Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Casein Kinase I: A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Casein Kinase Iepsilon: A casein kinase I isoenzyme with specificity for proteins involved the regulation of the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Casein Kinase Idelta: A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a regulatory role in a variety of cellular functions including vesicular transport, CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION; CYTOKINESIS, developmental processes, and the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Casein Kinase Ialpha: A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a role in intracellular signaling pathways including the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY, the CELL CYCLE, membrane trafficking, and RNA processing. Multiple isoforms of casein kinase I alpha exist and are due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.PhosphopeptidesProtein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Dichlororibofuranosylbenzimidazole: An RNA polymerase II transcriptional inhibitor. This compound terminates transcription prematurely by selective inhibition of RNA synthesis. It is used in research to study underlying mechanisms of cellular regulation.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.PhosphoproteinsMAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Phosphoserine: The phosphoric acid ester of serine.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Phosphothreonine: The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Benzylamines: Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.2,3-Diphosphoglycerate: A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Phosvitin: An egg yolk phosphoglycoprotein which contains about 90% of the yolk protein phosphorus. It is synthesized in the liver of the hen and transferred to the developing oocyte, where it is bound to lipoproteins within the yolk granules.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Glycogen Synthase Kinases: A class of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally found as one of the three types of kinases that phosphorylate GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE. Glycogen synthase kinases along with CA(2+)-CALMODULIN DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES and CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES regulate glycogen synthase activity.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Polylysine: A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Diphosphoglyceric AcidsDNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32: A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Nucleoplasmins: A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA Topoisomerases, Type II: DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Nerve Tissue ProteinsStructure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Caenorhabditis: A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5: A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Glycyrrhizic Acid: A widely used anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the licorice root. It is metabolized to GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID, which inhibits 11-BETA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES and other enzymes involved in the metabolism of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Therefore, glycyrrhizic acid, which is the main and sweet component of licorice, has been investigated for its ability to cause hypermineralocorticoidism with sodium retention and potassium loss, edema, increased blood pressure, as well as depression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.GAP-43 Protein: A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesDrosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Artemia: A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Receptor, IGF Type 2: A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Diacylglycerol Kinase: An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Phloroglucinol: A trinitrobenzene derivative with antispasmodic properties that is used primarily as a laboratory reagent.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Okadaic Acid: A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2B: A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that acts to restore EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 to its GTP bound form.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.

*  Casein Kinase II Regulates N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Activity in Spinal Cords an

casein kinase II. DRB. 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole 1-β-d-ribofuranoside. EPSC. excitatory postsynaptic current. mEPSC. miniature ... protein kinase A, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, or the Src tyrosine kinase (Pinna, 1990). The concentration of ... Casein Kinase II Regulates N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Activity in Spinal Cords and Pain Hypersensitivity Induced by Nerve ... 1999) Casein kinase-II regulates NMDA channel function in hippocampal neurons. Nat Neurosci 2:125-132. ...

*  Casein kinase II alpha transgene-induced murine lymphoma: relation to theileriosis i

... co-expression of a c-myc transgene in addition to casein kinase II resulted in neonatal leukemia. Thus, the casein kinase II ... Casein kinase II alpha transgene-induced murine lymphoma: relation to theileriosis in cattle ... Casein kinase II alpha transgene-induced murine lymphoma: relation to theileriosis in cattle ... Casein kinase II alpha transgene-induced murine lymphoma: relation to theileriosis in cattle ...

*  Caseína quinasa 2, alfa 1 - Wikipedia

Mapping of the human casein kinase II catalytic subunit genes: two loci carrying the homologous sequences for the alpha subunit ... de 1998). «Casein kinase II interacts with the bZIP domains of several transcription factors». Nucleic Acids Res. (ENGLAND) 26 ... de 2000). «Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced phosphorylation of RelA/p65 on Ser529 is controlled by casein kinase II». J. ... subunits of casein kinase II». Biochemistry 29 (36): 8436-47. PMID 2174700. Yang-Feng TL, Zheng K, Kopatz I, Naiman T, Canaani ...ína_quinasa_2,_alfa_1

*  C-jun - Wikipedia

de 1998). «Casein kinase II interacts with the bZIP domains of several transcription factors». Nucleic Acids Res. (ENGLAND) 26 ... de 1997). «Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase». Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ... de 1996). «Interaction between c-Rel and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 signaling cascade in mediating ... de 2002). «Regulation of two JunD isoforms by Jun N-terminal kinases». J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (33): 29710-8. ISSN ...

*  ATF2 - Wikipedia

de 1998). «Casein kinase II interacts with the bZIP domains of several transcription factors». Nucleic Acids Res. (ENGLAND) 26 ... de 1997). «Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase». Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ... de 2001). «Regulation of stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways by TAO2». J. Biol. Chem. (United ... de 1997). «c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases target the ubiquitination of their associated transcription factors». J. Biol. Chem. ( ...

*  CREBBP - Wikipedia

de 1998). «Casein kinase II interacts with the bZIP domains of several transcription factors». Nucleic Acids Res. (ENGLAND) 26 ... de 1996). «Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II potentiates transcriptional activation through activating transcription ... de 1996). «Two contact regions between Stat1 and CBP/p300 in interferon gamma signaling». Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (UNITED ... de 2001). «Two domains of Nrf2 cooperatively bind CBP, a CREB binding protein, and synergistically activate transcription». ...

*  HMGA1 - Wikipedia

Identification of sites on chromosomal protein HMG-I phosphorylated by casein kinase II.». FEBS Lett. 257 (1): 101-4. PMID ... PMID 1692833 Nissen MS, Langan TA, Reeves R (1991). «Phosphorylation by cdc2 kinase modulates DNA binding activity of high ... 1987). «The human chromosomal protein HMG I contains two identical palindrome amino acid sequences.». Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... 31 (2): 98-105. PMID 16403635. doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2005.12.002 !CS1 manut: Uso explícito de et al. (link) !CS1 manut: Nomes ...

*  Proteína ribosomal L5 - Wikipedia

de 1996). «Interaction of the beta subunit of casein kinase II with the ribosomal protein L5». Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. ( ... de 1997). «A-Raf kinase is a new interacting partner of protein kinase CK2 beta subunit». FEBS Lett. (NETHERLANDS) 403 (2): 197 ... de 2004). «Analysis of a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system and its use to predict the function of intracellular proteins ... de 2001). «Mapping of the interaction domain of the protein kinase CKII beta subunit with target proteins». Mol. Cells (Korea ( ...ína_ribosomal_L5

*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | The Structure and Dynamics of BmR1 Protein from Brugia malayi: In Silico Approaches | HTML

... three protein kinase C phosphorylation sites (residues 68-70, 110-112 and 125-127) and six casein kinase II phosphorylation ... Some FAR proteins have a casein kinase II phosphorylation site [56,61]. Analysis results from PDBeMotif [30] and Motif Scan [31 ... Garofalo et al., [53] showed that the FAR proteins were from two main clusters but only FAR proteins from the same cluster as B ... The average MD structure was further analysed by Prosa II Z-score [21] to access the quality of the results. The Z-score value ...

*  SCOPe 2.06: Domain d5m4ia : 5m4i A

PDB Compounds: (A:) Casein kinase II subunit alpha. SCOPe Domain Sequences for d5m4ia_:. Sequence; same for both SEQRES and ... Fold d.144: Protein kinase-like (PK-like) [56111] (1 superfamily). consists of two alpha+beta domains, C-terminal domain is ... Protein Protein kinase CK2, alpha subunit [56142] (3 species). CMGC group; CK2 subfamily; serine/threonine kinase. ... Superfamily d.144.1: Protein kinase-like (PK-like) [56112] (8 families) shares functional and structural similarities with the ...

*  Alphabetic Listing of Presenting Authors - M | 2015 Celegans Meeting

The C. elegans Casein Kinase 2α .... Poster. Cell Biology - Cell Cycle, Cell Division, Meiosis and Chromosome Dynamics. 1137B. ... A two-tier glutamate clearance system in .... Parallel. Regeneration and Synaptic Function. 170. Saturday, June 27. De Neve ... Role of PIG-1/MELK kinase in cytokinesis .... Poster. Cell Biology - Cell Cycle, Cell Division, Meiosis and Chromosome Dynamics ... Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate as a toxic .... Poster. Physiology - Dauer Larvae and Metabolism. 384B. Friday, June 26. Pauley ...

*  RELA - Wikipedia

de 2000). «Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced phosphorylation of RelA/p65 on Ser529 is controlled by casein kinase II». J. ... de 1998). «IKAP is a scaffold protein of the IkappaB kinase complex». Nature (ENGLAND) 395 (6699): 292-6. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID ... de 1999). «ERK MAP kinase links cytokine signals to activation of latent HIV-1 infection by stimulating a cooperative ... United States) 23 (2): 721-32. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 12509469. Wu, Min; Xu Liang-Guo, Zhai Zhonghe, Shu Hong-Bing (Jul. de 2003 ...

*  Patent US7795326 - Conformable bandage and coating material - Google Patents

... for tyrosine kinases, protein kinase C, myosin light chain kinase, Ca2+/calmodulin kinase II, casein kinase II); anti- ... When cast on glass the dried clear film had a moderate number of domains of two sizes-less than 0.05 mm and about 0.1 mm. When ... The first two monomers each satisfy the definition of the nitrogen-containing, hydrophilic monomer component, and together ... Based on five day cell culture growth studies, two to twenty times more keratinocytes or fibroblasts adhered to the polymers of ... 5,387,949&ei=4yI4T8nkLYa80QG0xqnWAg

*  Glucose-regulated and drug-perturbed phosphoproteome reveals molecular mechanisms controlling insulin secretion | Nature...

For example, this approach revealed that the casein kinase 2 (CK2) substrate motif is strongly enriched in beta cells treated ... 6c). Discarding two sites that are not conserved between mouse and human, our combined strategy resulted in a high stringency ... Protein kinase C (PKC)-delta/-epsilon mediate the PKC/Akt-dependent phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 ... Protein kinase C activates the MEK-ERK pathway in a manner independent of Ras and dependent on Raf. . The Journal of biological ...

*  Lst1 MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:1096324 - leukocyte specific transcript 1

J:41366 Lanning D, et al., Localization of the casein kinase II beta-subunit gene within the mouse H-2 complex class III region ... 10 phenotypes from 2 alleles in 2 genetic backgrounds 8 phenotype references ...

*  OriGene - PACSIN2 (NM 007229) qPCR Primer Pair

Homo sapiens protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 2 (PACSIN2), transcript variant 2 as transfection-ready ... Lenti ORF clone of Human protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 2 (PACSIN2), transcript variant 2 , Myc-DDK- ... Lenti ORF clone of Human protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 2 (PACSIN2), transcript variant 2, mGFP tagged ... Lenti ORF clone of Human protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 2 (PACSIN2), transcript variant 2 , Myc-DDK- ...

*  MAP3K1 - Wikipedia

de 2002). «Casein kinase I and casein kinase II differentially regulate axin function in Wnt and JNK pathways». J. Biol. Chem ... Entrez Gene: MAP3K1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1». Karandikar, M; Xu S, Cobb M H (Dec. de 2000). «MEKK1 ... de 1997). «MEKK1 binds directly to the c-Jun N-terminal kinases/stress-activated protein kinases». J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED ... de 1998). «Grb2 interaction with MEK-kinase 1 is involved in regulation of Jun-kinase activities in response to epidermal ...

*  CST - SignalSilence® CK2α siRNA I

CK2 (formerly called Casein Kinase II) is a highly conserved protein kinase with more than 300 substrates regulating cell ... CK2 is a multimeric protein complex consisting of two catalytic subunits (α or α') and two regulatory β subunits (7). CK2 is ... CST Pathways Cancer Research Protein Kinases: Introduction Cellular Landscapes Poster Presentations Useful Web Resources ... Tyr255 phosphorylation by the Src-related kinase c-Fgr seems to have the greatest effect on CK2α activity (8,9). ...

*  PP2Ac / PPP2CA Antibody (clone P6C7) - Mouse Monoclonal Antibody WB, IHC-P, E, IP - Buy Now! |Abgent

PP2A can modulate the activity of phosphorylase B kinase casein kinase 2, mitogen-stimulated S6 kinase, and MAP-2 kinase. ... PP2A can modulate the activity of phosphorylase B kinase casein kinase 2, mitogen-stimulated S6 kinase, and MAP-2 kinase. ... IgG F(ab')2. IgG F(c). IgG F(ab). IgM. IgA. IgG1. IgG2b. Transferrin. IgG2a. IgG3. IgG2c. ...

*  Inhibition of c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase activity by STI 571, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor | Blood Journal

... protein kinase A, various protein kinase C isoforms, casein kinases 1 and 2, and cdc2.30 31In murine xenograft models of human ... In phase I and II clinical trials of treatment of patients with CML, STI 571 was effective and well tolerated.32 33 In these ... and a cytoplasmic domain with a split kinase domain and a hydrophilic kinase insert sequence.17 The juxtamembrane and kinase ... The protein kinase encoded by the Akt proto-oncogene is a target of the PDGF-activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Cell. ...

*  Molecular Components of the Adherens Junction

Lickert H, Bauer A, Kemler R, Stappert J. Casein kinase II phosphorylation of E-cadherin increases E-cadherin/beta-catenin ... For example, growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases such as EGFR [71], src family kinases [72, 73] and tyrosine phosphatases ( ... these factors fall into two categories: growth factor receptors/phosphatases/kinases and Rho-family GTPases and their ... Patel SD, Ciatto C, Chen F, Bahna F, Rajebhosale M, Arkus N, Schieren I, Jessell TM, Honig B, Price SR, Shapiro L. Type II ...

*  STC2 siRNAs

... protein has 10 of its 15 cysteine residues conserved among stanniocalcin family members and is phosphorylated by casein kinase ... stanniocalcin 2. AW125853;Stc2l;mustc2. NM_011491.3. This page works best with JavaScript enabled! Assay ID 13517 View Assay on ... stanniocalcin 2. STC-2;STCRP. NM_003714.2. HSS112610 details, HSS112610 search Human. stanniocalcin 2. STC-2;STCRP. NM_003714.2 ... stanniocalcin 2. AW125853;Stc2l;mustc2. NM_011491.3. s16387 details, s16387 search Human. stanniocalcin 2. STC-2;STCRP. NM_ ...

*  US Patent # 5,169,933. Covalently-linked complexes and methods for enhanced cytotoxicity and imaging -

The C terminal 10-mer of the accessory peptide serves as a substrate for the intracellular enzyme casein kinase II, and the ... 4EALEALAA and the casein kinase II substrate accessory peptide AAAAAASEEE is synthesized according to the procedure in Example ... Kemptide RGYALG or RGYSLG Glycogen synthetase PLSRTLSVAA Transferrin receptor FSLAR H1 histone ASGSFKL Casein kinase II ... Further, the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor binds IGF-II and mimics the IGF-II receptor (D. Morgan et al., ...

*  Phosphorylation of Rac1 T108 by Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase in Response to Epidermal Growth Factor: a Novel Mechanism...

... primary sequence preference of casein kinases I and II, NIMA, phosphorylase kinase, calmodulin-dependent kinase II, CDK5, and ... The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) phosphorylate RhoA on serine ( ... Akt protein kinase inhibits Rac1-GTP binding through phosphorylation at serine 71 of Rac1. J. Biol. Chem. 275:423-428 [PubMed] ... 4A and ​andB).B). We first examined the ability of activated ERK to phosphorylate His-Rac1 by using an ERK kinase assay kit in ...

*  ckiibeta TaqMan Gene Expression Assays

Casein kinase II beta subunit. And;CCK2;CG15224;CK II;CK-2;CK-II beta;CK-IIbeta;CK2;CK2-beta;CK2beta;CKII;CKII beta;CKII-beta1; ... Casein kinase II beta subunit. And;CCK2;CG15224;CK II;CK-2;CK-II beta;CK-IIbeta;CK2;CK2-beta;CK2beta;CKII;CKII beta;CKII-beta1; ... Casein kinase II beta subunit. And;CCK2;CG15224;CK II;CK-2;CK-II beta;CK-IIbeta;CK2;CK2-beta;CK2beta;CKII;CKII beta;CKII-beta1; ... Casein kinase II beta subunit. And;CCK2;CG15224;CK II;CK-2;CK-II beta;CK-IIbeta;CK2;CK2-beta;CK2beta;CKII;CKII beta;CKII-beta1; ...

*  Rabbit anti-Human PLEKHO1 antibody (ABIN652439)

Synonyms: Pleckstrin homology domain-containing family O member 1, Casein kinase 2-interacting protein 1, CK2-interacting ... Maintain refrigerated at 2-8 °C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20 °C in small aliquots to prevent freeze- ... to target CK2 to the plasma membrane thereby serving as an adapter to facilitate the phosphorylation of CP by protein kinase 2 ... anti-Pleckstrin Homology-Like Domain, Family A, Member 2 Antibodies * anti-Pleckstrin Homology-Like Domain, Family A, Member 3 ... Homology Domain Containing, Family O Member 1 PLEKHO1 AA 49-77, N-Term antibody/

CCDC90B: Coiled coil domain containing 90B, also known as CCDC90B, is a protein encoded by the CCDC90B gene.Casein: Casein ( or , from Latin caseus, "cheese") is the name for a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ). These proteins are commonly found in mammalian milk, making up 80% of the proteins in cow milk and between 20% and 45% of the proteins in human milk.The Epic of Gilgamesh, or This Unnameable Little BroomKinome: In molecular biology, the kinome of an organism is the set of protein kinases in its genome. Kinases are enzymes that catalyze phosphorylation reactions (of amino acids) and fall into several groups and families, e.Hyperphosphorylation: Hyperphosphorylation occurs when a biochemical with multiple phosphorylation sites is fully saturated. Hyperphosphorylation is one of the signalling mechanisms used by the cell to regulate mitosis.Serine/threonine-specific protein kinasePlasticity productProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Coles PhillipsRigerimod: Rigerimod (IPP-201101, Lupuzor) is a polypeptide corresponding to the sequence 131-151 of the 70k snRNP protein with a serine phosphorylated in position 140.http://www.Specificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.Cyclin-dependent kinase regulatory subunit family: In molecular biology, the cyclin-dependent kinase regulatory subunit family is a family of proteins consisting of the regulatory subunits of cyclin-dependent protein kinases.PHLPP: The PHLPP isoforms (PH domain and Leucine rich repeat Protein Phosphatases) are a pair of protein phosphatases, PHLPP1 and PHLPP2, that are important regulators of Akt serine-threonine kinases (Akt1, Akt2, Akt3) and conventional/novel protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. PHLPP may act as a tumor suppressor in several types of cancer due to its ability to block growth factor-induced signaling in cancer cells.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Phosphoprotein: A phosphoprotein is a protein that is posttranslationally modified by the attachment of either a single phosphate group, or a complex molecule such as 5'-phospho-DNA, through a phosphate group. The target amino acid is usually serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues (mostly in eukaryotes), or aspartic acid or histidine residues (mostly in prokaryotes).Forkhead-associated domain: In molecular biology, the forkhead-associated domain (FHA domain) is a phosphopeptide recognition domain found in many regulatory proteins. It displays specificity for phosphothreonine-containing epitopes but will also recognise phosphotyrosine with relatively high affinity.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Margaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Src family kinase: Src family kinase is a family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases that includes nine members: Src, Yes, Fyn, and Fgr, forming the SrcA subfamily, Lck, Hck, Blk, and Lyn in the SrcB subfamily, and Frk in its own subfamily. Frk has homologs in invertebrates such as flies and worms, and Src homologs exist in organisms as diverse as unicellular choanoflagellates, but the SrcA and SrcB subfamilies are specific to vertebrates.Threonine proteaseIsozyme: Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as Multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in amino acid sequence but catalyze the same chemical reaction. These enzymes usually display different kinetic parameters (e.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.New Zealand rabbitEzlopitantDNA-binding proteinCalmodulin binding domain: In molecular biology, calmodulin binding domain (CaMBD) is a protein domain found in small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK channels). These channels are independent of voltage and gated solely by intracellular Ca2+.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.RNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.Protein serine/threonine phosphatase: Protein serine/threonine phosphatase (PSP) is a form of phosphoprotein phosphatase that acts upon serine/threonine residues.Inhibitor protein: The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia. In oxygen absence, the pH of the matrix drops.C-Jun N-terminal kinases: c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), were originally identified as kinases that bind and phosphorylate c-Jun on Ser-63 and Ser-73 within its transcriptional activation domain. They belong to the mitogen-activated protein kinase family, and are responsive to stress stimuli, such as cytokines, ultraviolet irradiation, heat shock, and osmotic shock.Tyrosine-kinase inhibitor: A tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is a pharmaceutical drug that inhibits tyrosine kinases. Tyrosine kinases are enzymes responsible for the activation of many proteins by signal transduction cascades.Caldesmon: Caldesmon is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CALD1 gene.Cyclin-dependent kinase complex: A cyclin-dependent kinase complex (CDKC, cyclin-CDK) is a protein complex formed by the association of an inactive catalytic subunit of a protein kinase, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), with a regulatory subunit, cyclin.Malumbres M, Barbacid M.FERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1: POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (Pit1, growth hormone factor 1), also known as POU1F1, is a transcription factor for growth hormone.Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Proteinogenic amino acid: Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation. There are 23 proteinogenic amino acids in prokaryotes (including N-Formylmethionine, mainly used to initiate protein synthesis and often removed afterward), but only 21 are encoded by the nuclear genes of eukaryotes.PolylysineMitogen-activated protein kinase kinase: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (also known as MAP2K, MEK, MAPKK) is a kinase enzyme which phosphorylates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK).Reticulocyte indexFairweather LodgeDNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Glycogen synthase kinase: Glycogen synthase kinase is an enzyme.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.SEA Native Peptide LigationProtoplasm: Protoplasm is the living content of a cell that is surrounded by a plasma membrane. It is a general term for the cytoplasm.Creatine kinaseKIAA0895L: Uncharacterized protein KIAA0895-like also known as LOC653319, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIAA0895L gene.

(1/1209) Phosphorylation of the DNA repair protein APE/REF-1 by CKII affects redox regulation of AP-1.

The DNA repair protein apurinic endonuclease (APE/Ref-1) exerts several physiological functions such as cleavage of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites and redox regulation of the transcription factor AP-1, whose activation is part of the cellular response to DNA damaging treatments. Here we demonstrate that APE/Ref-1 is phosphorylated by casein kinase II (CKII). This was shown for both the recombinant APE/Ref-1 protein (Km=0.55 mM) and for APE/Ref-1 expressed in COS cells. Phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 did not alter the repair activity of the enzyme, whereas it stimulated its redox capability towards AP-1, thus promoting DNA binding activity of AP-1. Inhibition of CKII mediated phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 blocked mutagen-stimulated increase in AP-1 binding. It also abrogated the induction of c-Jun protein and rendered cells more sensitive to induced DNA damage. Thus, phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 appears to be involved in regulating the different physiological activities of the enzyme. CKII mediated phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 and concomitant increase in AP-1 binding activity appears to be a novel mechanism of cellular stress response, forcing transcription of AP-1 target gene(s) the product(s) of which may exert protective function.  (+info)

(2/1209) Allosteric regulation of even-skipped repression activity by phosphorylation.

The Drosophila homeodomain protein Even-skipped (Eve) is a well characterized transcriptional repressor. Here, we show that Eve's ability to function in vitro is negatively regulated by phosphorylation. DNA-binding activity was unaffected by phosphorylation, but phosphorylated Eve was unable to interact with the TATA-binding protein (TBP), a known target for repression. Unexpectedly, phosphorylation of the Eve N terminus, which is dispensable for repression and TBP binding, was necessary and sufficient to inactivate Eve. LiCl, which specifically inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), reduced Eve phosphorylation in nuclear extract and blocked inhibition of repression. In addition, Eve was phosphorylated and inactivated by purified GSK-3 beta plus casein kinase II. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of transcriptional control involving phosphorylation-induced allosteric interference with a repressive protein-protein interaction.  (+info)

(3/1209) Phosphorylation of yeast TBP by protein kinase CK2 reduces its specific binding to DNA.

Protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous Ser/Thr kinase which phosphorylates a large number of proteins including several transcription factors. Recombinant Xenopus laevis CK2 phosphorylates both recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe TATA binding protein (TBP). The phosphorylation of TBP by CK2 reduces its binding activity to the TATA box. CK2 copurifies with the transcription factor IID (TFIID) complex from HeLa cell extracts and phosphorylates several of the TBP-associated factors within TFIID. Taken together these findings argue for a role of CK2 in the control of transcription by RNA polymerase II through the modulation of the binding activity of TBP to the TATA box.  (+info)

(4/1209) Phosphorylation of the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex does not influence its interaction with the tyrosine based internalisation motif of TGN38.

Tyrosine based motifs conforming to the consensus YXXphi (where phi represents a bulky hydrophobic residue) have been shown to interact with the medium chain subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes. These medium chains are targets for phosphorylation by a kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles. We have used the clathrin coated vesicle associated kinase activity to specifically phosphorylate a soluble recombinant fusion protein of mu2, the medium chain subunit of the plasma membrane associated adaptor protein complex AP-2. We have tested whether this phosphorylation has any effect on the interaction of mu2 with the tyrosine based motif containing protein, TGN38, that has previously been shown to interact with mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 was shown to have no significant effect on the in vitro interaction of mu2 with the cytosolic domain of TGN38, indicating that reversible phosphorylation of mu2 does not play a role in regulating its direct interaction with tyrosine based internalisation motifs. In addition, although a casein kinase II-like activity has been shown to be associated with clathrin coated vesicles, we show that mu2 is not phosphorylated by casein kinase II implying that another kinase activity is present in clathrin coated vesicles. Furthermore the kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles was shown to be capable of phosphorylating dynamin 1. Phosphorylation of dynamin 1 has previously been shown to regulate its interaction with other proteins involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis.  (+info)

(5/1209) Phosphorylation of CD45 by casein kinase 2. Modulation of activity and mutational analysis.

CD45 is a receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that is required for antigen-specific stimulation and proliferation in lymphocytes. This study was designed to determine the nature of specific kinases in lymphocytes that phosphorylate CD45 and to determine the effect of phosphorylation on CD45 PTP activity. A major cytoplasmic lymphocyte kinase that phosphorylated CD45 was identified as casein kinase 2 (CK2) by use of an in-gel kinase assay in combination with immunoprecipitation, immunodepletion, and specific inhibition. Mutational analysis of CK2 consensus sites showed that the target for CK2 was in an acidic insert of 19 amino acids in the D2 domain, and Ser to Ala mutations at amino acids 965, 968, 969, and 973 abrogated CK2 phosphorylation of CD45. CK2 phosphorylation increased CD45 activity 3-fold toward phosphorylated myelin basic protein, and this increase was reversible by PP2A treatment. Mutation of Ser to Glu at the CK2 sites had the same effect as phosphorylation and also tripled the Vmax of CD45. CD45 isolated in vivo was highly phosphorylated and could not be phosphorylated by CK2 without prior dephosphorylation with phosphatase PP2A. We conclude that CK2 is a major lymphocyte kinase that is responsible for in vivo phosphorylation of CD45, and phosphorylation at specific CK2 sites regulates CD45 PTP activity.  (+info)

(6/1209) A modulatory role for clathrin light chain phosphorylation in Golgi membrane protein localization during vegetative growth and during the mating response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

The role of clathrin light chain phosphorylation in regulating clathrin function has been examined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The phosphorylation state of yeast clathrin light chain (Clc1p) in vivo was monitored by [32P]phosphate labeling and immunoprecipitation. Clc1p was phosphorylated in growing cells and also hyperphosphorylated upon activation of the mating response signal transduction pathway. Mating pheromone-stimulated hyperphosphorylation of Clc1p was dependent on the mating response signal transduction pathway MAP kinase Fus3p. Both basal and stimulated phosphorylation occurred exclusively on serines. Mutagenesis of Clc1p was used to map major phosphorylation sites to serines 52 and 112, but conversion of all 14 serines in Clc1p to alanines [S(all)A] was necessary to eliminate phosphorylation. Cells expressing the S(all)A mutant Clc1p displayed no defects in Clc1p binding to clathrin heavy chain, clathrin trimer stability, sorting of a soluble vacuolar protein, or receptor-mediated endocytosis of mating pheromone. However, the trans-Golgi network membrane protein Kex2p was not optimally localized in mutant cells. Furthermore, pheromone treatment exacerbated the Kex2p localization defect and caused a corresponding defect in Kex2p-mediated maturation of the alpha-factor precursor. The results reveal a novel requirement for clathrin during the mating response and suggest that phosphorylation of the light chain subunit modulates the activity of clathrin at the trans-Golgi network.  (+info)

(7/1209) Antisense expression of the CK2 alpha-subunit gene in Arabidopsis. Effects on light-regulated gene expression and plant growth.

The protein kinase CK2 (formerly casein kinase II) is thought to be involved in light-regulated gene expression in plants because of its ability to phosphorylate transcription factors that bind to the promoter regions of light-regulated genes in vitro. To address this possibility in vivo and to learn more about the potential physiological roles of CK2 in plants, we transformed Arabidopsis with an antisense construct of the CK2 alpha-subunit gene and investigated both morphological and molecular phenotypes. Antisense transformants had a smaller adult leaf size and showed increased expression of chs in darkness and of cab and rbcS after red-light treatment. The latter molecular phenotype implied that CK2 might serve as one of several negative and quantitative effectors in light-regulated gene expression. The possible mechanism of CK2 action and its involvement in the phytochrome signal transduction pathway are discussed.  (+info)

(8/1209) Nuclear matrix targeting of the protein kinase CK2 signal as a common downstream response to androgen or growth factor stimulation of prostate cancer cells.

Protein kinase CK2, a messenger-independent serine/threonine kinase, has been implicated in cell growth. Androgenic stimulus in rat prostate modulates its association with nuclear matrix (NM) and chromatin. Because the growth of human prostate carcinoma cells is influenced by androgens and/or growth factors, we determined the nature of CK2 signaling in the NM in response to androgen and growth factor stimuli. Androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-insensitive PC-3 cells were cultured in media to regulate their growth in the presence of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5alpha-DHT) or growth factors (epidermal growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor, and transforming growth factor alpha). The activity of CK2 was measured in the cytosolic and NM fractions isolated from these cells after treatment with growth stimuli. The changes in CK2 in various fractions were also confirmed by immunoblotting with a specific antibody. LNCaP cells responded to both 5alpha-DHT and growth factors for growth. The presence of these agents in the culture medium evoked a translocation of CK2 to the NM from the cytosol. The PC-3 cells did not respond to 5alpha-DHT for growth but did respond to growth factors. Under these conditions, there was also a translocation of CK2 to the NM concomitant with a decrease in the cytosolic fraction. These results suggest that CK2 translocation to the NM occurs in response to various growth stimuli in cells in culture. Thus, CK2 is a common downstream signal transducer in response to diverse growth stimuli that may relate to the pathobiology of prostate cancer cells.  (+info)


  • Phosphorylation by cdc2 kinase modulates DNA binding activity of high mobility group I nonhistone chromatin protein. (
  • Additionally, by applying mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics, here we demonstrate that key kinases are significantly downregulated in NOD (non-obese diabetic mice) diabetic islets, further supporting the importance of phosphorylation-based signalling networks in the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). (
  • While cell cycle-dependent Ser-Pro phosphorylation sites have been identified on CK2α and CK2β, Tyr255 phosphorylation by the Src-related kinase c-Fgr seems to have the greatest effect on CK2α activity (8,9). (

protein kinases

  • However, the specific protein kinases responsible for increased NMDAR activity caused by nerve injury have not been conclusively identified. (


  • Structurally, CK2 is a multimeric protein complex consisting of two catalytic subunits (α or α') and two regulatory β subunits (7). (


  • Strikingly, casein kinase II (CK2) inhibitors normalize increased NMDAR currents of dorsal horn neurons in nerve-injured rats. (
  • Previous reports on other PDGFR kinase inhibitors noted that some of these compounds can inhibit the kinase activity of c-kit. (


  • Infection of cattle with the protozoan parasite Theileria parva results in a fatal lymphoproliferative syndrome that is associated with the overexpression of casein kinase II. (


  • Inhibition of protein tyrosine kinases or protein kinase C has little effect on NMDAR currents potentiated by nerve injury. (


  • Here we show that peripheral nerve injury induces a large GluN2A-mediated increase in NMDAR activity in spinal lamina II, but not lamina I, neurons. (


  • STI 571 (formerly known as CGP 57148B) is a known inhibitor of the c-abl, bcr-abl, and platelet-derived growth-factor receptor (PDGFR) tyrosine kinases. (
  • We sought to extend the activity profile of STI 571 by testing its ability to inhibit the tyrosine kinase activity of c-kit, a receptor structurally similar to PDGFR. (
  • These findings show that STI 571 selectively inhibits c-kit tyrosine kinase activity and downstream activation of target proteins involved in cellular proliferation and survival. (
  • c-kit, a 145-kd transmembrane glycoprotein, is the normal cellular homologue of the viral oncogene v-kit and a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase subclass III family that includes receptors for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and flt3 ligand. (
  • STI 571 (formerly known as CGP 57148B), a 2-phenylaminopyrimidine derivative, is a known inhibitor of the c-abl, bcr-abl, and PDGF receptor (PDGFR) tyrosine kinases. (


  • Thus, the casein kinase II gene can serve as an oncogene, and its dysregulated expression is capable of transforming lymphocytes in a two-step pathway with c-myc. (
  • Oncogene (England) 22 (2): 220-32. (


  • 1]​[2]​ La caseína quinasa 2 es una serina/treonina quinasa que fosforila proteínas ácidas como la caseína. (
  • 3]​ ATF2 es normalmente activado en respuesta a señales que convergen en la proteín-quinasa de estrés p38 y en JNK. (
  • Esta proteína interacciona específicamente con la subunidad beta de la caseína quinasa II. (
  • La MAP quinasa quinasa quinasa 1 (MAP3K1 ó MEK quinasa) es una enzima codificada en humanos por el gen MAP3K1. (
  • 1]​[2]​ La MAP3K1 es una serina/treonina quinasa que ejerce un papel fundamental en la red de enzimas que fosforilan integrando la respuesta celular a un cierto número de estímulos mitogénicos y metabólicos, incluyendo, por ejemplo, la insulina y factores de crecimiento. (


  • 1987). «The human chromosomal protein HMG I contains two identical palindrome amino acid sequences. (


  • The quantitative phosphoproteome of 30,000 sites clustered into three main groups in concordance with the modulation of the three key kinases: PKA, PKC and CK2A. (


  • 1995). «Regulation of cell-type-specific interleukin-2 receptor alpha-chain gene expression: potential role of physical interactions between Elf-1, HMG-I(Y), and NF-kappa B family proteins. (


  • El factor de transcripción activador 2, también conocido como ATF2 (de sus siglas en inglés Activating Transcription Factor 2), es una proteína codificada por el gen atf2 en humanos. (


  • 5]​ De igual modo, se ha podido observar que la activación anormal de ATF2 tiene diversos efectos en el crecimiento y progresión de tumores de la piel en mamíferos. (


  • 1]​ El gen atf2 se encuentra localizado en humanos en el locus 2q31.1. (
  • La proteína de unión a CREB, también conocido como CREBBP o CBP es una proteína codificada en humanos por el gen CREBBP. (
  • La proteína ribosomal L5 (RPL5) es una proteína codificada en humanos por el gen rpl5. (
  • El factor de transcripción p65 (RELA) es una proteína codificada en humanos por el gen RELA. (


  • STI 571 had a more potent inhibitory effect on the kinase activity of this mutant receptor than it did on ligand-dependent activation of the wild-type receptor. (
  • This compound may be useful in treating cancers associated with increased c-kit kinase activity. (
  • 34 35 Therefore, we speculated that STI 571 would also potently inhibit the kinase activity of c-kit. (
  • Using biochemical and cell-based assays of receptor activation, signal transduction, proliferation, and apoptosis, we found that STI 571 inhibited the SLF-dependent activation of wild-type c-kit kinase activity. (


  • STI 571 inhibited c-kit autophosphorylation, activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, and activation of Akt without altering total protein levels of c-kit, MAP kinase, or Akt. (
  • In contrast, the compound had no effect on MAP kinase activation or cellular proliferation in response to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. (


  • Estudios en ratón indican que tiene un importante papel en el desarrollo del sistema nervioso y del esqueleto. (
  • 4]​ Estudios con esta proteína han demostrado que se fosforila en respuesta al tratamiento de células con ésteres de forbol (inductor de tumores). (


  • Esta proteína se dispone en forma de tetrámero y se compone de una subunidad alfa, una alfa prima y dos subunidades beta. (
  • El gen CSNK2A1 codifica la subunidad alfa de este complejo y se localiza en el cromosoma 20, aunque se han descrito pseudogenes relacionados en el cromosoma 11. (


  • Interactions between protein kinase CK2 and Pin1. (



  • 32 33 There is a close homology between the kinase domains of PDGFR and c-kit. (


  • CK2 has been implicated in the response to UV irradiation-induced DNA damage, targeting XRCC1 (1) and BRCA1 (2) as well as regulating p53 tumor suppressor protein functions (3). (


  • Ratos que não possuem este gene desenvolvem um fenótipo de diabetes tipo 2. (


  • Las CREBBP comparten regiones de una elevada similitud de secuencia con el bromodominio, las regiones ricas en cisteína-histidina y el dominio histona acetiltransferasa de la proteína EP300. (


  • Localization of the casein kinase II beta-subunit gene within the mouse H-2 complex class III region and comparison of expression with Bat genes. (


  • Cancer Cell (United States) 2 (4): 335-46. (
  • CK2 (formerly called Casein Kinase II) is a highly conserved protein kinase with more than 300 substrates regulating cell growth, cell death, and cell survival. (


  • 2. The liquid, polymer-containing coating material in accordance with claim 1 , wherein said hydrophilic polymerizable nitrogen-containing monomer component is selected from the group consisting of polymerizable amides, imides, lactams and amines. (
  • 10. The liquid, polymer-containing coating material according to claim 9 , wherein said polymerizable third monomer component is a selected from the group consisting of benzyl methacrylate, 2-phenyl acrylate, methacrylic acid, acrylic acid, and combinations thereof. (