Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Neuroblastoma: A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Inbred BALB CDrug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.K562 Cells: An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Mice, Inbred C57BLBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Azacitidine: A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Choriocarcinoma: A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).Tetrazolium Salts: Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute: A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.U937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Genes, myc: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.

*  Omissions in Verse - AMA Manual of Style

Use 1 line of em-spaced dots to indicate omission of a full line or several consecutive lines of verse.Sometimes you say it's ... Use 1 line of em-spaced dots to indicate omission of a full line or several consecutive lines of verse.Sometimes you say it's ... 15.8.2 CD Cell Markers. *15.8.3 Complement. *15.8.4 Cytokines. *15.8.5 HLA/Major Histocompatibility Complex ...

*  see FAQ

Human and primate cell lines that may contain pathogens. *All primary isolated cells (that is, cells taken directly from the ... Cell lines from plants, fungi, or animals that are not primates (such as CHO cells or plant cells) ... viruses living in a human or monkey cell line are likely to be dangerous to humans, but viruses living in an insect cell line ... Cell lines can contain harmful viruses. Sometimes, the viral genome is integrated into the cell's genome. Most viruses have a ...

*  ATCC Products by Tissue - Blood Page 1

ATCC houses a vast collection of cell lines derived from the peripheral blood cell lines from multiple species, representing T ... Authentication of cell lines via STR profile analysis is becoming a requirement of ... ...

*  cell line

After considering starting cell culture of astrocytes does anyone have any comments as to the usefulness of bought cell lines ... cell line. Patrick Doyle pdoyle at medsun.unige.ch Tue Jan 25 09:47:21 EST 1994 * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ ... such as the c6 glioma line? In particular how 'normal' are these cells metabolically? Pat. * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ ...

*  JY cell line - Wikipedia

The JY cell line is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-immortalised B cell lymphoblastoid line. Cells express HLA class-I A2 and class ... It is a suspension cell line, although cells are known to grow in clumps. The growth medium is RPMI 1640, 10% fetal calf serum ... Cell report for JY at IMGT/HLA Cellosaurus entry for JY. ...

*  PC12 cell line - Wikipedia

... studied using this cell line to understand their effects on PC12 cells These types of studies show that use of PC12 cell line ... This cell line was first cultured by Greene and Tischler in 1976. It was developed in parallel to the adrenal chromaffin cell ... "PC-12/CRL-1721 cell line". LGC Promochem: Cell Biology Collection. American Type Culture Collection. Archived from the original ... PC12 is a cell line derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla, that have an embryonic origin from the neural ...

*  Immortalised cell line - Wikipedia

Immortalised cell lines have also found uses in biotechnology. An immortalized cell line should not be confused with stem cells ... Some of them are normal cell lines (e.g. derived from stem cells). Other immortalised cell lines are the in vitro equivalent of ... cell. There are several examples of immortalized cell lines, each with different properties. Most immortalized cell lines are ... derived from human fetal cells Jurkat cells - a human T lymphocyte cell line isolated from a case of leukemia Vero cells - a ...

*  U937 (cell line) - Wikipedia

U937 cells are a model cell line used in biomedical research. They were isolated from the histiocytic lymphoma of a 37-year-old ... TNFα and recombinant GM-CSF independently promote IL-10 production in U937 cells. The HLA alleles present in U937 cells are HLA ... "Establishment and characterization of a human histiocytic lymphoma cell line (U-937)". Int. J. Cancer. 17 (5): 565-77. doi: ... U937 cells are of the myeloid lineage and so secrete a large number of cytokines and chemokines either constitutively (e.g. IL- ...

*  THP-1 cell line - Wikipedia

THP-1 is a human monocytic cell line derived from an acute monocytic leukemia patient. It is used to test leukemia cell lines ... Cultures should be maintained at cell densities in the range 2-9x105 cells/ml at 37 °C, 5% CO2. Cells are non-adherent. Cell ... "A cell line model for the differentiation of human dendritic cells". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 333 ( ... This cell line can provide continuous culture, grown in suspension; RPMI 1640 + 10% FBS + 2mM L-Glutamine. The average doubling ...

*  Zebrafish AB9 cell line - Wikipedia

Zebrafish AB9 cells are a primary fibroblast cell line developed from fin tissue of the AB strain. These cells are commonly ... Bhadra, Joyita (2015). "The zebrafish fibrolast cell line AB9 as a tool to complement gene regulation studies" (PDF). ... Cells are grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in a humid, 5% CO2- ... enriched atmosphere at 28 °C. Under these conditions, cells passaged 1 in 4 doubled every 72 hours when fed with fresh culture ...

*  Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor - Wikipedia

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor has been shown to interact with GFRA2 and GDNF family receptor alpha 1. GDNF has ... Haniu M, Hui J, Young Y, Le J, Katta V, Lee R, Shimamoto G, Rohde MF (Dec 1996). "Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor: ... Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Exposure of dopaminergic-like cell line to Ibogaine HCl results in an increase in GDNF mRNA, leading to protein expression and ...

*  thawing & plating cell lines

It depends on the cell line. Cells that are fairly density dependent for growth (NIH 3T3 cells, for ex.) do not thaw well if ... thawing & plating cell lines. Curt Ashendel ashendel at aclcb.purdue.edu Mon Jun 24 14:19:33 EST 1996 *Previous message: ... Also, if your freeze killed a lot of the cells, the viable cell plating density after thawing is even lower. I always plate ... After one night, the cells are dividing slowly, and have a strange, ,small, sort of compact morphology. Overall, they are half ...

*  Cell Lines: Technology Commercialization

Cell lines available as research tools from the Technology Transfer office at National Jewish Health ... cell line/fusion partner. A variant of the AKR thymona BW5147 has been isolated which can no longer express functional T cell ... T cell hybridoma BO-97.10. BO-97.10 is a T cell hybridoma which responds to a chicken Ovalbumin peptide (a.a. 327-339) + Class ... CD8-transfected BW5147 alpha-beta- cell line/fusion partner (BWlyt2-4). Useful research tool for the study of antigen ...

*  List of contaminated cell lines - Wikipedia

Comparative Study of Primary Isolated Cells and Cell Lines, Including the Novel Cell Line HPMEC-ST1.6R. Microvascular Research ... Contaminated cell lines should never be used for research demanding the specific type of cell line they are assumed to be, and ... Cellosaurus also is maintaining a list of "problematic" cell lines. The list is dynamically generated from all cell lines in ... Cell lines marked Virtual in the table below are known instances of contamination at the source; these cell lines became ...

*  hTERT Immortalized Cell Lines

... immortalized cell lines represent a breakthrough in cell biology research that combines the in vivo nature of primary cells ... with the traditional cell line's ability to survive continuously in vitro. ... immortalized cell lines represent a breakthrough in cell biology research that combines the in vivo nature of primary cells ... Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells ATCC hTERT immortalized RPE cell lines have an extended lifespan, undergo terminal ...

*  List of breast cancer cell lines - Wikipedia

2006). "A collection of breast cancer cell lines for the study of functionally distinct cancer subtypes". Cancer Cell. 10 (6): ... Soule HD, Vazguez J, Long A, Albert S, Brennan M (1973). "A human cell line from a pleural effusion derived from a breast ... This is a list of major breast cancer cell lines that are primarily used in breast cancer research. The original list was ... Hackett AJ, Smith HS, Springer EL, Owens RB, Nelson-Rees WA, Riggs JL, Gardner MB (1977). "Two syngeneic cell lines from human ...

*  Cell lines by genetic mutation

ATCC has created a list of ATCC tumor cell lines based on the gene mutation information maintained in the Sanger Institute ... Tumor cell lines become more powerful research models and drug discovery tools when the genetic abnormalities that drive their ... Cell lines by genetic mutation Tumor cell lines become more powerful research models and drug discovery tools when the genetic ... ATCC has created a list of ATCC tumor cell lines based on the gene mutation information maintained in the Sanger Institute ...

*  Genetic abnormalities found in stem cell lines - latimes

... because of their amazing capacity to morph into other types of cells, have been touted as a potential source for replacement ... People have pinned a lot of hopes on pluripotent stem cells -- which, ... analysis to study stem cell lines. They found that both embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells -- ... the ones that allow the cells to turn into any other kind of cell in the body. In iPS cells, duplications involved cell ...

*  Isoliquiritigenin-Induced Differentiation in Mouse Melanoma B16F0 Cell Line

... Xiaoyu Chen,1 Bo Zhang,1 Xuan Yuan,1,2 Fan Yang,1 ... And their cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines," Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. ... "Isoliquiritigenin-induced effects on Nrf2 mediated antioxidant defence in the HL-60 cell monocytic differentiation," Cell ... "Differential effects of methoxylated p-coumaric acids on melanoma in B16/F10 cells," Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, vol ...

*  TTC28 knockout cell line

Fast delivery of TTC28 knockout Human Cell Lines for the study of gene function. Created by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. ... Human TTC28 knockout cell line Gene Synonyms. TPRBK Description. HAP1 cell line, edited by CRISPR/Cas to contain a frameshift ... What type of cells are HAP1 cells?. HAP1 is a near-haploid human cell line that was derived from the male chronic myelogenous ... Are HAP1 cell lines genetically stable (i.e. do they stay haploid)?. We have observed that haploid cell lines will ...

*  F2R knockout cell line

Fast delivery of F2R knockout Human Cell Lines for the study of gene function. Created by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Includes ... What type of cells are HAP1 cells?. HAP1 is a near-haploid human cell line that was derived from the male chronic myelogenous ... Are HAP1 cell lines genetically stable (i.e. do they stay haploid)?. We have observed that haploid cell lines will ... What will I receive when I order a HAP1 knockout cell line?. Customers obtain a clonal HAP1 cell line, bearing a frameshift ...

*  SLC4A8 knockout cell line

Fast delivery of SLC4A8 knockout Human Cell Lines for the study of gene function. Created by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. ... Human SLC4A8 knockout cell line 8bp deletion Gene Synonyms. NBC3, NDCBE Description. HAP1 cell line, edited by CRISPR/Cas to ... What type of cells are HAP1 cells?. HAP1 is a near-haploid human cell line that was derived from the male chronic myelogenous ... Are HAP1 cell lines genetically stable (i.e. do they stay haploid)?. We have observed that haploid cell lines will ...

*  Sf9 (cells) - Wikipedia

Invitrogen (14 Mar 2017). "Cell Lines". Growth and Maintenance of Insect cell lines: User Guide (PDF). Rev. Date - 8 March 2010 ... Sf9 cells, a clonal isolate of Spodoptera frugiperda Sf21 cells (IPLB-SF21-AE), are commonly used in insect cell culture for ... Vaughn JL; Goodwin RH; Tompkins GJ; McCawley P (1977). "The establishment of two cell lines from the insect Spodoptera ...

*  High Five cells - Wikipedia

High Five Cell Line (officially called BTI-TN-5B1-4) is an insect cell line that originated from the ovarian cells of the ... doi:10.1016/s0022-2011(94)90400-6. Invitrogen (31 March 2015). "Cell Lines". Growth and Maintenance of Insect cell lines (PDF ... High Five cells have become one of the most commonly used cell lines for recombinant protein expression using baculovirus or ... to express more recombinant protein than other lepidopteran cell lines, such as Sf9 cells. They can be grown in the absence of ...

*  Environmental scanning electron microscope - Wikipedia

4T1 cells line. The micrograph of mouse breast tumor cells on cultural plastic, BSE image, ZEISS EVO LS10.. ... "Liquid-phase electron microscopy of molecular drug response in breast cancer cells reveals irresponsive cell subpopulations ... Those cells, by their nature, had only limited application use and no further development was done. In 1974, an improved ... The influence of drugs on cancer cells has been studied with liquid-phase ESEM-STEM . In conservation science, it is often ...

Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.RNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.Coles PhillipsSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Antileukemic drug: Antileukemic drugs, anticancer drugs that are used to treat one or more types of leukemia, include:MinC: The MinC protein is one of three proteins encoded by the minB operon and which is required to generate pole to pole oscillations prior to bacterial cell division as a means of specifying the midzone of the cell. This function is achieved by preventing the formation of the divisome Z-ring around the poles.Nude mouseGC box: In molecular biology, a GC box is a distinct pattern of nucleotides found in the promoter region of some eukaryotic genes upstream of the TATA box and approximately 110 bases upstream from the transcription initiation site. It has a consensus sequence GGGCGG which is position dependent and orientation independent.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.Flow cytometry: In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus. It allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of up to thousands of particles per second.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Baby hamster kidney cell: Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (aka BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology.Breast cancer classification: Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes, each based on different criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Squamous epithelial cell: In anatomy, squamous epithelium (squama- + -ous) is that whose outermost (apical) layer consists of thin, flat cells called squamous epithelial cells. The epithelium may be composed of one layer of these cells, in which case it is referred to as simple squamous epithelium, or it may possess multiple layers, referred to then as stratified squamous epithelium.Oncotype DX Colon Cancer AssayDNA-binding proteinTargeted therapy of lung cancer: Targeted therapy of lung cancer refers to using agents specifically designed to selectively target molecular pathways responsible for, or that substantially drive, the malignant phenotype of lung cancer cells, and as a consequence of this (relative) selectivity, cause fewer toxic effects on normal cells.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Monoclonal antibody therapyDNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Thermal cyclerTargeted molecular therapy for neuroblastoma: The targeted molecular therapy for neuroblastoma involves treatment aimed at molecular targets that have a unique expression in this form of cancer. Neuroblastoma, the second most common pediatric malignant tumor, often involves treatment through intensive chemotherapy.Hyperphosphorylation: Hyperphosphorylation occurs when a biochemical with multiple phosphorylation sites is fully saturated. Hyperphosphorylation is one of the signalling mechanisms used by the cell to regulate mitosis.Pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1: POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (Pit1, growth hormone factor 1), also known as POU1F1, is a transcription factor for growth hormone.James A. Schlipmann Melanoma Cancer Foundation: The James A. Schlipmann Melanoma Cancer Foundation is a US-based non-profit organization with a mission to fund clinical trials and research studies, and to advance education, awareness, screenings and treatment to eventually eradicate melanoma.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Gene signature: A gene signature is a group of genes in a cell whose combined expression patternItadani H, Mizuarai S, Kotani H. Can systems biology understand pathway activation?Start point (yeast): The Start checkpoint is a major cell cycle checkpoint in yeast. The Start checkpoint ensures irreversible cell-cycle entry even if conditions later become unfavorable.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Multiple cloning site: A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids. Restriction sites within an MCS are typically unique, occurring only once within a given plasmid.Dermal fibroblast: Dermal fibroblasts are cells within the dermis layer of skin which are responsible for generating connective tissue and allowing the skin to recover from injury. Using organelles (particularly the rough endoplasmic reticulum), dermal fibroblasts generate and maintain the connective tissue which unites separate cell layers.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingAdenocarcinoma of the lung: Adenocarcinoma of the lung (pulmonary adenocarcinoma) is a common histological form of lung cancer that contains certain distinct malignant tissue architectural, cytological, or molecular features, including gland and/or duct formation and/or production of significant amounts of mucus.Mir-26 microRNA precursor familyPolyclonal B cell response: Polyclonal B cell response is a natural mode of immune response exhibited by the adaptive immune system of mammals. It ensures that a single antigen is recognized and attacked through its overlapping parts, called epitopes, by multiple clones of B cell.Membrane protein: Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with biological membranes. They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.P53: Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice). This homolog (originally thought to be, and often spoken of as, a single protein) is crucial in multicellular organisms, where it prevents cancer formation, thus, functions as a tumor suppressor.Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomaCancer/testis antigen family 45, member a5Ovarian Cancer National Alliance: The Ovarian Cancer National Alliance is an advocacy organization for women with ovarian cancer in the United States. To advance the interests of women with ovarian cancer, the organization advocates at a national level for increases in research funding for the development of an early detection test, improved health care practices, and life-saving treatment protocols.Haptotaxis: Haptotaxis (from Greek ἅπτω (hapto, "touch, fasten") and τάξις (taxis, "arrangement, order")) is the directional motility or outgrowth of cells, e.g.Cellular microarray: A cellular microarray is a laboratory tool that allows for the multiplex interrogation of living cells on the surface of a solid support. The support, sometimes called a "chip", is spotted with varying materials, such as antibodies, proteins, or lipids, which can interact with the cells, leading to their capture on specific spots.CabazitaxelMetastatic liver disease: A liver metastasis is a malignant tumor in the liver that has spread from another organ affected by cancer. The liver is a common site for metastatic disease because of its rich, dual blood supply (the liver receives blood via the hepatic artery and portal vein).Michael A. Epstein

(1/147095) Classification of human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines.

Eleven human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines established in this laboratory were classified into three groups based on morphological features (light and electron microscopy), modal chromosome number, and ability to synthesize carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Group 1 cell lines contained both dedifferentiated and differentiating cells growing in tight clusters or islands of epithelium-like cells; their modal chromosome number was about 47, and they synthesized small to moderate amounts of CEA. Group 2 cell lines were more dedifferentiated, were hyperdiploid, and synthesized small amounts of CEA. Group 3 cell lines were morphologically similar to those of Group 1 by light microscopy. They differed ultrastructurally by containing microvesicular bodies; the modal chromosome number varied from hyperdiploid to hypertriploid or they had bimodal populations of hypodiploid and hypertriploid cells, and they synthesized relatively large amounts of CEA. No correlation could be found between Broder's grade or Duke's classification of the original tumor and modal chromosome number or ability to synthesize CEA. These findings support Nowell's hypothesis that the stem line is different for each solid tumor, which makes it difficult to relate chromosomal changes to the initiation of the neoplastic state.  (+info)

(2/147095) The effects of estrogens and antiestrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture.

We have established or characterized six lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture for at least 1 year and have examined these lines for estrogen responsiveness. One of these cell lines, MCF-7, shows marked stimulation of macromolecular synthesis and cell division with physiological concentrations of estradiol. Antiestrogens are strongly inhibitory, and at concentrations greater than 3 X 10(-7) M they kill cells. Antiestrogen effects are prevented by simultaneous treatment with estradiol or reversed by addition of estradiol to cells incubated in antiestrogen. Responsive cell lines contain high-affinity specific estradiol receptors. Antiestrogens compete with estradiol for these receptors but have a lower apparent affinity for the receptor than estrogens. Stimulation of cells by estrogens is biphasic, with inhibition and cell death at concentrations of 17beta-estradiol or diethylstilbestrol exceeding 10(-7) M. Killing by high concentrations of estrogen is probably a nonspecific effect in that we observe this response with 17alpha-estradiol at equivalent concentrations and in the otherwise unresponsive cells that contain no estrogen receptor sites.  (+info)

(3/147095) The effects of glucocorticoids and progesterone on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture.

Glucocorticoids, at physiological concentration, inhibit cell division and thymidine incorporation in three lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture. At steroid concentrations sufficient to inhibit thymidine incorporation 50%, little or no effect is seen on protein synthesis 48 hr after hormone addition. All three of these lines are shown to have glucocorticoid receptors demonstrable by competitive protein binding assays. Receptors are extensively characterized in one line by sucrose density gradient analysis and binding specificity studies. Good correlation between receptor-binding specificity and biological activity is found except for progesterone, which binds to glucocorticoid receptor but is noninhibitory. Cross-competition and quantification studies demonstrate a separate receptor for progesterone. This receptor has limited binding specificities restricted largely to progestational agents, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor bound both glucocorticoids and progesterone. Two other human breast cancer lines neither contain glucocorticoid receptor nor are inhibited by glucocorticoids. It is concluded that in some cases glucocorticoids can directly limit growth in human breast cancer in vitro without requiring alterations in other trophic hormones.  (+info)

(4/147095) The effects of androgens and antiandrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture.

We have examined five human breast cancer cell lines in continuous tissue culture for androgen responsiveness. One of these cell lines shows a 2- to 4-fold stimulation of thymidine incorporation into DNA, apparent as early as 10 hr following androgen addition to cells incubated in serum-free medium. This stimulation is accompanied by an acceleration in cell replication. Antiandrogens [cyproterone acetate (6-chloro-17alpha-acetate-1,2alpha-methylene-4,6-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) and R2956 (17beta-hydroxy-2,2,17alpha-trimethoxyestra-4,9,11-triene-1-one)] inhibit both protein and DNA synthesis below control levels and block androgen-mediated stimulation. Prolonged incubation (greater than 72 hr) in antiandrogen is lethal. The MCF- cell line contains high-affinity receptors for androgenic steroids demonstrable by sucrose density gradients and competitive protein binding analysis. By cross-competition studies, androgen receptors are distinguishable from estrogen receptors also found in this cell line. Concentrations of steroid that saturate androgen receptor sites in vitro are about 1000 times lower than concentrations that maximally stimulate the cells. Changes in quantity and affinity of androgen binding to intact cells at 37 degrees as compared with usual binding techniques using cytosol preparation at 0 degrees do not explain this difference between dissociation of binding and effect. However, this difference can be explained by conversion of [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone to 5alpha-androstanediol and more polar metabolites at 37 degrees. An examination of incubation media, cytoplasmic extracts and crude nuclear pellets reveals probable conversion of [3H]testosterone to [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Our data provide compelling evidence that some human breast cancer, at least in vitro, may be androgen dependent.  (+info)

(5/147095) Association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by nascent snRNA transcripts.

BACKGROUND: Coiled bodies are nuclear organelles that are highly enriched in small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and certain basal transcription factors. Surprisingly, coiled bodies not only contain mature U snRNPs but also associate with specific chromosomal loci, including gene clusters that encode U snRNAs and histone messenger RNAs. The mechanism(s) by which coiled bodies associate with these genes is completely unknown. RESULTS: Using stable cell lines, we show that artificial tandem arrays of human U1 and U2 snRNA genes colocalize with coiled bodies and that the frequency of the colocalization depends directly on the transcriptional activity of the array. Association of the genes with coiled bodies was abolished when the artificial U2 arrays contained promoter mutations that prevent transcription or when RNA polymerase II transcription was globally inhibited by alpha-amanitin. Remarkably, the association was also abolished when the U2 snRNA coding regions were replaced by heterologous sequences. CONCLUSIONS: The requirement for the U2 snRNA coding region indicates that association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by the nascent U2 RNA itself, not by DNA or DNA-bound proteins. Our data provide the first evidence that association of genes with a nuclear organelle can be directed by an RNA and suggest an autogenous feedback regulation model.  (+info)

(6/147095) High-throughput screening of small molecules in miniaturized mammalian cell-based assays involving post-translational modifications.

BACKGROUND: Fully adapting a forward genetic approach to mammalian systems requires efficient methods to alter systematically gene products without prior knowledge of gene sequences, while allowing for the subsequent characterization of these alterations. Ideally, these methods would also allow function to be altered in a temporally controlled manner. RESULTS: We report the development of a miniaturized cell-based assay format that enables a genetic-like approach to understanding cellular pathways in mammalian systems using small molecules, rather than mutations, as the source of gene-product alterations. This whole-cell immunodetection assay can sensitively detect changes in specific cellular macromolecules in high-density arrays of mammalian cells. Furthermore, it is compatible with screening large numbers of small molecules in nanoliter to microliter culture volumes. We refer to this assay format as a 'cytoblot', and demonstrate the use of cytoblotting to monitor biosynthetic processes such as DNA synthesis, and post-translational processes such as acetylation and phosphorylation. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of these assays to natural-product screening through the identification of marine sponge extracts exhibiting genotype-specific inhibition of 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and suppression of the anti-proliferative effect of rapamycin. CONCLUSIONS: We show that cytoblots can be used for high-throughput screening of small molecules in cell-based assays. Together with small-molecule libraries, the cytoblot assay can be used to perform chemical genetic screens analogous to those used in classical genetics and thus should be applicable to understanding a wide variety of cellular processes, especially those involving post-transitional modifications.  (+info)

(7/147095) Unsaturated fatty acid requirements for growth and survival of a rat mammary tumor cell line.

A cell line, the growth and survival of which is markedly affected by linoleic acid, has been established from a carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor. The cells have been continuously passaged in 5% rat serum plus 10% fetal calf serum-supplemented medium. The rat serum component was found to be indispensalbe, for when it was omitted the growth rate rapidly declined and the cells died by 5 to 7 days. Removal of the rat serum from the growth medium also resulted in a dramatic loss of Oil Red O-positive droplets in the cells, suggesting that the lipid component of rat serum might be a major growth-promoting principle in rat serum. This is likely since the total lipid fraction, but not the delipidized protein fraction, could largely supplant requirement of the cells for rat serum. Pure linoleic acid was found to be effective in maintaining the cell growth in delipidized serum or in whole fetal calf serum-supplemented medium. Fatty acid analysis revealed a 19-fold higher amount of linoleic acid in rat serum than in fetal calf serum.  (+info)

(8/147095) Vasopressin stimulation of acetate incorporation into lipids in a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor cell line.

In a preliminary report we described the effects of rat prolactin on the incorporation of [14C]acetate into lipids by a cell line from a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor. The characteristics of the response to prolactin were very similar to those described for the normal rat mammary gland; namely, insulin was required for full expression of the response, maximal activity was not seen until 36 hr after the addition of the hormones, and growth hormone was able to elicit the same response. However, we were unable to detect binding of 125I-labeled prolactin to these cells, and furthermore, other more purified prolactin preparations were inactive. Upon further investigation we discovered that the activity resided in a low-molecular-weight fraction of the rat prolactin B-1 preparation and was probably either vasopressin or oxytocin or both. These data suggest the possibility that vasopressin may play a role in rodent mammary tumorigenesis.  (+info)



fibroblast cell line

  • Zebrafish AB9 cells are a primary fibroblast cell line developed from fin tissue of the AB strain. (wikipedia.org)

monocytic cell line

  • THP-1 is a human monocytic cell line derived from an acute monocytic leukemia patient. (wikipedia.org)

proliferation

  • It was developed in parallel to the adrenal chromaffin cell model because of its extreme versatility for pharmacological manipulation, ease of culture, and the large amount of information on their proliferation and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer occurs when a somatic cell which normally cannot divide undergoes mutations which cause de-regulation of the normal cell cycle controls leading to uncontrolled proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are capable of extended proliferation, have a stable karyotype, and are phenotypically similar to the primary parent cells. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC hTERT-immortalized prostate normal and disease-associated primary cells are capable of extended proliferation and provide the ideal platform to study the transformation of prostate cells and the tumor micro-environment. (atcc.org)
  • BRAF mutations lead to excessive cell proliferation and survival, independent of growth factors, and are commonly found in birth defects and thyroid and skin cancers. (atcc.org)
  • The retinoblastoma (RB1) tumor suppressor gene encodes a protein that regulates cell proliferation by controlling progression through the cell cycle, specifically through the G1 checkpoint. (atcc.org)
  • In iPS cells, duplications involved cell proliferation genes, and deletions involved tumor suppressor genes. (latimes.com)
  • H19 has a role in the negative regulation (or limiting) of body weight and cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)

differentiation

  • This makes PC12 cells useful as a model system for neuronal differentiation and neurosecretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibiotic & Antimycotic Cell culture Adrenal medulla Cellular differentiation Pheochromocytoma Greene LA, Tischler AS (July 1976). (wikipedia.org)
  • ATCC hTERT immortalized RPE cell lines have an extended lifespan, undergo terminal differentiation, express RPE associated proteins, and are karyotypically, morphologically, and phenotypically similar to the primary parent cells. (atcc.org)
  • suggest that the accumulation of H19 RNA in skeletal muscle cells is solely due to the stabilization of that RNA in the muscle cells during differentiation. (wikipedia.org)

tumor cell lines

  • Tumor cell lines become more powerful research models and drug discovery tools when the genetic abnormalities that drive their phenotype are known. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC has created a list of ATCC tumor cell lines based on the gene mutation information maintained in the Sanger Institute COSMIC database. (atcc.org)

clonal

  • Immortalized cell lines can also be cloned giving rise to a clonal population which can, in turn, be propagated indefinitely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Customers obtain a clonal HAP1 cell line, bearing a frameshift mutation in an exon of the gene of interest. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Sf9 cells, a clonal isolate of Spodoptera frugiperda Sf21 cells (IPLB-SF21-AE), are commonly used in insect cell culture for recombinant protein production using baculovirus. (wikipedia.org)

mutations

  • Immortalised cell lines have undergone similar mutations allowing a cell type which would normally not be able to divide to be proliferated in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • While immortalized cell lines often originate from a well-known tissue type, they have undergone significant mutations to become immortal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that although THP-1 cells are of the same lineage, mutations can cause differences as the progeny proliferates. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATCC has designed tumor cell panels based on the tissue of tumor origin, each annotated with details regarding known mutations. (atcc.org)
  • APC mutations lead to loss of β-catenin regulation, altered cell migration and chromosome instability. (atcc.org)
  • For more data on the nature of TP53 mutations in breast cancer cell lines, see Lacroix et al. (wikipedia.org)

Cellosaurus

  • Cellosaurus also is maintaining a list of "problematic" cell lines. (wikipedia.org)

Establishment

  • More serious is contamination at the source: during establishment of the original cell line, some contaminating cells are accidentally introduced into the cultures, where they in time outgrow the desired cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Novel cell lines should be proliferated and distributed and/or deposited at a safekeeping institution such as the ATCC as soon as possible after establishment, to minimize the odds that the line becomes spoiled by contamination. (wikipedia.org)

HeLa

  • The origins of some immortal cell lines, for example HeLa human cells, are from naturally occurring cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major examples include human HeLa cells that were obtained from a cervical cancer, mouse Raw 264.7 cells that were subjected to mutagenesis and then selected for cells which are able to undergo division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contaminated cell lines should never be used for research demanding the specific type of cell line they are assumed to be, and most of them should ideally be discarded or at least not used in research at all, except when the contaminant cells have acquired novel characteristics (e.g., by mutation or viral transfection, for example the HeLa derivate Det98) and thus constitute a novel lineage after all. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is worth noting that the widespread contamination with HeLa cells was initially recognized by Walter Nelson-Rees using simple Giemsa stain karyotyping under a light microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique works well in recognizing HeLa because these cells have distinctive chromosome aberrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is good practice to periodically check cell lines maintained under laboratory conditions (i.e., not placed in long-term storage) for contamination with HeLa or other common contaminants, to ensure that their quality and integrity is maintained. (wikipedia.org)
  • WI-38 was invaluable to early researchers, especially those studying virology and immunology, since it was a readily-available cell line of normal human tissue, unlike the HeLa line, which were cancerous cells. (wikipedia.org)

cancerous cells

  • Other immortalised cell lines are the in vitro equivalent of cancerous cells. (wikipedia.org)

genomic

  • All HAP1 knockout cell lines are validated by PCR amplification and Sanger Sequencing to confirm the mutation at the genomic level. (horizondiscovery.com)

cultures

  • For example, supposed thyroid lines were actually melanoma cells, supposed prostate tissue was actually bladder cancer, and supposed normal uterine cultures were actually breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cultures should be maintained at cell densities in the range 2-9x105 cells/ml at 37 °C, 5% CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • SNP analysis has not been a part of routine monitoring of human ES and iPS cell cultures, but our results suggest that perhaps it should be," Loring said. (latimes.com)
  • The WI-38 cell line stemmed from earlier work with growing cell cultures done by Hayflick and Moorhead. (wikipedia.org)

1977

  • Further, Shah and Beckett reported the use of differentially pumped cells or chambers to presumably maintain botanical specimens conductive in order to allow the use of the absorbed specimen current mode for signal detection in 1977 and in 1979. (wikipedia.org)
  • reported the design and use of various environmental cell detection configurations in an SEM including differential pumping, or the use of electron transparent films to maintain the specimens in their wet state in 1977. (wikipedia.org)

vitro

  • The cells can therefore be grown for prolonged periods in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortalized cell lines find use in biotechnology where they are a cost-effective way of growing cells similar to those found in a multicellular organism in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATCC human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) immortalized cell lines represent a breakthrough in cell biology research that combines the in vivo nature of primary cells with the traditional cell line's ability to survive continuously in vitro. (atcc.org)

insect cell

  • Growth and Maintenance of Insect cell lines: User Guide (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • High Five Cell Line (officially called BTI-TN-5B1-4) is an insect cell line that originated from the ovarian cells of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni. (wikipedia.org)

fetal calf serum

  • HAP1 cells are grown in Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (IMDM) in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum and penicillin/ streptomycin. (horizondiscovery.com)

study the behaviour

  • Scientists study the behaviour of isolated cells grown in the laboratory for insights into how cells function in the body in health and disease. (wikipedia.org)

grown

  • the cells can be grown indefinitely in culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells are grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in a humid, 5% CO2-enriched atmosphere at 28 °C. Under these conditions, cells passaged 1 in 4 doubled every 72 hours when fed with fresh culture medium at 3-day intervals. (wikipedia.org)

gene

  • citation needed] Introduction of a viral gene that partially deregulates the cell cycle (e.g., the adenovirus type 5 E1 gene was used to immortalize the HEK 293 cell line). (wikipedia.org)
  • The zebrafish fibrolast cell line AB9 as a tool to complement gene regulation studies" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the GDNF gene. (wikipedia.org)

neurons

  • Antibiotic & Antimycotic Their embryological origin with neuroblastic cells means they can easily differentiate into neuron-like cells even though they are not considered adult neurons. (wikipedia.org)

suspension

  • Cells express HLA class-I A2 and class-II DR. It is a suspension cell line, although cells are known to grow in clumps. (wikipedia.org)

ATCC

  • ATCC hTERT immortalized aortic endothelial cells have an extended lifespan with a stable karyotype. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC hTERT immortalized Barrett's esophageal epithelial cells contain stable, defined cell cycle and genetic abnormalities, have an extended life span, and are karyotypically, morphologically, and phenotypically similar to the primary parent cells. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC hTERT immortalized bronchial epithelial cells have an extended lifespan, consistently form an electrically tight epithelium, have a stable karyotype and are phenotypically similar to the primary parent cells. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC hTERT immortalized chondrocyte fibroblasts have an extended lifespan, and are karyotypically, morphologically, and phenotypically similar to the primary parent cells. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC hTERT immortalized dermal microvascular endothelial cells have an extended lifespan, express a panel of endothelial cell surface proteins, undergo tubule formation in culture and are karyotypically, morphologically, and phenotypically similar to the primary parent cells. (atcc.org)

tissue

  • The alternative, performing an analysis on primary cells from multiple tissue donors, does not have this advantage. (wikipedia.org)
  • His research interests include metabolic network modelling, systems biology, tissue engineering and cell culture, the development of analysis procedures for genome-scale models, and the experimental verification of these models in Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other important organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • WI-38 is a diploid human cell culture line composed of fibroblasts derived from lung tissue of a 3 months gestation female fetus. (wikipedia.org)

chromosome

  • Artificial expression of key proteins required for immortality, for example telomerase which prevents degradation of chromosome ends during DNA replication in eukaryotes Hybridoma technology, specifically used for the generation of immortalized antibody-producing B cell lines, where an antibody-producing B cell is fused with a myeloma (B cell cancer) cell. (wikipedia.org)

genetically

  • This allows an analysis to be repeated many times on genetically identical cells which is desirable for repeatable scientific experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, cell lines can change genetically over multiple passages, leading to phenotypic differences among isolates and potentially different experimental results depending on when and with what strain isolate an experiment is conducted. (wikipedia.org)

researchers

  • In 2001 researchers at Advanced Cell Technology in Worcester, Massachusetts, United States, reported that 24 successfully cloned Holsteins had been monitored from birth to the age of four. (wikipedia.org)

commonly

  • They can restore the response of purified T lymphocytes to Con A. They show increased CO2 production on phagocytosis and can be differentiated into macrophage-like cells using for example phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (commonly known as PMA or TPA). (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are commonly used for studies focusing on the biochemical and molecular properties of zebrafish. (wikipedia.org)
  • High Five cells have become one of the most commonly used cell lines for recombinant protein expression using baculovirus or transfection, and have been demonstrated, in a number of cases, to express more recombinant protein than other lepidopteran cell lines, such as Sf9 cells. (wikipedia.org)

biomedical research

  • Many cell lines that are widely used for biomedical research have been contaminated and overgrown by other, more aggressive cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • U937 cells are a model cell line used in biomedical research. (wikipedia.org)

morphology

  • U937 cells mature and differentiate in response to a number of soluble stimuli, adopting the morphology and characteristics of mature macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells show a large, round, single-cell morphology. (wikipedia.org)
  • HAP1 cells are adherent with fibroblast-like morphology. (horizondiscovery.com)

recombinant

  • TNFα and recombinant GM-CSF independently promote IL-10 production in U937 cells. (wikipedia.org)

stem cells

  • An immortalized cell line should not be confused with stem cells, which can also divide indefinitely, but form a normal part of the development of a multicellular organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of them are normal cell lines (e.g. derived from stem cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • A colony of human embryonic stem cells. (latimes.com)
  • People have pinned a lot of hopes on pluripotent stem cells -- which, because of their amazing capacity to morph into other types of cells, have been touted as a potential source for replacement tissues that might someday help reverse spinal cord injuries, Alzheimer's disease, and even the damage caused by heart attacks. (latimes.com)
  • Scientists still haven't figured out how to make sure most stem cells are safe, and won't develop into cancer once implanted in patients. (latimes.com)
  • New method makes stem cells in about 30 minutes, scientists. (latimes.com)
  • Team reportedly grows 'better quality' stem cells in live. (latimes.com)

overgrown

  • This is a list of cell lines that have been cross-contaminated and overgrown by other cells. (wikipedia.org)

densities

  • I always plate freshly thawed cells at very high densities (unless there is a good reason not to) to get the fastest recovery from the freeze. (bio.net)

undergo

  • This finding would later be known as the Hayflick limit, which indicated that normal human cells could only undergo a limited number of divisions, and later contributed to the discovery of the biological roles of telomeres. (wikipedia.org)

viable

  • Also, if your freeze killed a lot of the cells, the viable cell plating density after thawing is even lower. (bio.net)
  • However, during this period of research, the team also discovered that if cells were properly stored in a freezer, cells would remain viable and could provide enormous numbers of cells for research purposes. (wikipedia.org)

growth

  • PC12 cells stop dividing and terminally differentiate when treated with nerve growth factor or dexamethasone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment of PC12 cells with nerve growth factor creates cells with long processes known as neurite varicosities, which contain small amounts of vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • PC12 cells treated for 10-14 days with nerve growth factor had no release of vesicles from the cell body which indicates the aggregation of vesicles in the ends of the neurites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that are fairly density dependent for growth (NIH 3T3 cells, for ex. (bio.net)
  • Because of slow growth rates and easy detachment of the original NCI-H295 strains, efforts were made to select a population of cells with better monolayer attachment and more rapid growth. (wikipedia.org)

genetic

  • They found that both embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells -- adult cells rewound to an embryonic state -- had more genetic abnormalities than other cell types. (latimes.com)

receptor alpha

  • A variant of the AKR thymona BW5147 has been isolated which can no longer express functional T cell receptor alpha- and beta- chains. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor has been shown to interact with GFRA2 and GDNF family receptor alpha 1. (wikipedia.org)

culture

  • After considering starting cell culture of astrocytes does anyone have any comments as to the usefulness of bought cell lines such as the c6 glioma line? (bio.net)
  • How do you culture HAP1 cells? (horizondiscovery.com)
  • In addition, further information and example images can be found in our HAP1 Cell Culture Guidelines . (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Experiments using cell culture are used for developing new diagnostic tests and new treatments for diseases. (wikipedia.org)

thaw

Isolation

  • There are several methods for generating immortalized cell lines: Isolation from a naturally occurring cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Javan banteng calf was successfully cloned from frozen cells using a cow as a surrogate, delivered via c-section April 1, 2003 then hand raised at the San Diego Wild Animal Parks Infant Isolation Unit. (wikipedia.org)

proteins

  • PC12 cell line use has given much information to the function of proteins underlying vesicle fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells are used for a wide variety of purposes, from testing toxicity of compounds or drugs to production of eukaryotic proteins. (wikipedia.org)

extensively

  • Further to this HAP1 wild-type cells have been extensively characterized by whole genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis . (horizondiscovery.com)
  • 2002). Contaminated cell lines have been extensively used in research without knowledge of their true character. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell line, isolated by Leonard Hayflick and Paul Moorhead in the 1960s, has been used extensively in scientific research, with applications ranging from developing important theories in molecular biology to the production of many types of vaccines. (wikipedia.org)

citation needed

  • citation needed] A mix-up rated as contamination could in reality be a simple confusion of two cell lines, but usually contamination is assumed. (wikipedia.org)

lineage

  • U937 cells are of the myeloid lineage and so secrete a large number of cytokines and chemokines either constitutively (e.g. (wikipedia.org)

secrete

  • Infected WI-38 cells secrete the virus, and can be cultured in large volumes suitable for commercial production. (wikipedia.org)

receptors

  • The hybridoma D0-11.10, a mouse monoclonal antibody against receptors for antigen plus I region products on T cells. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Hybridomas expressing various combinations of gamma delta T cell receptors available as research tools. (nationaljewish.org)

experimental

  • And their cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines," Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine , vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 1873-1878, 2016. (hindawi.com)
  • Experimental Cell Research. (wikipedia.org)

genes

  • In ES cells, the duplications were near pluripotency-associated genes -- the ones that allow the cells to turn into any other kind of cell in the body. (latimes.com)

leukemia

  • It is used to test leukemia cell lines in immunocytochemical analysis of protein-protein interaction, and immunohistochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estimates based on screening of leukemia-lymphoma cell lines suggest that about 15% of these cell lines are not representative of what they are usually assumed to be (Drexler et al. (wikipedia.org)

adenovirus

  • WI-38 cells are used to produce several vaccines including Adenovirus, MMR and Varicella zoster. (wikipedia.org)

cancer cell

  • This is a list of major breast cancer cell lines that are primarily used in breast cancer research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer Cell. (wikipedia.org)

research

  • Immortal cell lines are a very important tool for research into the biochemistry and cell biology of multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Useful research tool for the study of antigen processing and antigen presentation requirements of class I-restricted T cells. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Stem cell scientists at UC San Diego and the Scripps Research Institute used a high-resolution molecular technique called "single nucleotide polymorphism" (SNP) analysis to study stem cell lines. (latimes.com)
  • A project is currently underway to enumerate and rename contaminated cell lines to avoid errors in research caused by misattribution (Masters, 2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, most if not all research on the endothelium ECV-304 or the megakaryocyte DAMI cell lines has in reality been conducted on bladder carcinoma and erythroleukemia cells, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, all research on endothelium- or megakaryocyte-specific functions utilizing these cell lines has turned out to be worthless, except as a warning example. (wikipedia.org)
  • It requires lengthy research to determine the precise point where cell lines have become contaminated. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January 2016 the scientist at the Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes in Hisar, India announced that they had cloned a buffalo offspring "Cirb Gaurav" using cells of the ventral side of the tail of superior buffalo. (wikipedia.org)

1976

  • This cell line was first cultured by Greene and Tischler in 1976. (wikipedia.org)

lifetime

  • This simplifies analysis of the biology of cells which may otherwise have a limited lifetime. (wikipedia.org)

scientists

  • In July 2016 scientists at the National University Toribio Rodríguez de Mendoza in Chachapoyas, Peru cloned a Jersey cattle by handmade cloning method using cells of an ear of a cow. (wikipedia.org)

biology

  • LGC Promochem: Cell Biology Collection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortalized cell lines are widely used as a simple model for more complex biological systems, for example for the analysis of the biochemistry and cell biology of mammalian (including human) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can alter the biology of the cell and must be taken into consideration in any analysis. (wikipedia.org)

model

  • Other organics have been studied using this cell line to understand their effects on PC12 cells These types of studies show that use of PC12 cell line can be a model for past and future neurotoxicological studies. (wikipedia.org)