEOSOMES. There is also evidence for the existence of individual U4 or U6 snRNPs in addition to their organization as a U4-U6 snRNP.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Tertiary Care Centers: A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Trauma Centers: Specialized hospital facilities which provide diagnostic and therapeutic services for trauma patients.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Communicable DiseasesHealth Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Quarantine: Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).MaineGuideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Ribonucleoprotein, U5 Small Nuclear: A nuclear RNA-protein complex that plays a role in RNA processing. In the nucleoplasm, the U5 snRNP along with U4-U6 snRNP preassemble into a single 25S particle that binds to the U1 and U2 snRNPs and the substrate to form SPLICEOSOMES.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Poison Control Centers: Facilities which provide information concerning poisons and treatment of poisoning in emergencies.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Chemoprevention: The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Preventive Medicine: A medical specialty primarily concerned with prevention of disease (PRIMARY PREVENTION) and the promotion and preservation of health in the individual.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.IndiaRisk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Vital Statistics: Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)WisconsinQuality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Growth Charts: Graphic displays of height and weight showing development over time.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.): A center in the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE which is primarily concerned with the collection, analysis, and dissemination of health statistics on vital events and health activities to reflect the health status of people, health needs, and health resources.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.BrazilMultivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.State Health Planning and Development Agencies: Agencies established under PL93-641 to coordinate, conduct, and implement state health planning activities. Two primary responsibilities are the preparation of an annual State Health Plan and giving assistance to the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Information Centers: Facilities for collecting and organizing information. They may be specialized by subject field, type of source material, persons served, location, or type of services.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Laboratory Personnel: Professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.EuropeCommunicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Patient Isolation: The segregation of patients with communicable or other diseases for a specified time. Isolation may be strict, in which movement and social contacts are limited; modified, where an effort to control specified aspects of care is made in order to prevent cross infection; or reverse, where the patient is secluded in a controlled or germ-free environment in order to protect him or her from cross infection.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Government Programs: Programs and activities sponsored or administered by local, state, or national governments.Schools: Educational institutions.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Poisoning: A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Public Health Surveillance: The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)New York CityTravel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)GeorgiaNational Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Lead PoisoningCommunity Networks: Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Triatominae: A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Consumer Organizations: Organized groups of users of goods and services.Public-Private Sector Partnerships: An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - The New York TimesCommentary and archival information about the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from The New York Times. ... Commentary and archival information about the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from The New York Times. ... News about the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... News about the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... One in 10 Pregnant Women With Zika in U.S. Have Babies With Birth Defects A study by the Centers for Disease Control and ...
Articles about Centers For Disease Control - latimesFind breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Centers For Disease Control From The latimes ... thanks to a new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that tracks our physical activity down to the ... the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said Tuesday. As screening for the disease among those ages 50 to 75 increased ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the agency whose task includes preventing pandemics and pushing flu shots, is ...
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Articles, Photos, and Videos - San Diego Union TribuneU.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. How did Hawaii's hepatitis A outbreak compare to San Diego's?. Known ... Topics Health Diseases and Illnesses U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... Related "U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention" Articles. Health How did Hawaii's hepatitis A outbreak compare to San ... according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's foodborne illness-tracking database. According to the latest ...
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | MySoulRadio.comU.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Washington DC, white, www.mysoulradio.com. ... Black Women Who Drink 7 or More Alcoholic Beverages Per Week Have an Increased Risk of Developing This Disease. New research ...
Medical Information Search (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.) • Definitions)Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.). Definitions. Medical Information Search ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and ... National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Mortality: All deaths reported in a given ... Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.United StatesCommunicable Disease ...
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HIV in U.S. Latinos: Awareness & Prevention - HIV/AIDS Resource Center for Latinos - TheBody.comBrowse our in-depth library of articles on HIV in U.S. Latinos: Awareness & Prevention ... From U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention *. No Easy Feat: Promoting the PrEP Pill for HIV Prevention Among Latinos ... From U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention *. Word on the Street: Why Are HIV Rates in the Latino Community So High? ... From U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention *. Healing HIV's 'Viral Divide' Will Take Time and Empathy, Latinx ...
Issue Brief: The Prevention Benefits of HIV Treatment - Resource Center on Starting HIV Treatment - TheBody.comHIV prevention and HIV treatment were considered two separate fronts of the fight against the virus. As we've learned ... ... This article was provided by U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Visit the CDC's website to find out more about ... Conversations With Federal HIV Leaders From the 2017 U.S. Conference on AIDS. Disparities in Health Outcomes, Barriers to Care ... Heavy Marijuana Use Tied to Midlife Cardiovascular Events in U.S. Men With HIV. Correcting Mistakes and Misperceptions in ...
Organizations: : C: Cancer in Men - healthfinder.govCenters for Disease Control and Prevention - CDC. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services The Centers for Disease Control ... Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The Centers for Disease Control and ... and Prevention (CDC), a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is the primary Federal agency for conducting ... A Federal Government website managed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services healthfinder.gov is sponsored by the ...
Organizations: : E: Emergency Preparedness - healthfinder.govCenters for Disease Control and Prevention - CDC. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services The Centers for Disease Control ... National Center for Environmental Health - NCEH. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC's National Center for ... U.S. Environmental Protection Agency The mission of the EPA is to protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment ... and Prevention (CDC), a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is the primary Federal agency for conducting ...
U.S. GAO - Medicaid Formula TransitionCenters for Disease Control and Prevention: Use of Special Interest Projects to Fund Prevention Research Centers. GAO-17-693: ... CMS Fraud Prevention System Uses Claims Analysis to Address Fraud. GAO-17-710: Published: Aug 30, 2017. Publicly Released: Sep ... Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services: Analysis of Contracting Data. GAO-17-735SP: Published: Sep 12, 2017. Publicly ... States Fund Services for Adults in Institutions for Mental Disease Using a Variety of Strategies. GAO-17-652: Published: Aug 9 ...
U.S. GAO - Human Fetal Tissue: Acquisition for Federally Funded Biomedical ResearchCenters for Disease Control and Prevention: Use of Special Interest Projects to Fund Prevention Research Centers. GAO-17-693: ... World Trade Center Health Program: Improved Oversight Needed to Ensure Clinics Fully Address Mandated Quality Assurance ... States Fund Services for Adults in Institutions for Mental Disease Using a Variety of Strategies. GAO-17-652: Published: Aug 9 ... Medical devices: Capabilities and challenges of technologies to enable rapid diagnoses of infectious diseases. GAO-17-347: ...
U.S. GAO - Planned Hospital Construction by Indian Health ServiceCenters for Disease Control and Prevention: Use of Special Interest Projects to Fund Prevention Research Centers. GAO-17-693: ... CMS Fraud Prevention System Uses Claims Analysis to Address Fraud. GAO-17-710: Published: Aug 30, 2017. Publicly Released: Sep ... Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services: Analysis of Contracting Data. GAO-17-735SP: Published: Sep 12, 2017. Publicly ... States Fund Services for Adults in Institutions for Mental Disease Using a Variety of Strategies. GAO-17-652: Published: Aug 9 ...
Acetaminophen/Caffeine/Chlorpheniramine/Hydrocodone/Phenylephrine News & Updates - Drugs.comShe is with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's division of unintentional injury prevention. By 2015, drug- ... according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Martin, a pharmacist at the University of Arkansas for ... a U.S. government study finds. Between 2000 and 2015, researchers found, U.S. life expectancy increased overall - from nearly ... Browse all medications: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Advanced Search ...
S-T Forte 2 News & Updates - Drugs.comShe is with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's division of unintentional injury prevention. By 2015, drug- ... according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Martin, a pharmacist at the University of Arkansas for ... according to the report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But the disturbing numbers may not simply be ... a U.S. government study finds. Between 2000 and 2015, researchers found, U.S. life expectancy increased overall - from nearly ...
U.S. GAO - Medicare: Comments on HHS Proposal To Revise End Stage Renal Disease Facility Payment RatesCenters for Disease Control and Prevention: Use of Special Interest Projects to Fund Prevention Research Centers. GAO-17-693: ... CMS Fraud Prevention System Uses Claims Analysis to Address Fraud. GAO-17-710: Published: Aug 30, 2017. Publicly Released: Sep ... Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services: Analysis of Contracting Data. GAO-17-735SP: Published: Sep 12, 2017. Publicly ... Comments on HHS Proposal To Revise End Stage Renal Disease Facility Payment Rates. HRD-86-126BR: Published: Jul 22, 1986. ...
U.S. GAO - Ryan White CARE Act: AIDS Drug Assistance Programs, Perinatal HIV Transmission, and Partner NotificationCenters for Disease Control and Prevention: Use of Special Interest Projects to Fund Prevention Research Centers. GAO-17-693: ... HIV testing of pregnant women that is consistent with guidelines issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC ... World Trade Center Health Program: Improved Oversight Needed to Ensure Clinics Fully Address Mandated Quality Assurance ... States Fund Services for Adults in Institutions for Mental Disease Using a Variety of Strategies. GAO-17-652: Published: Aug 9 ...
U.S. GAO - Conflicts Between State Health Insurance Requirements and Contracts of the Federal Employees Health Benefits CarriersCenters for Disease Control and Prevention: Use of Special Interest Projects to Fund Prevention Research Centers. GAO-17-693: ... CMS Fraud Prevention System Uses Claims Analysis to Address Fraud. GAO-17-710: Published: Aug 30, 2017. Publicly Released: Sep ... Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services: Analysis of Contracting Data. GAO-17-735SP: Published: Sep 12, 2017. Publicly ... States Fund Services for Adults in Institutions for Mental Disease Using a Variety of Strategies. GAO-17-652: Published: Aug 9 ...
U.S. GAO - Health Financing and Systems Issues: Issue Area Plan for Fiscal Years 1999-2001Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Use of Special Interest Projects to Fund Prevention Research Centers. GAO-17-693: ... CMS Fraud Prevention System Uses Claims Analysis to Address Fraud. GAO-17-710: Published: Aug 30, 2017. Publicly Released: Sep ... Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services: Analysis of Contracting Data. GAO-17-735SP: Published: Sep 12, 2017. Publicly ... States Fund Services for Adults in Institutions for Mental Disease Using a Variety of Strategies. GAO-17-652: Published: Aug 9 ...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Forum » TopixCommunity discussions and forums for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention : ... UPDATE 1-U.S. House panel requests probe of fed... (Aug '14) Aug '14 so where will u go 1 ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention News. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention News. * A 'Boil Water Advisory' ... Topix › Centers for Disease Control and Prevention › Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Forum ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20041595 - Tattooing regulations in U.S. states, 2011.A 10-item checklist was created for each of three types of rules (sanitation, training, and infection control) iden ... Valeria Carlson, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, MS E-70, Atlanta, GA 30341 ... A 10-item checklist was created for each of three types of rules (sanitation, training, and infection control) identified as ... Body-protection; Artists; Health-hazards; Exposure-levels; Infection-control; Training; Sanitation; Pigments ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20035144 - Current trends in reducing groundfall accidents in U.S. coal mines.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta, GA 30329-4027 USA ... Mining-industry; Underground-mining; Coal-mining; Rock-falls; Ground-stability; Ground-control; Injuries; Injury-prevention; ... Available technologies such as roof screen, rib bolting, and inside control roof bolters could dramatically reduce injury and ... Further advances in these areas will likely be the next big advance in ground control safety. ...
Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality for 122 U.S. CitiesCenters for Disease Control and Prevention Error processing SSI file. ...
U.S. GAO - Medigap Insurance: Premiums and Regulatory Changes After Repeal of the Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act and 1988...Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Use of Special Interest Projects to Fund Prevention Research Centers. GAO-17-693: ... CMS Fraud Prevention System Uses Claims Analysis to Address Fraud. GAO-17-710: Published: Aug 30, 2017. Publicly Released: Sep ... Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services: Analysis of Contracting Data. GAO-17-735SP: Published: Sep 12, 2017. Publicly ... States Fund Services for Adults in Institutions for Mental Disease Using a Variety of Strategies. GAO-17-652: Published: Aug 9 ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00135290 - Visual Inspection And Laboratory Test Report On U.S. Divers Survivair Respirator.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta, GA 30329-4027 USA ... Visual Inspection And Laboratory Test Report On U.S. Divers Survivair Respirator.. ...
Videos - Canadian Digestive Health FoundationThe Foundation is working to establish Digestive Health, Healthy Living and Prevention as a national priority. ... David Armstrong and a patient living with the disease how to take control of their GERD - and life - with confidence and ... Karen Madsen, Professor of Medicine at the University of Alberta and Co-director of the "Center of Excellence for ... Soon we believe we will know how your microbiome can help PREDICT potential disease, PROTECT you from developing disease; and, ...
The Complete Stevie Wonder: The Complete Stevie Wonder is a digital compilation featuring the work of Stevie Wonder. Released a week before the physical release of A Time to Love, the set comprises almost all of Wonder's officially released material, including single mixes, extended versions, remixes, and Workout Stevie Workout, a 1963 album which was shelved and replaced by With A Song In My Heart.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Germinal center B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Gene expression profiling has revealed that diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is composed of at least 3 different sub-groups, each having distinct oncogenic mechanisms that respond to therapies in different ways. Germinal Center B-Cell like (GCB) DLBCLs appear to arise from normal germinal center B cells, while Activated B-cell like (ABC) DLBCLs are thought to arise from postgerminal center B cells that are arrested during plasmacytic differentiation.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Milad HospitalNational Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingNortheast Community Health CentreLifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.ESCAIDESchool health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Standard evaluation frameworkIsolation (health care): In health care facilities, isolation represents one of several measures that can be taken to implement infection control: the prevention of contagious diseases from being spread from a patient to other patients, health care workers, and visitors, or from outsiders to a particular patient (reverse isolation). Various forms of isolation exist, in some of which contact procedures are modified, and others in which the patient is kept away from all others.National Clinical Guideline CentreBehavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Tertiary referral hospital: A tertiary referral hospital (also called a tertiary hospital, tertiary referral center, or tertiary care center, or tertiary center) is a hospital that provides tertiary care, which is health care from specialists in a large hospital after referral from primary care and secondary care. Beyond that general definition, there is no precise narrower or more formal definition, but tertiary centers usually include the following:Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.National Trauma Data Bank: The National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), also called the American College of Surgeons National Trauma Data Bank, is a compilation of information about traumatic injuries and outcomes in the United States. Hospital emergency rooms and other institutions such as trauma centers which are participants submit data and receive in return access to reports analyzing data about both their own operations and trauma medicine in the United States as a whole.Cancer screeningElectron Microscopy Center: The Electron Microscopy Center is a scientific user facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The EMC works to solve materials problems using their unique capabilities for electron beam characterization.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Global Infectious Disease Epidemiology Network: Global Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Network (GIDEON) is a web-based program for decision support and informatics in the fields of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine. As of 2005, more than 300 generic infectious diseases occur haphazardly in time and space and are challenged by over 250 drugs and vaccines.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.KPC Medical College and HospitalQuarantineNational Center for Injury Prevention and Control: The U.S.Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome: Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome is a provisional name for a newly diagnosed immunodeficiency illness. The name is proposed in the first public study to identify the syndrome.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Quantico (novel): Quantico is a 2005 science fiction/thriller novel by Greg Bear. The novel concerns a group of FBI agents trying to prevent a massive bioterrorist attack.Augusta Arsenal: The Augusta Arsenal was a 19th-century fortification in Augusta, Georgia. Established in 1816 and initially completed on the Georgia bank of the Savannah River in 1819, it was moved to the former Belle Vue estate in the Summerville neighborhood of Augusta in 1827 due to health concerns after several fever epidemics.International Network of Prison Ministries: The International Network of Prison Ministries (INPM) is a Dallas, Texas based crime prevention and rehabilitation trans-national organization. INPM functions through a website that serves as a clearinghouse for information about various Christian prison ministries.Notifiable disease: A notifiable disease is any disease that is required by law to be reported to government authorities. The collation of information allows the authorities to monitor the disease, and provides early warning of possible outbreaks.State health agency: A state health agency (SHA), or state department of health, is a department or agency of the state governments of the United States focused on public health. The state secretary of health is a constitutional or at times a statutory official in several states of the United States.Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.Community-based clinical trial: Community-based clinical trials are clinical trials conducted directly through doctors and clinics rather than academic research facilities. They are designed to be administered through primary care physicians, community health centers and local outpatient facilities.National Poison Prevention WeekComprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: The U.S.TricinInstruments used in preventive medicine: Instruments used specially in preventive medicine are as follows:Coles PhillipsTumor progression: Tumor progression is the third and last phase in tumor development. This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the tumor cells.AIP Conference Proceedings: AIP Conference Proceedings is a serial published by the American Institute of Physics since 1970. It publishes the proceedings from various conferences of physics societies.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityDisinhibition: In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania.Influenza A virus subtype H1N1: Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.Bio Base EuropeVital statistics (government records): Vital statistics are statistics on live births, deaths, fetal deaths, marriages and divorces. The most common way of collecting information on these events is through civil registration, an administrative system used by governments to record vital events which occur in their populations (see Box 1).Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Wisconsin Senate, District 4: The 4th District of the Wisconsin Senate is located in Southern Wisconsin, and is composed of parts of Milwaukee County.District MapAnalytical quality control: Analytical quality control, commonly shortened to AQC refers to all those processes and procedures designed to ensure that the results of laboratory analysis are consistent, comparable, accurate and within specified limits of precision.analytical quality control (AQC) program to ensure the highest level of confidence in reported data Constituents submitted to the analytical laboratory must be accurately described to avoid faulty interpretations, approximations, or incorrect results.Bestbets: BestBETS (Best Evidence Topic Reports) is a system designed by emergency physicians at Manchester Royal Infirmary, UK. It was conceived as a way of allowing busy clinicians to solve real clinical problems using published evidence.Cancer survival rates: Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country. In general survival rates are improving, although more so for some cancers than others.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.The Flash Chronicles
(1/962) Anaerobes in pelvic inflammatory disease: implications for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's guidelines for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.
In preparing the 1998 sexually transmitted disease treatment guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we reviewed evidence regarding the need to eradicate anaerobes when treating pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Anaerobes are present in the upper genital tract during an episode of acute PID, with the prevalence dependent on the population under study. Vaginal anaerobes can facilitate acquisition of PID and cause tissue damage to the fallopian tube, either directly or indirectly through the host inflammatory response. Use of several broad-spectrum regimens appears to result in excellent clinical cure rates, despite the fact that some combinations fall short of providing comprehensive coverage of anaerobes. There are limited data on the long-term effects of failing to eradicate anaerobes from the upper genital tract. Concern that tissue damage may continue when anaerobes are suboptimally treated has prompted many experts to caution that therapeutic regimens should include comprehensive anaerobic coverage for optimal treatment of women with PID. (+info)
(2/962) Report of a National Institutes of Health--Centers for Disease Control and Prevention workshop on the feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial to estimate the long-term health effects of intentional weight loss in obese persons.
A workshop was convened in 1997 by the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to consider the need for and feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial to estimate the long-term health effects of intentional weight loss in obese persons. Although the benefits of weight loss in obese individuals may seem obvious, little information is available showing that intentional weight loss improves long-term health outcomes. Observational studies may be unable to provide convincing answers about the magnitude and direction of the health effects of intentional weight loss. Workshop participants agreed that a well-designed randomized clinical trial could answer several questions necessary for developing a rational clinical and public health policy for treating obesity. Such information will ultimately provide needed guidance on the risks and benefits of weight loss to health care providers and payers, as well as to millions of obese Americans. (+info)
(3/962) Community-level HIV intervention in 5 cities: final outcome data from the CDC AIDS Community Demonstration Projects.
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated a theory-based community-level intervention to promote progress toward consistent condom and bleach use among selected populations at increased risk for HIV infection in 5 US cities. METHODS: Role-model stories were distributed, along with condoms and bleach, by community members who encouraged behavior change among injection drug users, their female sex partners, sex workers, non-gay-identified men who have sex with men, high-risk youth, and residents in areas with high sexually transmitted disease rates. Over a 3-year period, cross-sectional interviews (n = 15,205) were conducted in 10 intervention and comparison community pairs. Outcomes were measured on a stage-of-change scale. Observed condom carrying and intervention exposure were also measured. RESULTS: At the community level, movement toward consistent condom use with main (P < .05) and nonmain (P < .05) partners, as well as increased condom carrying (P < .0001), was greater in intervention than in comparison communities. At the individual level, respondents recently exposed to the intervention were more likely to carry condoms and to have higher stage-of-change scores for condom and bleach use. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention led to significant communitywide progress toward consistent HIV risk reduction. (+info)
(4/962) Mycoplasma penetrans and other mycoplasmas in urine of human immunodeficiency virus-positive children.
Urine samples from children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and healthy controls were examined for mycoplasmas by culture. Standard biochemical assays, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and PCR (16S and 16S-23S spacer rRNA region) were used for identification of isolates. Mycoplasmas were identified from 13 (87%) of 15 HIV-positive patients and 3 (20%) of 15 HIV-negative control patients. The frequency and type of mycoplasma varied with the severity of HIV infection. Mycoplasma penetrans, Mycoplasma pirum, Mycoplasma fermentans, and Mycoplasma genitalium were isolated from patients with severe immunodeficiency. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were isolated more frequently from children in the early stages of HIV infection and from HIV-negative patients. Mycoplasma penetrans was isolated from one (50%) of two patients in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) group B and from five (55.5%) of nine pediatric patients with AIDS (CDC group C). This is the first report that indicates that "AIDS-associated" mycoplasmas are more common in HIV-infected children than in HIV-negative controls. (+info)
(5/962) Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1973-1996, with a special section on lung cancer and tobacco smoking.
BACKGROUND: The American Cancer Society, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), including the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), provide the second annual report to the nation on progress in cancer prevention and control, with a special section on lung cancer and tobacco smoking. METHODS: Age-adjusted rates (using the 1970 U.S. standard population) were based on cancer incidence data from NCI and underlying cause of death data compiled by NCHS. The prevalence of tobacco use was derived from CDC surveys. Reported P values are two-sided. RESULTS: From 1990 through 1996, cancer incidence (-0.9% per year; P = .16) and cancer death (-0.6% per year; P = .001) rates for all sites combined decreased. Among the 10 leading cancer incidence sites, statistically significant decreases in incidence rates were seen in males for leukemia and cancers of the lung, colon/rectum, urinary bladder, and oral cavity and pharynx. Except for lung cancer, incidence rates for these cancers also declined in females. Among the 10 leading cancer mortality sites, statistically significant decreases in cancer death rates were seen for cancers of the male lung, female breast, the prostate, male pancreas, and male brain and, for both sexes, cancers of the colon/rectum and stomach. Age-specific analyses of lung cancer revealed that rates in males first declined at younger ages and then for each older age group successively over time; rates in females appeared to be in the early stages of following the same pattern, with rates decreasing for women aged 40-59 years. CONCLUSIONS: The declines in cancer incidence and death rates, particularly for lung cancer, are encouraging. However, unless recent upward trends in smoking among adolescents can be reversed, the lung cancer rates that are currently declining in the United States may rise again. (+info)
(6/962) Reporting race and ethnicity data--National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance, 1994-1997.
Reporting accurate and complete race and ethnicity data in public health surveillance systems provides critical information to target and evaluate public health interventions, particularly for minority populations. A national health objective for 2000 is to improve data collection on race and ethnicity in public health surveillance and data systems. To determine progress toward meeting this goal in CDC's National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS), the percentage of case reports of selected nationally notifiable diseases reported through NETSS with information regarding a patient's race and ethnicity was calculated for 1994-1997. The findings of this study indicate these data were received for approximately half of the cases, and the completeness of reporting of race and ethnicity data to NETSS had not improved. (+info)
(7/962) Hidden mortality attributable to Rocky Mountain spotted fever: immunohistochemical detection of fatal, serologically unconfirmed disease.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is the most severe tickborne infection in the United States and is a nationally notifiable disease. Since 1981, the annual case-fatality ratio for RMSF has been determined from laboratory-confirmed cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Herein, a description is given of patients with fatal, serologically unconfirmed RMSF for whom a diagnosis of RMSF was established by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of tissues obtained at autopsy. During 1996-1997, acute-phase serum and tissue samples from patients with fatal disease compatible with RMSF were tested at the CDC. As determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay, no patient serum demonstrated IgG or IgM antibodies reactive with Rickettsia rickettsii at a diagnostic titer (i.e., >/=64); however, IHC staining confirmed diagnosis of RMSF in all patients. Polymerase chain reaction validated the IHC findings for 2 patients for whom appropriate samples were available for testing. These findings suggest that dependence on serologic assays and limited use of IHC staining for confirmation of fatal RMSF results in underestimates of mortality and of case-fatality ratios for this disease. (+info)
(8/962) Evaluation of vocabularies for electronic laboratory reporting to public health agencies.
Clinical laboratories and clinicians transmit certain laboratory test results to public health agencies as required by state or local law. Most of these surveillance data are currently received by conventional mail or facsimile transmission. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, and Association of Public Health Laboratories are preparing to implement surveillance systems that will use existing laboratory information systems to transmit electronic laboratory results to appropriate public health agencies. The authors anticipate that this will improve the reporting efficiency for these laboratories, reduce manual data entry, and greatly increase the timeliness and utility of the data. The vocabulary and messaging standards used should encourage participation in these new electronic reporting systems by minimizing the cost and inconvenience to laboratories while providing for accurate and complete communication of needed data. This article describes public health data requirements and the influence of vocabulary and messaging standards on implementation. (+info)
- TUESDAY, Sept. 19, 2017 - Rising death rates from opioid abuse are chipping away at Americans' life expectancy, a U.S. government study finds. (drugs.com)
- FRIDAY, Sept. 15, 2017 - A growing number of children and teens are turning up in U.S. emergency departments dependent on opioids - including prescription painkillers and heroin, a new study finds. (drugs.com)
- and Infectious Diseases. (healthfinder.gov)
- Current trends in reducing groundfall accidents in U.S. coal mines. (cdc.gov)
- The incidence and progression of pneumoconiosis over nine years in U.S. coal miners: I. principal findings. (cdc.gov)
- Evaluation of particle clearance and retention kinetics in the lungs of U.S. coal miners. (cdc.gov)
- The model was calibrated using data in U.S. coal miners, including individual working lifetime exposure histories and lung and lymph-node particle burdens. (cdc.gov)
- CDC's National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) plans, directs, and coordinates a national program to maintain and improve the health of the American people by promoting a healthy environment and by preventing premature death and avoidable illness and disability caused by non-infectious, non-occupational environmental and related factors. (healthfinder.gov)
- Despite progress in HIV/AIDS drug treatments and the reduction of AIDS mortality in the United States, challenges remain concerning the availability of these drugs for individuals with HIV/AIDS and the prevention of new cases. (gao.gov)
- Mortality multiple cause-of-death data from National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System. (cdc.gov)
- Two drug firms have developed pricey vaccines they are advertising widely on TV, raising concerns among experts that they are stoking parents' fears about a rare disease unnecessarily. (nytimes.com)
- We believe that the Anniston U.S. Army Depot has not unnecessarily enrolled workers in its hearing conservation program. (cdc.gov)
- That changed in 2011 with the publication of the findings from the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 study, a randomized clinical trial designed in part to evaluate whether the early initiation of ART can prevent the sexual transmission of HIV among couples in which one partner is HIV-infected and the other is not. (thebody.com)
- Alcohol violations and aviation accidents: findings from the U.S. mandatory alcohol testing program. (cdc.gov)
- By itself, treatment as prevention is not going to solve the global HIV epidemic. (thebody.com)
- Sustaining a shared response to the domestic epidemic through the support of HIV prevention efforts across all levels of society, including federal, state, and local governments, faith-based communities, and the private sector. (thebody.com)
- The study is an important step toward recognizing that the [U.S.] opioid epidemic is affecting adolescents and young adults in a major way,' Harbaugh said in an American Academy of Pediatrics news release. (drugs.com)
- Medical Information Search (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S. (lookformedical.com)
- No link between dust concentration and disease progression could be detected. (cdc.gov)
- Neither migration of miners nor mining method appeared to be associated with disease incidence or progression. (cdc.gov)
- Using data collected from 45 civilian workers at the Anniston U.S. Army Depot, they concluded that the U.S. Army hearing conservation program would be better served by adopting a permissible exposure limit of 90 dBA with a 5-dB exchange rate. (cdc.gov)
- Moreover, we believe that the U.S. Army is well served by its current policy of using a 3-dB exchange rate and an 85-dB permissible exposure limit. (cdc.gov)
- CDC's Mission is to collaborate to create the expertise, information, and tools that people and communities need to protect their health - through health promotion, prevention of disease, injury and disability, and preparedness for new health threats. (healthfinder.gov)
- She is with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's division of unintentional injury prevention. (drugs.com)
- Available technologies such as roof screen, rib bolting, and inside control roof bolters could dramatically reduce injury and fatality rates if they were used more widely. (cdc.gov)
- Perspectives on "Efficacy of the U.S. Army policy on hearing conservation programs. (cdc.gov)
- The purpose of this article was to respond to a previously published article in Military Medicine by Drs. Oestenstad, Norman, and Borton, "Efficacy of the U.S. Army Policy on Hearing Conservation Programs" (Volume 173, No. 10, pp. 992-998). (cdc.gov)
- The Society's immediate goal of saving more lives is served through educating the public about prevention and early detection of cancer, the importance of prompt treatment, and the possibilities of cure, through educating the medical profession to the latest advances in diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and through direct service to the cancer patient and the patient's family. (healthfinder.gov)
- Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 98-0131-2704, U.S. Precision Lens Incorporated, Cincinnati, Ohio. (cdc.gov)
- the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a health hazard evaluation (HHE) request from the management at U.S. Precision Lens, Inc. (USPL) in Cincinnati, Ohio. (cdc.gov)
- Public health professionals use the data to identify and track cancer trends, strengthen cancer prevention and control activities, and prioritize the use of resources. (healthfinder.gov)
- For the study, researchers analyzed data from nearly 90,000 privately insured U.S. patients aged 13 to 21 (average age 17) who underwent one of 13 common surgeries in this age group. (drugs.com)
- Making better investments by intensifying HIV prevention in the communities where HIV is most heavily concentrated. (thebody.com)
- Further advances in these areas will likely be the next big advance in ground control safety. (cdc.gov)
- lessons for ground control. (cdc.gov)
- It coordinates the National Cancer Program, which conducts and supports research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to the cause, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cancer, rehabilitation from cancer, and the continuing care of cancer patients and the families of cancer patients. (healthfinder.gov)
- Results of U.S.P.H.S. Survey at Raybestos Manhattan, Incorporated, Manheim, Pennsylvania. (cdc.gov)
- Steps to a healthier U.S. workforce: integrating occupational health and safety and worksite health promotion: state of the science. (cdc.gov)
- News about Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. (nytimes.com)
- A study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reinforced evidence that women infected in the first trimester were at greater risk of having babies with birth defects. (nytimes.com)
- 10 Ebola patients sent to U.S. (topix.com)
- Through the Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC), CDC works with national cancer organizations, state health agencies, and other key groups to develop, implement, and promote effective strategies for preventing and controlling cancer. (healthfinder.gov)
- As a concept and a strategy, treating HIV-infected persons to improve their health and to reduce the risk of onward transmission -- also known as treatment as prevention -- refers to the personal and public health benefits of using ART to continuously suppress HIV viral load in the blood and genital fluids, which decreases the risk of transmitting the virus to others. (thebody.com)
- Getting an HIV test is the first step to identifying persons with HIV infection and the pivotal entry point into the medical care system for both treatment and prevention. (thebody.com)
- Between 2000 and 2015, researchers found, U.S. life expectancy increased overall - from nearly 77 years to 79 years. (drugs.com)
- New mosquito-borne viral disease found in South. (topix.com)
- 2014-811 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Respiratory Health Division, Morgantown, WV. (cdc.gov)
- Join the ' S-T Forte 2 ' group to help and get support from people like you. (drugs.com)
- Asbestos Survey of Federal Office Building No. 7, U.S. Court of Claims and Court of Customs and Patent Appeals Building Washington, D.C. and George H. Fallon Office Building Baltimore, Maryland. (cdc.gov)
- Industrial Hygiene Walkthrough Survey Report of Dow Chemical, U.S.A., Allyn's Point Plant, Gales Ferry, Connecticut, Report No. IWS-147-36. (cdc.gov)
- Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance System (eWoRLD). (cdc.gov)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is the primary Federal agency for conducting and supporting public health activities in the United States. (healthfinder.gov)
- DISCUSSION: Alcohol violations among U.S. major airline employees with safety-sensitive functions are rare and play a negligible role in aviation accidents. (cdc.gov)
- A 10-item checklist was created for each of three types of rules (sanitation, training, and infection control) identified as having the greatest public health impact. (cdc.gov)
- Multiple seam longwall mining in the U.S. (cdc.gov)
- Relatively few longwall mines in the U.S. operate under multiple seam conditions where the two seams are less than 200 ft apart. (cdc.gov)
- The disease-carrying blood suckers are spreading more pathogens and putting more Americans at risk for rare illnesses. (nytimes.com)
- Rodent studies are frequently used to assess risk in humans, yet it is not known whether the overloading of lung clearance, as observed in rodents, occurs in humans, or whether overloading is related to particle-related lung diseases in humans. (cdc.gov)
- Relative and attributable risks of accident involvement associated with alcohol violations were estimated using the case-control method. (cdc.gov)
- The report, published on Thursday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, also provided for the first time preliminary estimates of this risk by trimester. (nytimes.com)
- Two abortion foes and skeptics of birth control appear headed to important health posts. (nytimes.com)
- CDC develops communication campaigns and materials designed to teach health professionals, policy makers, the media, and the public about cancer prevention and control. (healthfinder.gov)
- The majority of states have adopted a policy of voluntary prenatal HIV testing of pregnant women that is consistent with guidelines issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (gao.gov)