Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Endarterectomy: Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Amaurosis Fugax: Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by emboli from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245)Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection: The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Carotid Body: A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Asymptomatic Diseases: Diseases that do not exhibit symptoms.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Peripheral Arterial Disease: Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Carotid Body Tumor: Benign paraganglioma at the bifurcation of the COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES. It can encroach on the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood is flowing into the MYOCARDIUM by following over time the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Thoracic Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Balloon Occlusion: Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Fibromuscular Dysplasia: An idiopathic, segmental, nonatheromatous disease of the musculature of arterial walls, leading to STENOSIS of small and medium-sized arteries. There is true proliferation of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and fibrous tissue. Fibromuscular dysplasia lesions are smooth stenosis and occur most often in the renal and carotid arteries. They may also occur in other peripheral arteries of the extremity.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Aneurysm, False: Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Constriction: The act of constricting.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Brachiocephalic Trunk: The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Neointima: The new and thickened layer of scar tissue that forms on a PROSTHESIS, or as a result of vessel injury especially following ANGIOPLASTY or stent placement.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Echocardiography, Stress: A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.Ankle Brachial Index: Comparison of the BLOOD PRESSURE between the BRACHIAL ARTERY and the POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY. It is a predictor of PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE.Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi: A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.Maxillary Artery: A branch of the external carotid artery which distributes to the deep structures of the face (internal maxillary) and to the side of the face and nose (external maxillary).Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Bronchial Arteries: Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.

*  PPT - Carotid Imaging Modalities PowerPoint Presentation - ID:1224224

Leading Causes of Death in U.S. 1. Heart Disease 2. Cancer 3. Stroke (2 nd leading cause Worldwide) Carotid Artery ... Carotid Artery Palpation -External pressure on carotid artery may slow hr due to direct stimulation of barorecptor in carotid ... Carotid Artery Disease -Nathan orr pgy-4 uk gen surgery april 18,2012. objectives:. briefly review the history of carotid ... CAROTID ARTERY DISEASE -Epidemiology. 3 rd most common cause of death in the us most common cause of long term disability ...

*  Carotid Artery Disease | West Coast Vascular

Carotid Artery Disease. Download pdf - English. Carotid Artery Disease. Download pdf - Spanish. ... Plaque narrows the passageway within the arteries and causes them to become stiff. Carotid artery disease results when ... If left untreated, carotid artery disease may lead to stroke, where lack of oxygen and other essential nutrients cause damage ... There may be no symptoms in the early stages of carotid artery disease, and stroke could be the first sign of the condition. ...

*  Carotid Artery Disease

... The carotid arteries are the main arteries in the neck that supply the brain. Narrowing of these ... In less severe cases of carotid artery disease modification of risk factors may be all that is necessary, e.g. stopping smoking ... Initial imaging investigation of carotid artery disease is usually by a doppler ultrasound examination which may be ... Surgery in the form of carotid endarterectomy is performed by vascular surgeons and carotid artery stenting is usually ...

*  What Causes Carotid Artery Disease? - NHLBI, NIH

What Causes Carotid Artery Disease?. Carotid artery disease seems to start when damage occurs to the inner layers of the ... The buildup of plaque or blood clots can severely narrow or block the carotid arteries. This limits the flow of oxygen-rich ... The plaque in an artery can crack or rupture. If this happens, blood cell fragments called platelets will stick to the site of ... The healing may cause plaque to build up where the arteries are damaged. ...

*  Carotid artery disease - Mayo Clinic

Carotid artery disease - Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, treatment, prevention of this blood vessel condition. ... Carotid artery disease develops slowly. The first sign that you have the condition may be a stroke or transient ischemic attack ... Carotid artery disease occurs when fatty deposits (plaques) clog the blood vessels that deliver blood to your brain and head ( ... Treatment of carotid artery disease usually involves a combination of lifestyle changes, medication and sometimes surgery. ...

*  Carotid artery disease Symptoms - Mayo Clinic

Carotid artery disease - Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, treatment, prevention of this blood vessel condition. ... Talk to your doctor if you have risk factors for carotid artery disease. Even if you don't have any signs or symptoms, your ... In its early stages, carotid artery disease often doesn't produce any signs or symptoms. The condition may go unnoticed until ... Seeing a doctor early increases your chances that carotid artery disease will be found and treated before a disabling stroke ...

*  Carotid artery disease Why choose Mayo Clinic - Mayo Clinic

Carotid artery disease can lead to stroke through:. *Reduced blood flow. A carotid artery may become so narrowed by ... Family history. Your risk of carotid artery disease is higher if a relative has atherosclerosis or coronary artery disease. ... options for asymptomatic carotid artery disease and surgical techniques for treating symptomatic carotid artery disease. Mayo ... Carotid artery disease is caused by a buildup of plaques in arteries that deliver blood to your brain. Plaques are clumps of ...

*  NewYork-Presbyterian/Queens - Carotid Artery Disease

Carotid Artery Disease. Click Image to Enlarge. What is carotid artery disease?. Carotid artery disease, also called carotid ... is a vascular disease (disease of the arteries and veins). Carotid artery disease is similar to coronary artery disease, in ... Why are the carotid arteries important?. Because the carotid arteries deliver blood to the brain, carotid artery disease can ... What causes carotid artery disease?. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of carotid artery disease. It is unknown exactly ...

*  The Pathophysiology of Watershed Infarction in Internal Carotid Artery Disease | Stroke

The Pathophysiology of Watershed Infarction in Internal Carotid Artery Disease. Review of Cerebral Perfusion Studies. Isabelle ... Szabo K, Kern R, Gass A, Hirsch J, Hennerici M. Acute stroke patterns in patients with internal carotid artery disease: a ... Lesion patterns and mechanism of ischemia in internal carotid artery disease: a diffusion-weighted imaging study. Arch Neurol. ... and imaging studies in severe internal carotid artery (ICA) disease report an incidence ranging from 19% to 64%.3-5 ...

*  Assessment by fluorescein angiography of surgical treatment of occlusive carotid artery disease. | Stroke

Assessment by fluorescein angiography of surgical treatment of occlusive carotid artery disease.. N J Sarkies, J S Shilling, K ... Fundus fluorescein angiography was performed in 10 cases of occlusive carotid artery disease at presentation and after surgery ... Assessment by fluorescein angiography of surgical treatment of occlusive carotid artery disease. ... Assessment by fluorescein angiography of surgical treatment of occlusive carotid artery disease. ...

*  Systematic Comparison of the Early Outcome of Angioplasty and Endarterectomy for Symptomatic Carotid Artery Disease | Stroke

Systematic comparison of the outcome of angioplasty and endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid artery disease disease. Stroke.. ... Elective stenting of carotid artery stenosis in patients with severe coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J.. 1998;19:1365-1370. ... and all 750 patients with symptomatic carotid artery disease who undergo isolated carotid endarterectomy are included. We did ... Carotid stenting in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: a preferred approach. J Invasive Cardiol.. 1998;10:432- ...

*  Cognitive Impairment and Decline Are Associated with Carotid Artery Disease in Patients without Clinically Evident...

Examination should be more common in persons with left carotid artery disease than in those with right carotid artery disease. ... Internal carotid artery stenosis and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery were assessed by using duplex ... Whether carotid artery disease is a cause of cognitive impairment in persons who have not had stroke is unknown. If this is the ... Review: Stenting increases stroke but decreases periprocedural MI compared with endarterectomy in carotid artery disease Annals ...

*  Carotid Artery Disease | University Health Network

Javascript is disabled.. Please enable Javascript in your browser settings for the full experience of this mobile website.. ...

*  Carotid artery disease diet plan - Diet Blog

Carotid artery disease diet plan. The consuming carotid artery disease diet plan and weight discount ... Ddiet might be very carotid artery disease diet plan point that you are able to do for the sake of your properly being. Jenny ... Drink tea, scorching water, as an arrtery carotid artery disease diet plan cold soda and milk shake. Drink at least 4 cups of ... Simply take note, you carotid artery disease diet plan likely siet shed some pounds and luxuriate in doing it and the highest ...

*  Internal Carotid Artery Occlusive Disease and Polymorphisms of Fractalkine Receptor CX3CR1 | Stroke

Internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusive disease has been recognized as a major cause of stroke. Carotid endarterectomy has been ... Carotid artery disease and the risk of ischaemic stroke and coronary vascular events. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2000; 10 (suppl 5): 21- ... Internal Carotid Artery Occlusive Disease and Polymorphisms of Fractalkine Receptor CX3CR1. A Genetic Risk Factor. Giorgio ... Internal Carotid Artery Occlusive Disease and Polymorphisms of Fractalkine Receptor CX3CR1. Giorgio Ghilardi, Maria Luisa ...

*  Carotid artery blockage - Heart Disease - MedHelp

... blockage of the right carotid artery. His doctor will not do surgery, even though Dad experiences dizzy spells. The left artery ... blockage of the right carotid artery. His doctor will not do surgery, even though Dad experiences dizzy spells. The left artery ... Can Mental Stress Lead to Heart Disease? Can depression and anxiety cause heart disease? Get the facts in this Missouri ... It is unusual to have dizziness due to carotid stenosis unless that carotid somehow provides flow to posterior circulation due ...

*  Re: carotid artery blockage - Heart Disease - MedHelp

... occluded carotid artery. He is 77 and in otherwise good health, although has had several 'episodes' (light-headed, and some br ... but I figure vascular disease is more established so maybe you would know. Thanks, kd Follow Ups: carotid artery blockage CCF ... I have an elderly friend (80) who had carotid artery blockage. One year ago they tried to do surgery but had to stop due to ... My father-in-law has a 100% occluded carotid artery. He is 77 and in otherwise good health, although has had several 'episodes ...

*  Carotid Artery Interventions For Cerebrovascular Disease Compared

"Carotid Artery Interventions For Cerebrovascular Disease Compared." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 6 Jun. 2011. Web. ... 2011, June 6). "Carotid Artery Interventions For Cerebrovascular Disease Compared." Medical News Today. Retrieved from. https ... complications as compared to men after intervention for carotid occlusive disease and that the indications for carotid ... or stroke before undergoing their carotid artery procedure (5.3 percent vs. 5.3 percent). It was noted that symptomatic women ...

*  Carotid Artery Narrowing | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural Medicine

Diseases : Brain Damage, Brain Ischemia, Carotid Artery Narrowing, Carotid Stenosis, Cerebral Stroke, Oxidative Stress, Stroke ... Diseases : Arterial Thickening, Carotid Artery Narrowing, Intima Media Thickening Pharmacological Actions : Anti-atherogenic, ... Diseases : Atherosclerosis, Carotid Artery Narrowing, Intima Media Thickening , Osteoporosis, Osteoporosis: Age-Related ... 10 Abstracts with Carotid Artery Narrowing Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ...

*  Diagnosis of Carotid Artery Occlusive Disease in Patients Scheduled for Cardiac or Vascular Surgery: Is This a Place for...

... carotid artery disease angioplasty14 can enhance the role of selective carotid artery angioplasty in assessing carotid artery ... Wigand J. Elective stenting of carotid artery stenosis in patients with severe coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J. 1998; 19: ... internal carotid arteries on carotid angiography performed at the same time as cardiac catheterization. Mean carotid ... Diagnosis of Carotid Artery Occlusive Disease in Patients Scheduled for Cardiac or Vascular Surgery: Is This a Place for ...

*  Management of coexistent carotid artery and coronary artery disease. | Stroke

Management of coexistent carotid artery and coronary artery disease.. R A Graor, N R Hetzer ... In order to obtain optimal long-term results, both coronary disease and associated carotid disease require appropriate ... At the present time staged carotid reconstruction several days before elective coronary artery bypass surgery seems to be the ... The asymptomatic patient with unilateral carotid stenosis who presents for coronary artery bypass might be best managed by ...

*  Managing asymptomatic carotid disease in patients undergoing coronary artery byp

... ass grafting 01 Sep 2013 ... In the absence of randomized data, the optimal management of patients with severe carotid and coronary artery disease (CAD), ... In conclusion, the management of concomitant severe coronary and carotid disease depends on the severity of the carotid ... Therefore, whenever severe carotid disease is identified in the work-up prior to cardiac surgery, the indication for CABG ...

*  Differential integrin expression by cardiac fibroblasts from hypertensive and exercise-trained rat hearts.

Carotid Artery Disease. *Carotid Stenosis. *Cineangiography. *Congenital Heart Disease. *Congestive Heart Failure ... Cardiovascular Diseases. PPT Version , PDF Version. *Adrian M Baranchuk. Brugada Phenocopy: Update 2014. PPT Version , PDF ... Develop novel biomarkers for disease diagnosis. PPT Version , PDF Version. *Massimo Bolognesi. Traumatology. PPT Version , PDF ... Myocardial TRPM7 channels: Biophysical properties and involvement in cardiac diseases. PDF Version ...

*  Dr. Gerald Burma, MD - Parma, OH - Cardiology & Internal Medicine |

Carotid Artery Disease. *Chest Pain. *Chronic Pulmonary Heart Diseases (incl. Pulmonary Hypertension) ... Board certified in Cardiovascular Disease, Internal Medicine and Interventional Cardiology. * Malpractice claims in Ohio not ...

*  Dr. Matthew Wilson, MD - Atlanta, GA - Cardiology & Internal Medicine |

Carotid Artery Disease. *Chest Pain. *Chronic Pulmonary Heart Diseases (incl. Pulmonary Hypertension) ...

Carotid ultrasonography: Carotid ultrasonography is an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique to reveal structural details of the carotid arteries, so as to look for blood clots, atherosclerotic plaque buildup, and other blood flow problems.MedlinePlus > Carotid duplex Update Date: 5/12/2009.Carotid artery stenosisCommon carotid artery: In anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries (OED 2nd edition, 1989.Entry "carotid" in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.CADgene: CADgene is a database of genes involved in coronary artery disease (CAD) .Distributing artery: A distributing artery (or muscular artery) is a medium-sized artery that draw blood from an elastic artery and branch into "resistance vessels" including small arteries and arterioles. In contrast to the mechanism elastic arteries use to store energy generated by the heart's contraction, distributing arteries contain layers of smooth muscle.EndarterectomyABCD² score: The ABCD2 score is a clinical prediction rule used to determine the risk for stroke in the days following a transient ischemic attack (TIA, a condition in which temporary brain dysfunction results from oxygen shortage in the brain). It usefulness was questioned in a 2015 review as it was not found to separate those who are low from those who are at high risk of future problems.Multi-link suspension: __NOTOC__QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Silent strokeAmaurosis fugaxCerebral softeningTemplebryan Stone Circle: [1.jpg|thumb|300px|right|Templebryan: Nine stones were recorded as standing in the eighteenth century.Abdominal ultrasonographyList of kanji by stroke count: This Kanji index method groups together the kanji that are written with the same number of strokes. Currently, there are 2,186 individual kanji listed.Cerebral blood flow: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is the blood supply to the brain in a given period of time.Tolias C and Sgouros S.Calcium buffering: Calcium Buffering is a form of intracellular communication based on the regulation of calcium concentrations.http://www.Rotational angiography: Rotational angiography is a medical imaging technique based on x-ray, that allows to acquire CT-like 3D volumes during hybrid surgery or during a catheter intervention using a fixed C-Arm. The fixed C-Arm thereby rotates around the patient and acquires a series of x-ray images that are then reconstructed through software algorithms into a 3D image.Carotid body: The carotid body (carotid glomus or glomus caroticum) is a small cluster of chemoreceptors and supporting cells located near the fork (bifurcation) of the carotid artery (which runs along both sides of the throat).Endoscopic vessel harvestingTunica intimaAngioplastyCarotid sinus: In human anatomy, the carotid sinus (or carotid bulb) is a dilated area at the base of the internal carotid just superior to the bifurcation of the common carotid at the level of the superior border of thyroid cartilage. The carotid sinus is sensitive to pressure changes in the arterial blood at this level.Superficial velocity: Superficial velocity (or superficial flow velocity), in engineering of multiphase flows and flows in porous media, is a hypothetical (artificial) flow velocity calculated as if the given phase or fluid were the only one flowing or present in a given cross sectional area. Other phases, particles, the skeleton of the porous medium, etc.Intravascular ultrasoundDense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.Branch retinal artery occlusion: Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) is a rare retinal vascular disorder in which one of the branches of central retinal artery is obstructed.A Mess of Blues: "A Mess Of Blues" is a song written by Doc Pomus and Mort Shuman that was originally recorded by Elvis Presley for RCA Records in 1960, reaching number 32 in the US charts and number 2 in the UK charts.Arterial resistivity index: The arterial resistivity index (also called as Resistance index, abbreviated as RI), developed by Leandre Pourcelot, is a measure of pulsatile blood flow that reflects the resistance to blood flow caused by microvascular bed distal to the site of measurement.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingPenumbra (medicine): In pathology and anatomy the penumbra is the area surrounding an ischemic event such thrombotic or embolic stroke. Immediately following the event, blood flow and therefore oxygen transport is reduced locally, leading to hypoxia of the cells near the location of the original insult.Pulmonary artery banding: Pulmonary Artery Banding (PAB) was introduced by Muller and Danimann in 1951 as a surgical technique to reduce excessive pulmonary blood flow in infants suffering from congenital heart defects.Muller WH, Dammann JF.Arterial embolismGlobal Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Aortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.Anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery: The left anterior descending artery (also LAD, anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery, or anterior descending branch), also known as the "widow maker", is an artery of the heart.Right-sided aortic arch: Right-sided aortic arch is a rare anatomical variant in which the aortic arch is on the right side rather than on the left. During normal embryonic development, the aortic arch is formed by the left fourth aortic arch and the left dorsal aorta.Endothelial dysfunction: In vascular diseases, endothelial dysfunction is a systemic pathological state of the endothelium (the inner lining of blood vessels) and can be broadly defined as an imbalance between vasodilating and vasoconstricting substances produced by (or acting on) the endothelium. Normal functions of endothelial cells include mediation of coagulation, platelet adhesion, immune function and control of volume and electrolyte content of the intravascular and extravascular spaces.Common iliac artery: The common iliac arteries are two large arteries that originate from the aortic bifurcation at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra. It ends in front of the sacroiliac joint, bifurcate the external iliac artery and internal iliac artery.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.HyperintensityVascular smooth muscleBalloon catheter: A balloon catheter is a type of "soft" catheter with an inflatable "balloon" at its tip which is used during a catheterization procedure to enlarge a narrow opening or passage within the body. The deflated balloon catheter is positioned, then inflated to perform the necessary procedure, and deflated again in order to be removed.Endothelial activation: Endothelial activation is a proinflammatory and procoagulant state of the endothelial cells lining the lumen of blood vessels. It is most characterized by an increase in interactions with white blood cells (leukocytes), and it is associated with the early states of atherosclerosis and sepsis, among others.Electrocardiography in myocardial infarctionCalcinosis cutisTreadmill: A treadmill is a device generally for walking or running while staying in the same place. Treadmills were introduced before the development of powered machines, to harness the power of animals or humans to do work, often a type of mill that was operated by a person or animal treading steps of a treadwheel to grind grain.Antianginal: An antianginal is any drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris, a symptom of ischaemic heart disease.Vasodilation: Vasodilation (or vasodilatation) refers to the widening of blood vessels. It results from relaxation of smooth muscle cells within the vessel walls, in particular in the large veins, large arteries, and smaller arterioles.Rasmussen's aneurysm: Rasmussen's aneurysm is a pulmonary artery aneurysm adjacent or within a tuberculous cavity. It occurs in up to 5% of patients with such lesions.Ethernet flow control: Ethernet flow control is a mechanism for temporarily stopping the transmission of data on Ethernet family computer networks. The first flow control mechanism, the PAUSE frame, was defined by the IEEE 802.Ictal-Interictal SPECT Analysis by SPM: ISAS (Ictal-Interictal SPECT Analysis by SPM) is an objective tool for analyzing ictal vs. interictal SPECT scans.

(1/2869) Facial diplegia complicating a bilateral internal carotid artery dissection.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We report a case of facial diplegia complicating a bilateral internal carotid artery dissection. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 49-year-old patient presented with unilateral headache and oculosympathetic paresis. Cerebral angiography revealed a bilateral internal carotid artery dissection. A few days later, the patient developed a facial diplegia that regressed after arterial recanalization. An arterial anatomic variation may explain this ischemic complication of carotid dissection. CONCLUSIONS: Double carotid dissection should be included among the causes of bilateral seventh nerve palsy.  (+info)

(2/2869) Bruits, ophthalmodynamometry and rectilinear scanning on transient ischemic attacks.

One hundred seventeen patients with clinical signs and symptoms of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) were evaluated. All underwent clinical evaluation for bruit, ophthalmodynamometry, rapid sequence scintiphotography with rectilinear scanning and four-vessel cerebral angiography. The results of these tests were compared for reliability in predicting location of lesions causing transient ischemic attacks. Angiography remains the most accurate procedure in evaluating extracranial vascular lesions. When determination of bruits, ophthalmodynamometry and brain scanning are done together, accuracy is greater than when any one of the procedures is done alone.  (+info)

(3/2869) A new sign of occlusion of the origin of the internal carotid artery.

When the origin of the internal carotid artery is occluded, the transmission of cardiac sounds along the carotid stops at the site of the occlusion. This is a new neurovascular sign which is being reported.  (+info)

(4/2869) Ophthalmodynamometry in internal carotid artery occlusion.

Retinal artery pressure was measured by ophthalmodynamometry in 15 patients with occlusion of the internal carotid artery in its extracranial part. Nine of the patients had severe neurological deficit whereas the remaining six had slight or intermittent symptoms. Retinal artery pressure was reduced on the side of the internal carotid artery occlusion in all patients studied. Near-zero low diastolic retinal artery pressure on the affected side was a common finding among patients with severe deficit and was also seen in some patients with slight deficit. Its presence strongly suggests occlusion of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery.  (+info)

(5/2869) Carotid endarterectomy and intracranial thrombolysis: simultaneous and staged procedures in ischemic stroke.

PURPOSE: The feasibility and safety of combining carotid surgery and thrombolysis for occlusions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA), either as a simultaneous or as a staged procedure in acute ischemic strokes, was studied. METHODS: A nonrandomized clinical pilot study, which included patients who had severe hemispheric carotid-related ischemic strokes and acute occlusions of the MCA, was performed between January 1994 and January 1998. Exclusion criteria were cerebral coma and major infarction established by means of cerebral computed tomography scan. Clinical outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin scale. RESULTS: Carotid reconstruction and thrombolysis was performed in 14 of 845 patients (1.7%). The ICA was occluded in 11 patients; occlusions of the MCA (mainstem/major branches/distal branch) or the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) were found in 14 patients. In three of the 14 patients, thrombolysis was performed first, followed by carotid enarterectomy (CEA) after clinical improvement (6 to 21 days). In 11 of 14 patients, 0.15 to 1 mIU urokinase was administered intraoperatively, ie, emergency CEA for acute ischemic stroke (n = 5) or surgical reexploration after elective CEA complicated by perioperative intracerebral embolism (n = 6). Thirteen of 14 intracranial embolic occlusions and 10 of 11 ICA occlusions were recanalized successfully (confirmed with angiography or transcranial Doppler studies). Four patients recovered completely (Rankin 0), six patients sustained a minor stroke (Rankin 2/3), two patients had a major stroke (Rankin 4/5), and two patients died. In one patient, hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarction was detectable postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Combining carotid surgery with thrombolysis (simultaneous or staged procedure) offers a new therapeutic approach in the emergency management of an acute carotid-related stroke. Its efficacy should be evaluated in interdisciplinary studies.  (+info)

(6/2869) Expression of interleukin-10 in advanced human atherosclerotic plaques: relation to inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and cell death.

Inflammation is a major feature of human atherosclerosis and is central to development and progression of the disease. A variety of proinflammatory cytokines are expressed in the atherosclerotic plaque and may modulate extracellular matrix remodeling, cell proliferation, and cell death. Little is known, however, about the expression and potential role of anti-inflammatory cytokines in human atherosclerosis. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a major anti-inflammatory cytokine whose expression and potential effects in advanced human atherosclerotic plaques have not been evaluated. We studied 21 advanced human atherosclerotic plaques. IL-10 expression was analyzed by use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical techniques. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was assessed by using immunohistochemistry, and cell death was determined by use of the TUNEL method. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction identified IL-10 mRNA in 12 of 17 atherosclerotic plaques. Immunohistochemical staining of serial sections and double staining identified immunoreactive IL-10 mainly in macrophages, as well as in smooth muscle cells. Consistent with its anti-inflammatory properties, high levels of IL-10 expression were associated with significant decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase expression (P<0.0001) and cell death (P<0. 0001). Hence, IL-10, a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, is expressed in a substantial number of advanced human atherosclerotic plaques and might contribute to the modulation of the local inflammatory response and protect from excessive cell death in the plaque.  (+info)

(7/2869) Surgical treatment of internal carotid artery anterior wall aneurysm with extravasation during angiography--case report.

A 54-year-old female presented subarachnoid hemorrhage from an aneurysm arising from the anterior (dorsal) wall of the internal carotid artery (ICA). During four-vessel angiography, an extravasated saccular pooling of contrast medium emerged in the suprasellar area unrelated to any arterial branch. The saccular pooling was visualized in the arterial phase and cleared in the venophase during every contrast medium injection. We suspected that the extravasated pooling was surrounded by hard clot but communicated with the artery. Direct surgery was performed but major premature bleeding occurred during the microsurgical procedure. After temporary clipping, an opening of the anterior (dorsal) wall of the ICA was found without apparent aneurysm wall. The vessel wall was sutured with nylon thread. The total occlusion time of the ICA was about 50 minutes. Follow-up angiography demonstrated good patency of the ICA. About 2 years after the operation, the patient was able to walk with a stick and to communicate freely through speech, although left hemiparesis and left homonymous hemianopsia persisted. The outcome suggests our treatment strategy was not optimal, but suture of the ICA wall is one of the therapeutic choices when premature rupture occurs in the operation.  (+info)

(8/2869) Vasa vasorum: another cause of the carotid string sign.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our purpose was to describe a variant of the carotid string sign that may be associated with a completely occluded vessel and to consider possible pathophysiological mechanisms for this observation. METHODS: Carotid angiography was performed in three patients with suspected carotid stenosis and in a fourth with carotid dissection. Surgery was performed in one of the patients with carotid stenosis. RESULTS: On all angiograms, instead of a single linear or curvilinear contrast "string," either single or multiple serpiginous channels were seen. In one case, such a channel was seen emanating from below the origin of an occluded internal carotid stump, reconstituting the distal portion of the vessel. Surgery revealed a completely occluded lumen with a small intramural vessel bypassing the obstruction. CONCLUSION: We propose that these channels are either atherosclerotically induced neovessels connecting bridging vasa vasorum or recanalized luminal thrombus. We review the literature associated with this subject.  (+info)


  • Methods -Angiographic collateral filling through anterior communicating and posterior communicating arteries and retrograde filling through ophthalmic arteries were determined in all patients at entry into the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial. (
  • In patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy, absent or inadequate demonstration of collateral pathways by angiography and transcranial Doppler has been shown to correlate with intraoperative electroencephalographic changes. (
  • Data for this study are taken from the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET). (
  • Background and Purpose The North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) demonstrated the benefit of carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic patients with ≥70% carotid stenosis. (
  • The NASCET, 1 in the context of a randomized controlled clinical trial, demonstrated the benefit of carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients with ≥70% carotid diameter reduction. (
  • Currently carotid endarterectomy is recommended for symptomatic patients with ≥70% carotid stenosis. (
  • In 1984, an expert panel was convened to develop ratings of the appropriateness of carotid endarterectomy for a wide range of possible indications (Merrick, Fink, Brook, et al. (
  • Carotid endarterectomy remains the gold standard for treatment. (
  • Efficacy of carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid stenosis. (
  • Small, unruptured intracranial aneurysms and management of symptomatic carotid artery stenosis: North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Group. (
  • Printed patient teaching materials regarding stroke risks, modifiable risk factors, and carotid endarterectomy are also available through the ASA's Get with the Guidelines Program (www. (
  • Crenshaw and his associates compared 30-day clinical outcomes and hospital costs for 174 patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and 132 who underwent carotid artery stenting (CAS) with embolic protection at a single tertiary care institution during January 2008 to September 2010. (
  • Most patients with carotid artery disease are treated with carotid endarterectomy , a surgical procedure involving an incision in the neck and removal of the plaque from the vessel walls. (
  • We report a patient with a large middle cerebral artery aneurysm and coexistent carotid artery stenosis who underwent a successful carotid endarterectomy with endovascular repair of his aneurysm. (
  • Studies of brain function following carotid endarterectomy have produced mixed results, and there is no consensus in the literature as to whether carotid intervention improves cognition. (
  • The results were measured using magnified axial reconstructions, and the degree of stenosis was compared to the method used by the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trail. (
  • Surgeons began clearing away such blockages, a procedure called carotid endarterectomy , in 1954. (
  • Background and Purpose Carotid duplex ultrasound is widely used to screen patients for carotid endarterectomy and if combined with MR angiography and transcranial Doppler may be an alternative to conventional angiography in the preoperative assessment. (
  • Clinical advisory: carotid endarterectomy for patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis. (
  • The investigators of the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study (ACAS) are reporting the interim results of a randomized controlled clinical trial of carotid endarterectomy in patients who have asymptomatic carotid stenosis of greater than 60% reduction in diameter. (
  • The Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study (ACAS) 1 concluded that carotid endarterectomy combined with medical therapy is more beneficial than medical therapy alone in patients with asymptomatic high-grade internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. (
  • In this study, the common carotid and femoral arteries of ten mongrel dogs were exposed, and alternating 1 cm segments of each artery were treated with surgical endarterectomy and low-powered CO2 laser endarterectomy. (


  • The effect of collaterals on the risk of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA), in the presence of angiographic severe internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis, was assessed. (
  • Two large clinical trials have demonstrated that the risk of stroke increases with increasing degrees of angiographically defined, symptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. (
  • 3 4 5 6 Although the cause of stroke is primarily thromboembolic in the presence of severe ICA stenosis, changes in large-artery hemodynamics may also have a role in determining the extent of the infarction. (
  • We sought to evaluate duplex criteria for determination of ≥70% carotid stenosis. (
  • Conclusions We conclude that ≥70% carotid stenosis can be reliably determined by duplex Doppler ultrasound. (
  • The diagnosis of carotid artery stenosis relies on screening by noninvasive techniques, usually duplex Doppler ultrasound. (
  • The determination of degree of carotid stenosis by duplex scanning depends on measurement of Doppler-determined velocity and spectral analysis. (
  • Most vascular laboratories use traditional duplex criteria that characterize the carotid bifurcation as normal, 1% to 15% stenosis, 16% to 49% stenosis, 50% to 79% stenosis, 80% to 99% stenosis, and complete occlusion. (
  • 2 These traditional categories were not designed for determination of ≥70% carotid stenosis. (
  • We sought to develop duplex Doppler ultrasound criteria for determination of ≥70% carotid stenosis by comparison with arteriography, using the NASCET method of determination of carotid stenosis. (
  • The percent stenosis, determined by the arteriogram, was calculated from direct measurements of the maximum stenosis (minimal residual lumen diameter [MRL]) in the carotid bifurcation region (distal CCA and proximal ICA) made with the use of a hand-held magnifier marked in 1-mm increments. (
  • Theoretically, recurrent stroke symptoms caused by severe internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis should resolve on progression of stenosis to complete occlusion. (
  • We have examined the correlation between Doppler velocities and the residual lumen diameters of internal carotid arteries from surgical pathological specimens to establish Doppler criteria for residual lumen diameter independent of percent stenosis. (
  • Methods Ninety-one patients who underwent 99 carotid endarterectomies for internal carotid artery stenosis within 6 months of their carotid duplex ultrasound evaluation were studied. (
  • 3 4 5 Although recent evidence suggests that CEA may benefit selected asymptomatic patients with 60% to 99% carotid stenosis, the issue is still controversial. (
  • Analyses of internal carotid artery stenosis defined by multiple different cutoffs of peak systolic velocity, rather than one particular cutoff, were performed in the 5441 participants who underwent carotid ultrasound and lacked a history of transient ischemic attack or stroke. (
  • Conclusions -In a group of older adults likely to participate in a screening program, as evidenced by willingness to participate in CHS, high peak systolic velocities consistent with high-grade carotid stenosis were uncommon and risk of subsequent cerebrovascular disease outcomes was relatively low. (
  • These findings do not suggest that similar populations of older adults would benefit from a program using ultrasound to screen for asymptomatic carotid stenosis. (
  • 67% men) had asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis of ≥60% reduction in diameter. (
  • CHS offers a unique opportunity to evaluate the frequency of high-grade ICA stenosis defined by ultrasound and the risk of subsequent cerebrovascular disease outcomes in an aged population likely to participate in screening programs, as evidenced by their willingness to participate in CHS. (
  • Use of data from CHS for this purpose is complicated because different studies have used different ultrasound definitions of high-grade carotid artery stenosis. (
  • In this article, rather than examining a single ultrasound velocity cutoff to define stenosis, we examine multiple cutoffs to document both their prevalence and their association with cerebrovascular disease outcomes. (

Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study

  • Background and Purpose -We sought in this study to relate carotid ultrasound findings in asymptomatic older adults to the 5-year risk of various cerebrovascular outcomes used in the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study (ACAS). (


  • 9 10 11 12 The identification of collaterals depended on angiography to identify the communications that are made by the anterior communicating (ACoA) and posterior communicating (PCoA) arteries with contributions from retrograde filling of the ophthalmic artery and from leptomeningeal arteries. (
  • Between January 1992 and January 1994, 110 patients were identified who had undergone both duplex scanning and carotid angiography at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania within 1 month of each other (210 carotid arteries). (
  • METHODS: With three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) as a screening tool, 108 symptomatic patients with cerebrovascular steno-occlusive diseases were examined. (

extracranial carotid

  • CDUS has become a standard noninvasive test for evaluating extracranial carotid disease. (



  • 1 2 Subsequent studies have shown that the risk is further modified by other angiographic features, such as plaque ulceration, near occlusion, and intracranial atherosclerotic disease. (
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fine structural studies were performed to investigate the histogenesis of human intracranial arteries. (
  • METHODS: Segments of the intracranial extracerebral arteries of normal human embryos (n=6) were examined with transmission electron microscopy. (
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the prevalence and degree of asymptomatic occlusive lesions in the carotid and intracranial arteries in Japanese patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). (
  • In each instance the cause of the infarct was found to be subintimal dissection involving intracranial anterior circulation arteries. (

residual lumen diameter

  • Results Peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), and carotid index (peak internal carotid artery velocity/common carotid artery velocity) correlated with the residual lumen diameter. (


  • Screening for detection of significant carotid occlusive disease has relied on duplex Doppler imaging. (
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We attempted to evaluate the location of vascular lesions in cases of cerebrovascular steno-occlusive diseases in Chinese persons living in Taiwan. (


  • These patients were being evaluated for surgical treatment of carotid artery atherosclerosis and represent all patients during this interval who had complete arteriographic examinations and duplex scanning data available for review. (


  • The exclusion criteria were 1) presumed etiology as cardiac embolism or other etiology (e.g., dissection, moyamoya syndrome, and vasculitis) and 2) concomitant carotid T type occlusion on CTA. (


  • Duplex measurements of peak systolic and end-diastolic velocity (PSV, EDV) were recorded, and ratios of velocities in the internal and common carotid arteries (ICA, CCA) were calculated. (


  • The 5-year risks of 7 cerebrovascular disease outcomes used in ACAS were estimated for each cutoff. (


  • Methods Duplex scans and arteriograms of 110 patients (210 carotids), performed within 1 month of each other, were reviewed by blinded readers. (


  • However, stroke symptoms may recur due to the occluded ICA stump (carotid stump syndrome). (
  • Our mission is to build healthier lives, free of cardiovascular diseases and stroke. (


  • Medial defects' in the prenatal human cerebral arteries: an electron microscopic study. (


  • Percutaneous catheter arteriograms were obtained in all patients with at least two-view or, in the majority of cases, four-view biplane selective common carotid arteriograms. (


  • The Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) 2 3 is a prospective, multicenter, epidemiological study of risk factors for coronary and cerebrovascular disease in older adults. (


  • Carotid arteriograms were performed with either standard cut-film techniques or the use of high-resolution digital subtraction imaging (1024×1024 matrix). (


  • alpha 1-Antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT) deficiency may play a role in arterial aneurysmal disease by allowing increased proteolysis of arterial structural proteins. (