Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Dental Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the DENTITION.Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena: Physiology of the human and animal body, male or female, in the processes and characteristics of REPRODUCTION and the URINARY TRACT.Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena: Properties, and processes of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM or their parts.Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Functional processes and properties characteristic of the BLOOD; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.Integumentary System Physiological Phenomena: The properties and relationships and biological processes that characterize the nature and function of the SKIN and its appendages.Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology related to EXERCISE or ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.Reproductive Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.Physiological Phenomena: The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Elder Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of adults aged 65 years of age and older.Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena: Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Blood Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Nervous System Physiological Phenomena: Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Raynaud Disease: An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.

*  New Descriptors by Tree Subcategory - 2015

G4 (Cell Physiological Phenomena). Cellular Reprogramming. G5 (Genetic Phenomena). Cellular Reprogramming. Serogroup ... A11 (Cells). Atypical Squamous Cells of the Cervix. Cell Body. Commissural Interneurons. Endothelial Progenitor Cells. ... G7 (Physiological Phenomena). Absorption, Physiological. Activation, Metabolic. Cutaneous Elimination. Diet, Paleolithic. Diet ... G3 (Metabolic Phenomena). Absorption, Physiological. Activation, Metabolic. Cutaneous Elimination. Drug Liberation. Gastric ...
https://nlm.nih.gov/mesh/newbysub.html

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Developmental Biology, Issue 79, Eukaryota, Biological Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, C. elegans, cell culture, ... The number of cells, measured by flow cytometry, that are found to be green fluorescing is an indication of the number of cells ... Furthermore, if cells increase or decrease in size after treatment, this might affect signal strength without affecting cell ... The LacI reporter system is carried in all cells, including stem/progenitor cells and can easily be recovered and used to ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/23776511/evolution-higher-intracellular-oxidizing-environment-caenorhabditis

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Developmental Biology, Issue 79, Eukaryota, Biological Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, C. elegans, cell culture, ... Subsequently, the infected cells are seeded on coverslips to finally enable live cell imaging. Then, living cells are incubated ... To date, TED was used in cell lines, glial cells, and neurons in vitro. TED bases on efficient, recombinant targeting of a high ... To obtain purified vRNPs, cell cultures are infected, and vRNPs are affinity purified from lysates derived from these cells. ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/19956593/the-snf2-family-member-fun30-promotes-gene-silencing-heterochromatic

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Developmental Biology, Issue 79, Eukaryota, Biological Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, C. elegans, cell culture, ... The cells are incubated for one hour at 37°C and the lysed cells are subsequently removed by two rounds of washing. MAb with a ... For FACS, cells in suspension are passed as a stream in droplets with each containing a single cell in front of a laser. The ... All unwanted cells and red blood cells will therefore be trapped in complexes. The mix of blood and antibody cocktail is then ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/21829565/diversity-dynamics-widespread-bloom-toxic-dinoflagellate-alexandrium

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Developmental Biology, Issue 79, Eukaryota, Biological Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, C. elegans, cell culture, ... The goal of the replicative life span assay is to determine how many times each mother cell buds. The mother and daughter cells ... Replicative life span, in contrast, refers the number of daughter cells produced by a mother cell prior to senescence, and is ... Mutation frequencies are then determined for sorted mother cells, and the age of the mother cells is determined using flow ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/21980447/do-clonal-plants-show-greater-division-labour-morphologically

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Developmental Biology, Issue 79, Eukaryota, Biological Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, C. elegans, cell culture, ... There are many cell types in the hair follicle, including hair matrix cells which form the hair shaft and stem cells which can ... Here we describe a quantitative method for live cell analysis of fission yeast. Additional protocols for live cell analysis of ... Mutation frequencies are then determined for sorted mother cells, and the age of the mother cells is determined using flow ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/19787052/valinomycin-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-streptomyces-conservation

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes, protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, ... Various cell types could be analyzed using this technique, including lymphocytes/leukocytes, stem cells, and tumor cells. ... CD4 T cells, in vitro differentiation, regulatory T cell, virus, cell, flow cytometry ... The ability to migrate is a hallmark of various cell types and plays a crucial role in several physiological processes, ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/23724047/microrna-99-family-targets-aktmtor-signaling-pathway-dermal-wound

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes, protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, ... The identification of cell-type specific markers and gene expression programs for extremely rare cell subsets has been a ... Here we report a method for the identification of the transcripts expressed in single retinal cells (Figure 1). The single-cell ... Using this protocol, we have successfully profiled microRNAs in various types of cell lines and primary cells, CSF, plasma, and ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/24676134/microarray-profiling-co-expression-network-analysis-circulating

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes, protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, ... While it is easy to use, it does lead to the wounding of cells and care has to be taken to remove contents of damaged cells. In ... With the introduction of wt-p53, the apoptosis could be repaired and further triggers cell death in cancer cells 11. Based on ... Maintenance of proteasome activity was implicated in many key cellular processes, like cell's stress response 3, cell cycle ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/23650515/enzyme-inhibitor-studies-reveal-complex-control-methyl-d-erythritol-4

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes, protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, ... EMT is monitored by changes in cell morphology, loss of E-cadherin localization at cell-cell junctions, and the switched ... Second, not all types of cells can be cultured ex vivo. There are only a limited number of cell lines, from which people can ... The first part explains how to culture EML cells and separate Lin-CD34+ and Lin-CD34- cells. The second part of the protocol ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/22523601/deep-rna-sequencing-reveals-novel-cardiac-transcriptomic-signatures

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes, protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, ... The first part explains how to culture EML cells and separate Lin-CD34+ and Lin-CD34- cells. The second part of the protocol ... To overcome this hurdle, we used a mouse bone marrow derived cell line, the EML (Erythroid, Myeloid, and Lymphocytic) cell line ... Biochemistry, Issue 100, Cell free in vitro transcription-translation, HeLa cell free expression, rhoptry proteins, mammalian ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/26132381/genome-transcriptome-proteome-wide-analyses-gliadin-gene-families

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes, protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, ... They are multipotent stem cells that have the physiological property to generate a wide array of differentiated cell types, ... including neurons, nerve supporting cells, smooth muscle cells, bone/cartilage cells and melanocytes. EPI-NCSC are easily ... EPI also showed significant cell cycle arrest in drug treated cells. Chromatin fragmentation and loss of membrane integrity in ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/23251640/inhibition-n-terminal-lysines-acetylation-transcription-factor

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes, protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, ... cell death, cell metabolism and cell migration to name but a few. Cytosolic calcium is normally maintained at low nanomolar ... of physiological solution to increase the permeability of cell membranes of perfused organs and thus deliver DNA into cells. ... Mutation frequencies are then determined for sorted mother cells, and the age of the mother cells is determined using flow ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/25386646/effect-calhm1-g330d-r154h-human-variants-on-control-cytosolic-ca2

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes, protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, ... Exosomal contents vary due to the source of origin and the physiological conditions of cells that secrete exosomes. These ... Exosomal contents vary due to the source of origin and the physiological conditions of cells that secrete exosomes. These ... Precise control of mRNA translation is fundamental for eukaryotic cell homeostasis, particularly in response to physiological ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/22347458/analysis-mirna-mrna-expression-profiles-highlights-alterations

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes, protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, ... OBJECTIVE: To mimic GM-CSF binding to GM-CSF receptor on the cell surface using cell-free receptor-binding-assay. METHODS: ... In addition, analogies are found between the epithelial cells of insect larval midguts and intestinal cells of mammalian ... an intracellular degradation process crucial for cell autonomous immunity. Strikingly, host cells may prevent actin-based ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/22348050/genome-wide-identification-immune-response-analysis-serine-protease

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes, protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, ... We eliminate the need for streaking cells onto agar, which affects the invasion of cells into the agar. In general, we observed ... As an alternative, cell growth-based assays have been developed, that are, in their conventional format, end-point assays that ... As cell growth in uracil-deficient medium is proportional to the relative levels of Ura3, growth kinetics are entirely ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/21931597/analysis-barauvry-two-component-system-shewanella-oneidensis-mr

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes, protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, ... We found that some tumor cell lines such as melanoma B16F1 cells, glioblastoma U87 cells, and breast cancer MDA-MB-435 cells ... Functional beta cell mass is determined by the anatomical beta cell mass as well as the ability of the beta cells to respond to ... This method is applicable to beta-cell lines, such as INS-1 cells, and to dissociated primary beta cells. It is based on ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/19956728/perk-regulates-proliferation-development-insulin-secreting-beta-cell

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes, protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, ... There are many cell types in the hair follicle, including hair matrix cells which form the hair shaft and stem cells which can ... cells that progressed through the cell cycle from those that have activated a cell cycle checkpoint leading to cell cycle ... Exosomal contents vary due to the source of origin and the physiological conditions of cells that secrete exosomes. These ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/19633716/ionizing-radiation-induced-oxidative-stress-alters-mirna-expression

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes, protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, ... Single-cell tracking is used to generate cell fate maps for measurement of individual cell lifetimes and investigation of cell ... We found that some tumor cell lines such as melanoma B16F1 cells, glioblastoma U87 cells, and breast cancer MDA-MB-435 cells ... Cancer Biology, Issue 100, Cell cycle, cell signaling, cancer, laboratory module, mouse mammary tumor cells, MMT cells, ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/26114294/phenformin-induces-cell-cycle-change-apoptosis-mesenchymal-epithelial

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes, protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, ... Huh-7.5 cells). Subsequently, these cells were co-cultured and fused to various human and murine cells expressing HCV ... A human hepatoma cell line (Huh-7 based) was used for transfection of in vitro transcribed HCV genomic RNAs. Cell-free culture ... These novel conditional trans-complementation methods will be useful to screen a large panel of cell lines and primary cells ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/23936097/allosteric-inhibitors-of-the-ns3-protease-from-the-hepatitis-c-virus

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes, protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, ... This method is applicable to beta-cell lines, such as INS-1 cells, and to dissociated primary beta cells. It is based on ... Interactions between cell-surface proteins help coordinate the function of neighboring cells. Pancreatic beta cells are ... We developed a system where beta cells are cultured on a layer of HEK293 cells expressing a protein of interest. In this model ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/24614911/comparison-between-therapeutic-effect-metformin-glimepiride-their

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes, protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, ... Mast cell function has been dissected in detail with the use of rat basophilic leukemia mast cells (RBL-2H3), a widely accepted ... of physiological solution to increase the permeability of cell membranes of perfused organs and thus deliver DNA into cells. ... Cell Biology, Issue 54, mammalian cell, hypoxia, anoxia, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), reoxygenation, normoxia ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/26207898/serum-levels-human-mic-1gdf15-vary-diurnal-pattern-do-not-display

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes, protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, ... Precise control of mRNA translation is fundamental for eukaryotic cell homeostasis, particularly in response to physiological ... Alterations of this program can lead to the growth of damaged cells, a hallmark of cancer development, or to premature cell ... CaMKII? is expressed by granule cells (GCs) of the OB. Through in situ hybridization and synaptosome preparation, we show that ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/22768241/a-role-for-dendritic-translation-camkii-mrna-olfactory

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes, protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, ... Immunology, Issue 80, Virus Diseases, Immune System Diseases, HIV, CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, antigen-presenting cell, Cytokines, ... Biological membranes separate cells from the environment. From a single cell to multicellular plants and animals, glycerolipids ... In the first protocol, yeast cells are converted into spheroplasts by enzymatic digestion of their cell walls. The resulting ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/23894633/glycolipid-transfer-protein-expression-is-affected-glycosphingolipid

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes, protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, ... Developmental Biology, Issue 56, CD133, liver stem cell, oval cell, liver cancer stem cell, stem cell, cell isolation, non- ... Homing is the phenomenon whereby transplanted hematopoietic cells are able to travel to and engraft or establish residence in ... Mast cell function has been dissected in detail with the use of rat basophilic leukemia mast cells (RBL-2H3), a widely accepted ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/23823620/ppar-regulates-liver-regeneration-by-modulating-akt-and-e2f-signaling

(1/842) E-CELL: software environment for whole-cell simulation.

MOTIVATION: Genome sequencing projects and further systematic functional analyses of complete gene sets are producing an unprecedented mass of molecular information for a wide range of model organisms. This provides us with a detailed account of the cell with which we may begin to build models for simulating intracellular molecular processes to predict the dynamic behavior of living cells. Previous work in biochemical and genetic simulation has isolated well-characterized pathways for detailed analysis, but methods for building integrative models of the cell that incorporate gene regulation, metabolism and signaling have not been established. We, therefore, were motivated to develop a software environment for building such integrative models based on gene sets, and running simulations to conduct experiments in silico. RESULTS: E-CELL, a modeling and simulation environment for biochemical and genetic processes, has been developed. The E-CELL system allows a user to define functions of proteins, protein-protein interactions, protein-DNA interactions, regulation of gene expression and other features of cellular metabolism, as a set of reaction rules. E-CELL simulates cell behavior by numerically integrating the differential equations described implicitly in these reaction rules. The user can observe, through a computer display, dynamic changes in concentrations of proteins, protein complexes and other chemical compounds in the cell. Using this software, we constructed a model of a hypothetical cell with only 127 genes sufficient for transcription, translation, energy production and phospholipid synthesis. Most of the genes are taken from Mycoplasma genitalium, the organism having the smallest known chromosome, whose complete 580 kb genome sequence was determined at TIGR in 1995. We discuss future applications of the E-CELL system with special respect to genome engineering. AVAILABILITY: The E-CELL software is available upon request. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The complete list of rules of the developed cell model with kinetic parameters can be obtained via our web site at: http://e-cell.org/.  (+info)

(2/842) Titrating the effects of mitochondrial complex I impairment in the cell physiology.

The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system consists of five multimeric enzymes (complexes I-V). NADH dehydrogenase or complex I (CI) is affected in most of the mitochondrial diseases and in some neurodegenerative disorders. We have studied the physiological consequences of a partial CI inhibition at the cellular level. We used a genetic model (40% CI-inhibited human-ape xenomitochondrial cybrids) and a drug-induced model (0-100% CI-inhibited cells using different concentrations of rotenone). We observed a quantitative correlation between the level of CI impairment and cell respiration, cell growth, free radical production, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis. We showed that cell death was quantitatively associated with free radical production rather than with a decrease in respiratory chain function. The results obtained with human xenomitochondrial cybrid cells were compatible with those observed in rotenone-induced 40% CI-inhibited cells. At high concentrations (5-6-fold higher than the concentration necessary for 100% CI inhibition), rotenone showed a second toxic effect at the level of microtubule assembly, which also led to apoptosis. The correlation found among all the parameters studied helped clarify the physiological consequences of partial CI inhibitions at the cellular level.  (+info)

(3/842) Workshop conclusions & recommendations.

 (+info)

(4/842) Time-resolved analysis and visualization of dynamic processes in living cells.

Recent development of in vivo microscopy techniques, including green fluorescent proteins, has allowed the visualization of a wide range of dynamic processes in living cells. For quantitative and visual interpretation of such processes, new concepts for time-resolved image analysis and continuous time-space visualization are required. Here, we describe a versatile and fully automated approach consisting of four techniques, namely highly sensitive object detection, fuzzy logic-based dynamic object tracking, computer graphical visualization, and measurement in time-space. Systematic model simulations were performed to evaluate the reliability of the automated object detection and tracking method. To demonstrate potential applications, the method was applied to the analysis of secretory membrane traffic and the functional dynamics of nuclear compartments enriched in pre-mRNA splicing factors.  (+info)

(5/842) Hyaluronan and proteoglycans in ovarian follicles.

Proteoglycans are macromolecules formed by a protein backbone to which one or more glycosaminoglycan side chains are co-valently attached. They can be secreted by the cells, retained at the cell surface, or stored in intracellular vacuoles. Hyaluronan is an extremely long glycosaminoglycan which, at variance with other glycosaminoglycans, is released into the extracellular matrix as a free polysaccharide not co-valently linked to a core protein. Both proteoglycans and hyaluronan influence many aspects of cell behaviour by multiple interactions with other molecules. They are involved in matrix formation, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, cell proliferation and migration, and show co-receptor activity for growth factors. Both proteoglycan and hyaluranon synthesis change significantly during ovarian follicle development and atresia. This review describes the structure of these molecules and their possible function in ovarian physiology.  (+info)

(6/842) Modeling electroporation in a single cell. I. Effects Of field strength and rest potential.

This study develops a model for a single cell electroporated by an external electric field and uses it to investigate the effects of shock strength and rest potential on the transmembrane potential V(m) and pore density N around the cell. As compared to the induced potential predicted by resistive-capacitive theory, the model of electroporation predicts a smaller magnitude of V(m) throughout the cell. Both V(m) and N are symmetric about the equator with the same value at both poles of the cell. Larger shocks do not increase the maximum magnitude of V(m) because more pores form to shunt the excess stimulus current across the membrane. In addition, the value of the rest potential does not affect V(m) around the cell because the electroporation current is several orders of magnitude larger than the ionic current that supports the rest potential. Once the field is removed, the shock-induced V(m) discharges within 2 micros, but the pores persist in the membrane for several seconds. Complete resealing to preshock conditions requires approximately 20 s. These results agree qualitatively and quantitatively with the experimental data reported by Kinosita and coworkers for unfertilized sea urchin eggs exposed to large electric fields.  (+info)

(7/842) Modeling electroporation in a single cell. II. Effects Of ionic concentrations.

This study expands a previously developed model of a single cell electroporated by an external electric field by explicitly accounting for the ionic composition of the electroporation current. The previous model with non-specific electroporation current predicts that both the transmembrane potential V(m) and the pore density N are symmetric about the equator, with the same values at either end of the cell. The new, ion-specific case predicts that V(m) is symmetric and almost identical to the profile from the non-specific case, but N has a profound asymmetry with the pore density at the hyperpolarized end of the cell twice the value at the depolarized end. These modeling results agree with the experimentally observed preferential uptake of marker molecules at the hyperpolarized end of the cell as reported in the literature. This study also investigates the changes in intracellular ionic concentrations induced around an electroporated single cell. For all ion species, the concentrations near the membrane vary significantly, which may explain the electrical disturbances observed experimentally after large electric shocks are delivered to excitable cells and tissues.  (+info)

(8/842) The osmotic migration of cells in a solute gradient.

The effect of a nonuniform solute concentration on the osmotic transport of water through the boundaries of a simple model cell is investigated. A system of two ordinary differential equations is derived for the motion of a single cell in the limit of a fast solute diffusion, and an analytic solution is obtained for one special case. A two-dimensional finite element model has been developed to simulate the more general case (finite diffusion rates, solute gradient induced by a solidification front). It is shown that the cell moves to regions of lower solute concentration due to the uneven flux of water through the cell boundaries. This mechanism has apparently not been discussed previously. The magnitude of this effect is small for red blood cells, the case in which all of the relevant parameters are known. We show, however, that it increases with cell size and membrane permeability, so this effect could be important for larger cells. The finite element model presented should also have other applications in the study of the response of cells to an osmotic stress and for the interaction of cells and solidification fronts. Such investigations are of major relevance for the optimization of cryopreservation processes.  (+info)



mammalian cells


  • Of significance is the emergence of small RNAs like microRNAs, which are found in mammalian cells. (jove.com)
  • While there was also no effect of the G330D mutation on Ca2+ uptake by CALHM1 in transfected mammalian cells, the R154H mutation was associated with defects in the control by CALHM1 of both Ca2+ uptake and A? (jove.com)

RNAs


  • Here we will describe the procedure for quantitatively analyzing miRNAs and messenger RNAs (mRNA) from exosomes secreted in blood and cell culture media. (jove.com)
  • A human hepatoma cell line (Huh-7 based) was used for transfection of in vitro transcribed HCV genomic RNAs. (jove.com)

proliferation


  • We further demonstrated that miR-99 family members regulate cell proliferation, cell migration, and AKT/mTOR signaling. (jove.com)
  • ERα is frequently upregulated in breast cancer and drives the proliferation of breast cancer cells. (jove.com)
  • PERK eIF2alpha kinase is required for the proliferation of the insulin-secreting beta- cells as well as insulin synthesis and secretion. (jove.com)
  • In this report we examine the role of PERK in regulating proliferation and angiogenesis of transformed beta-cells in the development of insulinomas. (jove.com)
  • This decrease of oxygen tension can be due to a reduced supply in oxygen (causes include insufficient blood vessel network, defective blood vessel, and anemia) or to an increased consumption of oxygen relative to the supply (caused by a sudden higher cell proliferation rate). (jove.com)

tissues


  • To ensure broad coverage of the human transcriptome, Target ID Library cDNAs were generated via oligo-dT priming using a pool of total RNA prepared from multiple human tissues and cell lines. (jove.com)
  • Using this protocol, we have successfully profiled microRNAs in various types of cell lines and primary cells, CSF, plasma, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. (jove.com)
  • Hypoxia is defined as the reduction or lack of oxygen in organs, tissues, or cells. (jove.com)
  • Hypoxia can be physiologic or pathologic such as in solid cancers 1-3 , rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis etc… Each tissues and cells have a different ability to adapt to this new condition. (jove.com)
  • In this article, we describe how to implant breast cancer cells into mice orthotopically and explain how to collect tissues to analyse the tumor milieu and metastasis to distant organs. (jove.com)

proteins


  • Exosomes can fuse with the plasma membrane resulting in the transfer of RNA and proteins to the target cell. (jove.com)
  • Interactions between cell-surface proteins help coordinate the function of neighboring cells. (jove.com)
  • It is becoming increasingly clear that interactions between transmembrane proteins on the surfaces of adjacent beta cells are important determinants of beta-cell function. (jove.com)
  • These approaches also alter levels of the intracellular domains of the targeted proteins and may prevent effects due to interactions between proteins within the same cell membrane to be distinguished from the effects of transcellular interactions. (jove.com)
  • It is based on coculture models developed by neurobiologists, who found that exposure of cultured neurons to specific neuronal proteins expressed on HEK293 (or COS) cell layers identified proteins important for driving synapse formation. (jove.com)
  • The HC11 cells differentiate and synthesize milk proteins in response to treatment with lactogenic hormones. (jove.com)
  • Genetic manipulation of breast cancer cells may provide insights into the functions of proteins involved in oncogenic progression or help to discover new tumor suppressors. (jove.com)

miRNAs


  • In this study we gained insight into the role of miRNAs in the regulation of DDR to IR under microgravity, a condition of weightlessness experienced by astronauts during space missions, which could have a synergistic action on cells, increasing the risk of radiation exposure. (jove.com)
  • To identify miRNAs regulated by estrogen signaling in breast cancer, their expression in ERα-positive breast cancer cell lines were compared before and after estrogen-activation using both the µParaflo-microfluidic microarrays and Dual Labeled Probes-low density arrays. (jove.com)
  • The protocols include collection of RNA for analysis by microarray, and the analysis of microarray data to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed among three cell types. (jove.com)
  • Delivery of miRNAs that can regulate gene expression in the recipient cells via blood has opened novel avenues for target intervention. (jove.com)
  • These protocols can be used to quantify changes in exosomal miRNAs in patients, rodent models and cell culture media before and after pharmacological intervention. (jove.com)
  • Our representative data show variations in miRNAs present in exosomes purified from mouse blood, human blood and human cell culture media. (jove.com)

pancreatic


  • Studies have shown over-expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on Panc-1 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells 7 . (jove.com)
  • In order to actively target pancreatic cancer cell line, EGFR specific peptide was conjugated on the particle surface through a PEG spacer. (jove.com)
  • In pancreatic cancer, most cells have mutations in p53 protein, causing the loss of apoptotic activity. (jove.com)
  • Pancreatic beta cells are clustered together within pancreatic islets and act in a coordinated fashion to maintain glucose homeostasis. (jove.com)

mammary


  • A phenotypic measure commonly used to determine the degree of lactogenic differentiation in mouse mammary epithelial cell cultures is the formation of dome shaped cell structures referred to as mammospheres 1 . (jove.com)
  • The HC11 cell line has been employed as a model system for the study of regulation of mammary lactogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo 2 . (jove.com)
  • Orthotopic Injection of Breast Cancer Cells into the Mammary Fat Pad of Mice to Study Tumor Growth. (jove.com)
  • In contrast, breast cancer cells engraftment to the mammary fat pad of mice better recapitulates the location of the disease and presence of the proper stromal compartment and therefore better mimics human cancerous disease. (jove.com)

Processes


  • The p53 mechanism functions as a critical signaling pathway in cell growth, which regulates apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, metabolism and other processes 10 . (jove.com)
  • The nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) from the hepatitis C virus processes the non-structural region of the viral precursor polyprotein in infected hepatic cells. (jove.com)

embryonic


  • N-terminally FLAG epitope tagged Ino80 cDNA are stably introduced into human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cell lines using Flp-mediated recombination. (jove.com)

apoptosis


  • With the introduction of wt-p53, the apoptosis could be repaired and further triggers cell death in cancer cells 11 . (jove.com)
  • Phenformin Induces Cell Cycle Change, Apoptosis, and Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition and Regulates the AMPK/mTOR/p70s6k and MAPK/ERK Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells. (jove.com)

mutations


  • For instance, measurements of yeast replicative lifespan through micromanipulation involve very small populations of cells, which prohibit detection of rare mutations. (jove.com)
  • Genetic methods to enrich for mother cells in populations by inducing death of daughter cells have been developed, but population sizes are still limited by the frequency with which random mutations that compromise the selection systems occur. (jove.com)
  • The current protocol takes advantage of magnetic sorting of surface-labeled yeast mother cells to obtain large enough populations of aging mother cells to quantify rare mutations through phenotypic selections. (jove.com)
  • Mutation rates, measured through fluctuation tests, and mutation frequencies are first established for young cells and used to predict the frequency of mutations in mother cells of various replicative ages. (jove.com)
  • Comparison of predicted mutation frequencies based on the number of cell divisions to the frequencies experimentally observed for mother cells of a given replicative age can then identify whether there are age-related changes in the rate of accumulating mutations. (jove.com)

substrates


  • The cell must provide necessary substrates to support biosynthesis and coordinately express the transferred genetic cluster to produce active enzymes. (jove.com)
  • First , we grow cells with 13 C labeled substrates. (jove.com)

metabolism


  • One important technique to examine cell central metabolism and discover new enzymes is 13 C-assisted metabolism analysis 1. (jove.com)

protein


  • Elucidation of the roles of particular transcellular interactions by knockdown, knockout or overexpression studies in cultured beta cells or in vivo necessitates direct perturbation of mRNA and protein expression, potentially affecting beta-cell health and/or function in ways that could confound analyses of the effects of specific interactions. (jove.com)
  • We developed a system where beta cells are cultured on a layer of HEK293 cells expressing a protein of interest. (jove.com)
  • In this model, the beta-cell cytoplasm is untouched while extracellular protein-protein interactions are manipulated. (jove.com)
  • Cell-free culture supernatants, protein lysates and total RNA were harvested at various time points post-transfection to assess HCV growth. (jove.com)

membrane


  • Chromatin fragmentation and loss of membrane integrity in EPI treated cells is suggestive of their commitment to cell death. (jove.com)

transfection


  • Based on the above rationale, we have designed EGFR targeting peptide-modified thiolated gelatin nanoparticles for wt-p53 gene delivery and evaluated delivery efficiency and transfection in Panc-1 cells. (jove.com)

lines


  • This method is applicable to beta-cell lines, such as INS-1 cells, and to dissociated primary beta cells. (jove.com)
  • In this study, we reveal the role of phenformin in cell death of the MCF7, ZR-75-1, MDA-MB-231 and SUM1315 breast cancer cell lines. (jove.com)
  • Interestingly, phenformin induced MET (mesenchymal-epithelial transition) and decreased the migration rate in breast cancer cell lines. (jove.com)

induce


  • Developmental and environmental cues induce Ca 2+ fluctuations in plant cells. (jove.com)
  • In this article, we propose two simple methods to induce hypoxia in mammalian cell cultures and simple tests to evaluate the hypoxic status of these cells. (jove.com)

defects


  • We show that the deletion of FUN30 leads to sensitivity to the topoisomerase I poison camptothecin and to severe cell cycle progression defects when the Orc5 subunit is mutated. (jove.com)

Luminescence


  • Here we describe instructions for the use of two Ca 2+ detection systems: aequorin based FAS (film adhesive seedlings) luminescence Ca 2+ imaging and case12 based live cell confocal fluorescence Ca 2+ imaging. (jove.com)
  • Luminescence imaging using the FAS system provides a simple, robust and sensitive detection of spatial and temporal Ca 2+ signals at the tissue level, while live cell confocal imaging using Case12 provides simultaneous detection of cytosolic and nuclear Ca 2+ signals at a high resolution. (jove.com)

surfaces


  • Mutation frequencies are then determined for sorted mother cells, and the age of the mother cells is determined using flow cytometry by staining with a fluorescent reagent that detects bud scars formed on their cell surfaces during cell division. (jove.com)

compounds


  • However, many compounds identified in screens using cell culture models are often found to be toxic or pharmacologically inactive in vivo 1-2 . (jove.com)
  • The efficacy of these compounds has been confirmed in replicon cell assays. (jove.com)
  • The desired target cell line is seeded in a 96-well plate and, after a 24 hr incubation, serially dilutions of the compounds to be tested are added. (jove.com)

functional


  • Given the parallels between the secretory machinery of neuronal synapses and of beta cells, we reasoned that beta-cell functional maturation might be driven by similar transcellular interactions. (jove.com)

gene


  • 8 Most anti-tumor gene therapies are focused on administration of the tumor suppressor genes, such as wild-type p53 (wt-p53), to restore the pro-apoptotic function in the cells 9 . (jove.com)

culture


  • The layout, including the specific conditions for cell culture and estrogen treatment, biological and technical replicates, and large-scale screening followed by in-depth confirmations using separate techniques, ensures a robust detection of miRNA regulations, and eliminates false positives and other artifacts. (jove.com)
  • The methods for culture of iPS cells and fetal RPE are explained. (jove.com)
  • An HCV cell culture system is critical for studying various stages of HCV growth including viral entry, genome replication, packaging, and egress. (jove.com)
  • HCV RNA transfected cells released infectious particles into culture supernatant and the viral titer was measured. (jove.com)

conditions


  • Exosomal contents vary due to the source of origin and the physiological conditions of cells that secrete exosomes. (jove.com)

cycle


  • EPI also showed significant cell cycle arrest in drug treated cells. (jove.com)

line


  • In the event an individual subunit is to be depleted, one transfects siRNAs targeting this subunit into an HEK 293 cell line stably expressing FLAG tagged Ino80 ATPase. (jove.com)

specific


  • Until recently though, techniques that require direct access to cells and isolation of specific cell types, could not be applied in C. elegans . (jove.com)
  • Here a method for determining the effect of specific transcellular interactions on the insulin secreting capacity and responsiveness of beta cells is presented. (jove.com)

different


  • Genetically encoded Ca 2+ indicators that are targeted to different cellular compartments have provided a platform for live cell confocal imaging of cellular Ca 2+ signals. (jove.com)
  • These techniques will facilitate the comparison of the miRNA profiles of three different cell types. (jove.com)
  • In addition, injecting cancer cells into mice with different genotypes might provide a better understanding of the importance of the stromal compartment. (jove.com)

human cells


  • Functions of the other subunits and the mechanisms by which they contribute to the INO80 complex's chromatin remodeling activity remain poorly understood, in part due to the challenge of generating INO80 subassemblies in human cells or heterologous expression systems. (jove.com)
  • Ionizing radiation (IR) can be extremely harmful for human cells since an improper DNA-damage response (DDR) to IR can contribute to carcinogenesis initiation. (jove.com)

grow


  • Using this model, many aspects (growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis) of cancer can be investigated simply by providing a proper environment for tumor cells to grow. (jove.com)

system


provide


  • In the case of erythromycin A, the E. coli cell had to be engineered to provide the two precursors (propionyl-CoA and (2S)-methylmalonyl-CoA) required for biosynthesis. (jove.com)
  • These variations can provide insight on how cells and systems cope with stress or physiological perturbations. (jove.com)