Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Small-Area Analysis: A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.United StatesGeographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.WalesGeography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Cultural Deprivation: The absence of certain expected and acceptable cultural phenomena in the environment which results in the failure of the individual to communicate and respond in the most appropriate manner within the context of society. Language acquisition and language use are commonly used in assessing this concept.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.EnglandEthnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Vital Statistics: Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Geographic Mapping: Creating a representation of areas of the earth or other celestial bodies, for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions of various information.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.CaliforniaLife Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Space-Time Clustering: A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Building Codes: Standards or regulations for construction which are designed to ensure safety against electrical hazards, fires, etc.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Electric Wiring: An arrangement of wires distributing electricity.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.History of NursingSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Spatial Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.Medical Record Linkage: The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.RomePopulation Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Psychosocial Deprivation: The absence of appropriate stimuli in the physical or social environment which are necessary for the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the individual.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Rhode IslandCanada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.MassachusettsRegression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Bed Occupancy: A measure of inpatient health facility use based upon the average number or proportion of beds occupied for a given period of time.National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.): A center in the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE which is primarily concerned with the collection, analysis, and dissemination of health statistics on vital events and health activities to reflect the health status of people, health needs, and health resources.PhiladelphiaVulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Death Certificates: Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.BrazilHealth Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Great BritainLogistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.RestaurantsAfrican Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Crowding: An excessive number of individuals, human or animal, in relation to available space.New York CityLanguage Arts: Skills in the use of language which lead to proficiency in written or spoken communication.TexasHealth Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Records as Topic: The commitment in writing, as authentic evidence, of something having legal importance. The concept includes certificates of birth, death, etc., as well as hospital, medical, and other institutional records.Rodent Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous rodents through chemical, biological, or other means.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Los AngelesChicagoPopulation: The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.Suburban Population: The inhabitants of peripheral or adjacent areas of a city or town.MichiganEmigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Rodenticides: Substances used to destroy or inhibit the action of rats, mice, or other rodents.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Racism: Differential treatment or unequal access to opportunities, based on group membership such as origin or ethnicity.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.North CarolinaHondurasSwedenDatabases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Multilevel Analysis: The statistical manipulation of hierarchically and non-hierarchically nested data. It includes clustered data, such as a sample of subjects within a group of schools. Prevalent in the social, behavioral sciences, and biomedical sciences, both linear and nonlinear regression models are applied.Homicide: The killing of one person by another.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Asian Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.Southeastern United States: The geographic area of the southeastern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not included. The states usually included in this region are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, West Virginia, and Virginia.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.FloridaHospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.FiresSex Preselection: Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.

*  1945 Census

... Settlement of Dump Pool. Microfilm Reel #M-8067; Pages M - Married; S - single; W - widow; "-" - blank or cannot ...

*  Census tract socioeconomic and physical environment and cardiovascular mortality in the Region of Madrid (Spain) | Journal of...

... drawn from the 2001 census. Standardised mortality ratios were calculated. Smoothed census tract relative risks were calculated ... Results Census tracts with excess mortality were mostly located in the city of Madrid. Mortality increased with deprivation: ... The census tract distribution of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease mortality in the Region of Madrid ... Census tract socioeconomic and physical environment and cardiovascular mortality in the Region of Madrid (Spain) ...

*  American Indian Census Rolls Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

However, there was no consistency nor regularity in these early censuses. Census rolls taken after 1924 by the Bureau of Indian ... the other is the order number in which the name appeared on the last census. A few of the censuses show the names of persons ... American Indian Census Rolls. From FamilySearch Wiki. Revision as of 06:43, 21 April 2010 by Jbparker (talk , contribs) (added ... In this census, if a man had a plural wife, the oldest wife was listed first, with her unmarried children. The other wives and ...

*  Peru Census Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

Census records include both government and church censuses (padrones). Censuses were taken by the government for population ... In Peru, the original census returns were often destroyed or were only statistical. There are many church censuses in the ... Census records are not often used in Peruvian research because other sources, such as church records and civil registration, ... Census records can provide important information, such as family relationships and age, where all or portions of other records ...

*  1945 Census

NLGenWeb 1945 Census Data. Trinity Bay Region - Trinity South District. Torquay. Transcribed by FRANK FITZPATRICK. While I have ...

*  Census data - ONS

All 2011 Census statistics published to date. To view every release of 2011 Census data, with links to release pages and table ... Census data via ONS Dataset Explorer (Beta) Selected census datasets are now available through ONS Data Explorer (Beta) and ... On the Neighbourhood Statistics website (NeSS), the 'Census' topic includes the 2011 Census Key and Quick Statistics, along ... 2001-2011 Census comparator tool (3.63 Mb ZIP) * Quick and Key Statistics: Table links to Neighbourhood Statistics (143.4 Kb ...

*  9780205172252 - Strangers to these Shores, Census | eCampus.com

Census Update Plus MySocLab with eText -- is $128.98. Free shipping on all orders over $35.00. ... Strangers to these Shores, Census Update Plus MySocLab with eText -- Access Card Package. by Parrillo, Vincent N. *ISBN13: ... The 1790 Census. Early Signs of Nativist Reactions. Xenophobia. Legislative Action. The Pre-Civil War Period. Structural ... Package consists of: 0205260233 / 9780205260232 Strangers to these Shores, Census 0205669174 / 9780205669172 MySocLab with ...

*  1945 Census

NLGenWeb 1945 Census Data. Trinity Bay Region - Upper Trinity South District. Hopeall. Transcribed by FRANK FITZPATRICK. While ...

*  Lawmakers Tell Census Bureau to Keep Questionnaires Simple - latimes

... congressmen pressed the Census Bureau on Thursday to make its questionnaires as simple and clear as possible.The ... Census Director John G. Keane said his agency has developed a proposed 1990 questionnaire of about the same length as that used ... It is important "to ensure that the census form does not become so complicated or so intrusive into personal matters that ... Deciding what to ask "involves a rather delicate balancing act on the part of the Census Bureau," Dymally said, a balance ...

*  Census Bureau News Media Advisory: Census Bureau to Announce Findings for Income, Earnings, Poverty and Health Insuranc... ( ...

Census,Bureau,to,Announce,Findings,for,Income,,Earnings,,Poverty,and,Health,Insurance,Coverage,medicine,medical news today, ... 3 -- The following is being ... ...,Census,Bureau,News,Media,Advisory:, ... U.S. Census Bureau Daily Feature for July 21. 3. U.S. Census Bureau Daily Feature for April 28. 4. U.S. Census Bureau Daily ... Census Bureau News Media Advisory: Census Bureau to Announce Findings for Income, Earnings, Poverty and Health Insurance ...

*  1945 Census

NLGenWeb 1945 Census Data. Trinity Bay Region - Trinity South District. Turks Cove. Transcribed by FRANK FITZPATRICK. While I ...

*  Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey Overview

The Current Population Survey (CPS) is a monthly survey of U.S. households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau ... Population data from the Census Bureau. * Weekly unemployment insurance claims data from the U.S. Department of Labor's ... Income and poverty data from the Census Bureau. * ... Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The survey is ...

*  1935 Census

... Big Cove. Transcribed by STELLA REGULAR, May 2000. While I have endeavored to be as correct as humanly possible, ...

*  The Census

"Alright Xander I just had a few questions about your 2000 census." "Census? Spike filled out my Census?!" "Yes and first of all ... "2000 Census." Stamped prominetly on the bottom was 'Your Response Is Required By Federal Law'. His grin grew larger, "I guess I ... "Spike filled out my census in crayon." "Yes." "Shit." "I'm sorry." Xander jumped and realised he'd said it out loud. "I. . . uh ... "I'm sorry there must be some mistake, I'm from the census committee, may I assume I'm speaking to Nummy?" Xander almost choked ...

*  Census Concerns

Scammers pose as census workers to elicit personal information from unsuspecting victims? ... Isolated incidents of con artists posing as census workers have occurred during every census, said Ray Bancroft of the census ... If a U.S. Census worker knocks on your door, they will have a badge, a handheld device, a Census Bureau canvas bag and a ... Census Concerns. Scammers pose as census workers to elicit personal information from unsuspecting victims?. ...

*  Census trivia

HOW THE CENSUS IS PREPARED. - In 1871, census data was tabulated manually by dozens of clerks and published in five bilingual ... The 1901 census was the first to ask about citizenship.. - The 1911 census stopped asking every household about the annual fish ... The 1971 census was the last to ask about military service in the household. The agriculture census that year began asking ... The 1996 census asked about aboriginal identity and unpaid work.. - The 2001 census question on relationships was expanded to ...
canada.com/Census trivia/6114305/story.html

*  Census

1870 Census for the Township of Jenny - when it was part of Marathon County. 1900 Census for Lincoln County 1905 Census for ... Census. ... Each census was indexed by someone different, but we thank each and every one of them! ... 1855 Census for Marathon County - when Lincoln County was part of Marathon. ...

*  Census highlights

Among the highlights of the census is the number of seniors is at the highest rate ever in Canada. ... Some of the oldest CMAs - census metropolitan areas - include Peterborough, Ont., Trois-Rivieres, Que., and Kelowna, B.C. ... Highlights of the May 10, 2011, census release of data on age and sex ...
canada.com/life/fashion-beauty/Census highlights/6694544/story.html

*  Census

1850 Federal Census for Washington County Minnesota Census Index. 1850 Federal Census for Washington County Minnesota Census ... 1860 Federal Census Mortality Schedule for Washington County Minnesota 1870 Federal Census Mortality Schedule for Washington ...

*  2013 Therian Census

... The form '2013 Therian Census' is no longer accepting responses.. Try contacting the owner of the form if ...

*  Extra census bulletin

The BookReader requires JavaScript to be enabled. Please check that your browser supports JavaScript and that it is enabled in the browser settings. You can also try one of the other formats of the book. ...

*  Past TreesCount! Censuses : NYC Parks

2005-2006 Street Tree Census. Ten years later, the 2005-2006 Street Tree Census found 592,130 trees growing along New York ... 1995-1996 Street Tree Census. The 1995-1996 Street Tree Census provided detailed information on the number, size, and species ... Past TreesCount! Censuses. Photo provided by TreeKIT. In 1995 and 2005, hundreds of volunteers joined us to inventory our ... The census also revealed that the city had more than 10,000 dead street trees. We used that information to create a block ...

*  1910 Federal Population Censuses | National Archives

1910 Federal Population Census Table of Contents General Information ... Home , Research Our Records , Census Records , 1910 Federal Population Censuses Census. *About Census Records ...

*  census consensus - Adweek

The state of California has enlisted La Agencia de Orc' to spread the word about the U.S. Census to the Hispanic population in ... And how is the 14-year-old agency motivating one of the region's most census-shy populations? By using popular Latina actress ... 8 million effort to encourage Hispanics to fill out their census forms. Initiative Media, Los Angeles, is handling media buying ...

*  Venture Census 2008

... * 1. Contacts: Emily Mendell, NVCA, emendell@nvca.org, 610-565-3904 Laura Cruz, The Weiser Group for NVCA, ... About Venture Census 2008 The survey was conducted electronically in June 2008 by the NVCA and Dow Jones VentureWire. Responses ... The survey, Venture Census 2008, included responses from more than 500 professionals working at venture capital firms and ... Venture Census 2008 explored the demographic attributes of VC professionals including gender, age, nationality, education, ...

Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.CASY cell counting technology: CASY technology is an electric field multi-channel cell counting system. It was first marketed by Schärfe System GmbH in 1987 under the name CASY1.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,List of geographic information systems software: GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data. GIS software can be sorted into different categories.Mortality rate: Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Circular flow of income: The circular flow of income or circular flow is a model of the economy in which the major exchanges are represented as flows of money, goods and services, etc. between economic agents.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.National Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.North Wales Narrow Gauge RailwaysHealth geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Asian Pacific American Medical Student Association: United StatesRed Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).Vital statistics (government records): Vital statistics are statistics on live births, deaths, fetal deaths, marriages and divorces. The most common way of collecting information on these events is through civil registration, an administrative system used by governments to record vital events which occur in their populations (see Box 1).Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Rehetobel: Rehetobel is a municipality in the canton of Appenzell Ausserrhoden in Switzerland.Legend tripping: Legend tripping is a name recently bestowed by folklorists and anthropologists on an adolescent practice (containing elements of a rite of passage) in which a usually furtive nocturnal pilgrimage is made to a site which is alleged to have been the scene of some tragic, horrific, and possibly supernatural event or haunting. The practice has been documented most thoroughly to date in the United States.San Diego County, California Probation: The San Diego County Probation Department is the body in San Diego County, California responsible for supervising convicted offenders in the community, either who are on probation, such as at the conclusion of their sentences, or while on community supervision orders.List of U.S. states by life expectancy: This article presents a list of United States states sorted by their life expectancy at birth and by race/ethnicity in every state where the population of that racial or ethnic group is sufficiently large for robust estimates. The data is taken from the Measure of America's third national human development report, The Measure of America 2013–2014 width="25%" align="center" |African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Geographical cluster: A geographical cluster is a localised anomaly, usually an excess of something given the distribution or variation of something else. Often it is considered as an incidence rate that is unusual in that there is more of some variable than might be expected.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Heat and smoke vent: Heat and Smoke Vents are installed in buildings as an active fire protection measure. They are openings in the roof which are intended to vent the heat and smoke developed by a fire inside the building by the action of buoyancy, such that they are known as "gravity vents".Overhead power line: An overhead power line is a structure used in electric power transmission and distribution to transmit electrical energy along large distances. It consists of one or more conductors (commonly multiples of three) suspended by towers or poles.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Professionalization and institutionalization of history: Professionalization and institutionalization of history is term used in historiography to describe process of professionalization of the historical discipline with historians becoming professionals through process of special education, and genesis of historical institutions they founded.List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.Australian referendum, 1913 (Trade and Commerce): The Constitution Alteration (Trade and Commerce) 1912 was an Australian referendum held in the 1913 referendums which sought to alter the Australian Constitution to extend Commonwealth legislative power in respect to trade and commerce.Disease registry: Disease or patient registries are collections of secondary data related to patients with a specific diagnosis, condition, or procedure, and they play an important role in post marketing surveillance of pharmaceuticals. Registries are different from indexes in that they contain more extensive data.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Miss Rhode IslandCanadian Organ Replacement Registry: The Canadian Organ Replacement Registry CORR is a health organisation was started by Canadian nephrologists and kidney transplant surgeons in 1985 in order to develop the care of patients with renal failure. In the early 1990s data on liver and heart transplantation were added to the registry.Epidemiological method: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.Lough TaltMassachusetts Tobacco Cessation and Prevention Program: The Massachusetts Tobacco Cessation and Prevention Program (MTCP) is an anti-tobacco program run by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health with the goal of decreasing tobacco prevalence in the state of Massachusetts. MTCP has four main components: preventing youth smoking, assisting current smokers with quitting, protecting against second hand smoke, and eliminating tobacco related disparities.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Hotel Rio Park: Hotel Rio Park is a 2* hotel in Benidorm, Spain that caters to British package holiday tourists from Thomson Holidays, being its most popular hotel, accounting, as of 2001, for 10% of all Thomson guests, and having catered to over a million visits from British tourists, more than any other hotel in the world.Philadelphia Badlands: The Philadelphia Badlands is a section of North Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States that is known for an abundance of open-air recreational drug markets and drug-related violence.Volk, Steve.Certificate of relief from disabilities: A Certificate of relief from disabilities is issued by a state of the United States of America to a person who has committed a felony or misdemeanor but has subsequently shown that he or she has been rehabilitated. The closely related "Certificate of good conduct" is given to a person who has committed two or more felonies and has demonstrated rehabilitation.University of CampinasNational Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Chapter One (restaurant): Michelin GuideList of bus routes in Brooklyn: The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) operates a number of bus routes in Brooklyn, New York, United States; one minor route is privately operated under a city franchise. Many of them are the direct descendants of streetcar lines (see list of streetcar lines in Brooklyn); the ones that started out as bus routes were almost all operated by the Brooklyn Bus Corporation, a subsidiary of the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation, until the New York City Board of Transportation took over on June 5, 1940.Trace theory: In mathematics and computer science, trace theory aims to provide a concrete mathematical underpinning for the study of concurrent computation and process calculi. The underpinning is provided by an algebraic definition of the free partially commutative monoid or trace monoid, or equivalently, the history monoid, which provides a concrete algebraic foundation, analogous to the way that the free monoid provides the underpinning for formal languages.University of Texas Health Science Center at HoustonSelf-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.ScillirosideLos Angeles County Department of Public HealthChicago Tafia: The Chicago Tafia Welsh Society (also known as the Chicago Tafia) is an expatriate Welsh group formed in Chicago, Illinois, USA, in 1999. As one of the youngest and most contemporary Welsh groups in North America, the society strives to provide a link between the present culture of Wales and the Chicago area.Suburban Baths (Pompeii): The Suburban Baths are located in Pompeii, Italy. Pompeii (located in the Italian region of Campania) was destroyed on August 24, 79 AD when Mount Vesuvius erupted, burying the entire city (along with Herculaneum) and consequently preserving them.Michigan State University College of Nursing: The Michigan State University College of Nursing is the nursing college at Michigan State University. It is located on the southeastern side of campus in East Lansing, Michigan, USA.Inequality within immigrant families in the United States: Inequality within immigrant families refers to instances in which members of the same family have differing access to resources. Much literature focuses on inequality between families, but inequality often exists within families as well.Rodenticide: Rodenticides, colloquially rat poison, are typically non-specific pest control chemicals made and sold for the purpose of killing rodents.Food Race: American environmental author Daniel Quinn coined the term Food Race (by analogy to the Cold War's "nuclear arms race") to describe an understanding of the current overpopulation emergency as a perpetually escalating crisis between growing human population and growing food production, fueled by the latter. Quinn argues that as the worldwide human population increases, the typical international response is to more intensely produce and distribute food to feed these greater numbers of people.

(1/448) Differential mortality in New York City (1988-1992). Part One: excess mortality among non-Hispanic blacks.

To determine the distribution of mortality for non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites in New York City, death certificates issued in New York City during 1988 through 1992, and the relevant 1990 US census data for New York City, have been examined. Age-adjusted death rates for blacks and whites by gender and cause of death were computed based on the US population in 1940. Also, standard mortality ratios and excess mortality were calculated using the New York City mortality rate as reference. The results showed that New York City blacks had higher age-adjusted death rates than whites regardless of cause, including stroke, AIDS, homicide, and diabetes. The rate for New York City blacks was also higher than the US total for both genders. Using New York City mortality rates as a reference, more than 80% of excess deaths in blacks occurred before age 65. Injury/poisoning was the leading cause of excess death (20.1%) in black males, while in black females, cardiovascular disease was the largest single cause of excess deaths (24.8%). The higher death rates, especially premature death, of blacks in New York City are related to conditions such as violence, substance abuse, and AIDS, for which prevention rather than medical care is the more likely solution, as well as to cardiovascular diseases, where both prevention through behavioral change, and health and medical care, can influence outcome.  (+info)

(2/448) Differential mortality in New York City (1988-1992). Part Two: excess mortality in the south Bronx.

To display the extent of variations in mortality according to geographic regions in New York City, we have compared mortality in New York City as a whole with that of the South Bronx. Mortality records for 1988 to 1992 and 1990 US census data for New York City were linked. The 471,000 residents of the South Bronx were younger, less educated, and more likely to lack health insurance than other New Yorkers. Using age- and gender-stratified populations and mortality in New York City as standards, age-adjusted death rates and excess mortality in the South Bronx were determined. All-cause mortality in the South Bronx was 26% higher than the city as a whole. Mortality for AIDS, injury and poisoning, drug and alcohol abuse, and cardiovascular diseases were 50% to 100% higher in the South Bronx than in New York City; years of potential life lost before age 65 in the South Bronx were 41.6% and 44.2% higher for men and women, respectively, than in New York City; AIDS accounted for the largest single share of excess premature deaths (21.8%). In summary, inequalities in health status, reflected by higher mortality rates in the South Bronx, are consistent with, and perhaps caused by, lower socioeconomic status and deficient medical care among residents of this inner-city community.  (+info)

(3/448) The census-based, impact-oriented approach: its effectiveness in promoting child health in Bolivia.

This paper describes the effectiveness for child health of a primary health care approach developed in Bolivia by Andean Rural Health Care and its colleagues, the census-based, impact-oriented (CBIO) approach. Here, we describe selected achievements, including child survival service coverage, mortality impact, and the level of resources required to attain these results. As a result of first identifying the entire programme population through visits at least biannually to all homes and then targeting selected high-impact services to those at highest risk of death, the mortality levels of children under five years of age in the established programme areas was one-third to one-half of mortality levels in comparison areas. Card-documented coverage for the complete series of all the standard six childhood immunizations among children 12-23 months of age was 78%, and card-documented coverage for three nutritional monitorings during the previous 12 months among the same group of children was 80%. Coverage rates in comparison areas for similar services was less than 21%. The local annual recurring cost of this approach was US $8.57 for each person (of all ages) in the programme population. This cost includes the provision of primary care services for all age groups as well as targeted child survival services. This cost is well within the affordable range for many, if not most, developing countries. Manpower costs for field staff in Bolivia are relatively high, so in countries with lower salary scales, the overall recurring cost could be substantially less. An Expert Review Panel reviewed the CBIO approach and found it to be worthy of replication, particularly if stronger community involvement and greater reliance on volunteer or minimally paid staff could be attained. The results of this approach are sufficiently promising to merit implementation and evaluation in other sites, including sites beyond Bolivia.  (+info)

(4/448) Counting the uninsured using state-level hospitalization data.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the appropriateness of using state-level data on uninsured hospitalizations to estimate the uninsured population. METHODS: The authors used 1992-1996 data on hospitalizations of newborns and of appendectomy and heart attack patients in Florida to estimate the number of people in the state without health insurance coverage. These conditions were selected because they usually require hospitalization and they are common across demographic categories. RESULTS: Adjusted for the gender and ethnic composition of the population, the percentages of uninsured hospitalizations for appendectomies and heart attacks produced estimates of the state's uninsured population 1.6 percentage points lower than those reported for 1996 in the US Census March Current Population Survey. CONCLUSION: Data reported by hospitals to state agencies can be used to monitor trends in health insurance coverage and provides an alternative data source for a state-level analysis of the uninsured population.  (+info)

(5/448) Validity of reported age and centenarian prevalence in New England.

INTRODUCTION: the age reported by or on behalf of centenarians may be suspect unless proven correct. We report the validity of age reports in a population-based sample of centenarians living in New England and the prevalence of centenarians in an area within the North Eastern USA. METHODS: cohort study. All centenarians in a population-based sample detected by local censuses. Ages were confirmed by birth certificate. Type of residence and whether the subject was living independently were also recorded. RESULTS: from a population of about 450,000 people, 289 potential centenarians were reported by the censuses of the eight towns participating in the study. Of these, 186 (64%) had died at the time centenarian prevalence was determined. Of the 80 still alive, 13 (16%) had incorrect birth years recorded by the censuses. The specificity of the censuses for stating the number of centenarians alive and living in the sample was 28-31%. Using additional sources, only four more centenarians were located, indicating that the sensitivity of the censuses approached 100%. We had an 83% success rate in obtaining proof of age in those families we interviewed. In all instances, age and birth order of children were an important source of corroborative evidence and in no case did we detect inconsistencies with the families' reported ages of the centenarian subjects. Therefore, there were at least 46 centenarians or approximately 1 centenarian per 10,000 people. CONCLUSIONS: age validation can be performed for most centenarians in the North Eastern USA. Self or family reports of those between the ages of 100 and 107 years were dependable.  (+info)

(6/448) Poverty, time, and place: variation in excess mortality across selected US populations, 1980-1990.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe variation in levels and causes of excess mortality and temporal mortality change among young and middle aged adults in a regionally diverse set of poor local populations in the USA. DESIGN: Using standard demographic techniques, death certificate and census data were analysed to make sex specific population level estimates of 1980 and 1990 death rates for residents of selected areas of concentrated poverty. For comparison, data for whites and blacks nationwide were analysed. SETTING: African American communities in Harlem, Central City Detroit, Chicago's south side, the Louisiana Delta, the Black Belt region of Alabama, and Eastern North Carolina. Non-Hispanic white communities in Cleveland, Detroit, Appalachian Kentucky, South Central Louisiana, Northeastern Alabama, and Western North Carolina. PARTICIPANTS: All black residents or all white residents of each specific community and in the nation, 1979-1981 and 1989-1991. MAIN RESULTS: Substantial variability exists in levels, trends, and causes of excess mortality in poor populations across localities. African American residents of urban/northern communities suffer extremely high and growing rates of excess mortality. Rural residents exhibit an important mortality advantage that widens over the decade. Homicide deaths contribute little to the rise in excess mortality, nor do AIDS deaths contribute outside of specific localities. Deaths attributable to circulatory disease are the leading cause of excess mortality in most locations. CONCLUSIONS: Important differences exist among persistently impoverished populations in the degree to which their poverty translates into excess mortality. Social epidemiological inquiry and health promotion initiatives should be attentive to local conditions. The severely disadvantageous mortality profiles experienced by urban African Americans relative to the rural poor and to national averages call for understanding.  (+info)

(7/448) Identifying disability: comparing house-to-house survey and rapid rural appraisal.

This study compared house-to-house survey and rapid rural appraisal as methods used to identify people with disabilities in a sample rural population in South India. The research showed that by using these methods, two distinctly different populations were identified. The factors that influenced the identification processes were: local perceptions and definitions of disability; social dynamics, particularly those of gender and age; relationships within the rapid rural appraisal groups and between the health auxiliary and the respondents in the house-to-house survey; and the type of disability and the associated social implications and stigma of that disability. While a few more people were identified through the house-to-house survey, the rapid rural appraisal was a better approach for identifying disability in the community because of the greater community participation. The researchers believe that this community participation provided a greater understanding of the complex contextual dynamics influencing the identification of disability, thereby increasing the validity of the study findings. Another advantage of the rapid rural appraisal was the methodological and analytical simplicity. Both methods, however, failed to identify some individuals with disabilities who were later identified on the follow-up verification visits. Taking into account the factors discussed above, the researchers conclude that no single method could be used to comprehensively identify people with disability in a community. They suggest that a judicious combination of methods which takes into account local perceptions and priorities, includes more specific screening techniques, and facilitates informed voluntary referrals, would be the most effective approach.  (+info)

(8/448) Quality of death rates by race and Hispanic origin: a summary of current research, 1999.

OBJECTIVES: This report provides a summary of current knowledge and research on the quality and reliability of death rates by race and Hispanic origin in official mortality statistics of the United States produced by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). It also provides a quantitative assessment of bias in death rates by race and Hispanic origin. It identifies areas for targeted research. METHODS: Death rates are based on information on deaths (numerators of the rates) from death certificates filed in the states and compiled into a national database by NCHS, and on population data (denominators) from the Census Bureau. Selected studies of race/Hispanic-origin misclassification and under coverage are summarized on deaths and population. Estimates are made of the separate and the joint bias on death rates by race and Hispanic origin from the two sources. Simplifying assumptions are made about the stability of the biases over time and among age groups. Original results are presented using an expanded and updated database from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study. RESULTS: While biases in the numerator and denominator tend to offset each other somewhat, death rates for all groups show net effects of race misclassification and under coverage. For the white population and the black population, published death rates are overstated in official publications by an estimated 1.0 percent and 5.0 percent, respectively, resulting principally from undercounts of these population groups in the census. Death rates for the other minority groups are understated in official publications approximately as follows: American Indians, 21 percent; Asian or Pacific Islanders, 11 percent; and Hispanics, 2 percent. These estimates do not take into account differential misreporting of age among the race/ethnic groups.  (+info)


  • For the area frame portion of the NHIS sample, state, county, tract, block group, and block are available from the Census Unit Control File. (cdc.gov)
  • There also is a 1985-1994 geocode file that provides Census 1990 codes (tract/block numbering area and block group) for 1985-1994 NHIS households. (cdc.gov)
  • It also includes lower levels of geography for the "area frame" portion of the NHIS sample, specifically census tract and census block information and therefore only includes geography for 85-90% of survey respondents. (cdc.gov)


  • It consists of United States Census Bureau data from Current Population Surveys, annual Social and Economic Supplements and the 1980 Census combined with death certificate information to identify mortality status and cause of death. (umich.edu)
  • Each public use annual file is representative of the Nation and includes a variable REGION which indicates the four Census Regions (aggregates of states). (cdc.gov)