Carcinoma, Adenosquamous: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Plutonium: Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases: Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Duodenogastric Reflux: Retrograde flow of duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the STOMACH.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Pancreatectomy: Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Microdissection: The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Pancreaticoduodenectomy: The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Adenosquamous lung carcinoma: Adenosquamous lung carcinoma (AdSqLC) is a biphasic malignant tumor arising from lung tissue that is composed of at least 10% by volume each of squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) and adenocarcinoma (AdC) cells.Anaplastic carcinoma: Anaplastic carcinoma is a general term for a malignant neoplasm arising from the uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells of epithelial origin, or showing some epithelial characteristics, but that reveal no cytological or architectural features of associated with more differentiated tumors, such as the glandular formation or special cellular junctions that typical of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively.Squamous-cell carcinomaAdenocarcinoma of the lung: Adenocarcinoma of the lung (pulmonary adenocarcinoma) is a common histological form of lung cancer that contains certain distinct malignant tissue architectural, cytological, or molecular features, including gland and/or duct formation and/or production of significant amounts of mucus.Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomaCervical screening: Cervical screening is the process of detecting abnormal changes in the cervix before they can develop into cervical cancer. If the abnormal tissue or cells can be removed, then the disease can be prevented from developing.Targeted therapy of lung cancer: Targeted therapy of lung cancer refers to using agents specifically designed to selectively target molecular pathways responsible for, or that substantially drive, the malignant phenotype of lung cancer cells, and as a consequence of this (relative) selectivity, cause fewer toxic effects on normal cells.Plutonium(III) fluorideLacrimal caruncle: The caruncula lacrimalis, or lacrimal caruncle, is the small, pink, globular nodule at the inner corner (the medial angle) of the eye. It is made of skin covering sebaceous (oil) and sudoriferous (sweat) glands.Mike Nevin: Michael D. Nevin (born 1943 – December 1, 2012) was a Democratic politician from the U.Rødgrød: Rødgrød (Danish, ), rote Grütze (German), or Rode Grütt (Low German), meaning "red groats", is a sweet fruit dish from Denmark and Germany. The name of the dish in Danish features many of the elements that make Danish pronunciation difficult for non-native speakers, so 'rødgrød med fløde' (red groats with cream) is thus a commonly used shibboleth.PancreatoblastomaPancreatectomyGross examinationABCD rating: ABCD rating, also called the Jewett staging system or the Whitmore-Jewett staging system, is a staging system for prostate cancer that uses the letters A, B, C, and D.Cancer biomarkers: A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer.Cancer survival rates: Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country. In general survival rates are improving, although more so for some cancers than others.Metastatic liver disease: A liver metastasis is a malignant tumor in the liver that has spread from another organ affected by cancer. The liver is a common site for metastatic disease because of its rich, dual blood supply (the liver receives blood via the hepatic artery and portal vein).LumpectomyKeratin 6A: Keratin 6A is one of the 27 different type II keratins expressed in humans. Keratin 6A was the first type II keratin sequence determined.Rombo syndrome: Rombo syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder characterized mainly by atrophoderma vermiculatum of the face,James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology.PemetrexedLymphovascular invasionPancreaticoduodenectomyJohn Mendelsohn (doctor)Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Transitional cell carcinoma: -8130Morbidity and mortality conference: Morbidity and mortality}}
(1/236) Human papillomavirus DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung.
AIM: To investigate the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung--which is relatively common in Okinawa but not in mainland Japan--and examine its histological features. METHODS: Of 207 cases where primary lung cancers were surgically removed between January 1995 and June 1997 in Okinawa, 23 were adenosquamous carcinoma. HPV was detected by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with primers specific for E6 and E7 regions of the HPV genome. PCR products were analysed by Southern blotting. Immunohistochemical determination of high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMC) and involucrin was also carried out. RESULTS: 18 cases were positive for HPV DNA by PCR and NISH. HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 were found. Seven cases were dual positive for different types of HPV. Using NISH, HPV was also found in the squamous cell components and in neighbouring enlarged adenocarcinoma cells. The HMC and involucrin were demonstrated immunohistochemically in the same areas. CONCLUSIONS: HPV DNA was found in a high proportion (78.3%) of adenosquamous carcinomas in Okinawa, a region where HPV has previously been shown to be prevalent in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The adenocarcinoma cells adjacent to the squamous cell carcinoma component were enlarged and positive for HPV, HMC, and involucrin. This is thought to indicate the transition from adenocarcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma. (+info)
(2/236) Randomized comparison of fluorouracil plus cisplatin versus hydroxyurea as an adjunct to radiation therapy in stage IIB-IVA carcinoma of the cervix with negative para-aortic lymph nodes: a Gynecologic Oncology Group and Southwest Oncology Group study.
PURPOSE: In 1986, a protocol comparing primary radiation therapy (RT) plus hydroxyurea (HU) to irradiation plus fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CF) was activated by the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) for the treatment of patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma. The goals were to determine the superior chemoradiation regimen and to quantitate the relative toxicities. METHODS: All patients had biopsy-proven invasive squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or adenosquamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Patients underwent standard clinical staging studies and their tumors were found to be International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics stages IIB, III, or IVA. Negative cytologic washings and para-aortic lymph nodes were required for entry. Patients were randomized to receive either standard whole pelvic RT with concurrent 5-FU infusion and bolus CF or the same RT plus oral HU. RESULTS: Of 388 randomized patients, 368 were eligible; 177 were randomized to CF and 191 to HU. Adverse effects were predominantly hematologic or gastrointestinal in both regimens. Severe or life-threatening leukopenia was more common in the HU group (24%) than in the CF group (4%). The difference in progression-free survival (PFS) was statistically significant in favor of the CF group (P = .033). The sites of progression in the two treatment groups were not substantially different. Survival was significantly better for the patients randomized to CF (P = .018). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that for patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix, the combination of 5-FU and CF with RT offers patients better PFS and overall survival than HU, and with manageable toxicity. (+info)
(3/236) Haematogenous cytokeratin 20 mRNA as a predictive marker for recurrence in oral cancer patients.
We examined the expression of cytokeratin 20 (CK20) mRNA in the peripheral blood of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Eleven out of 12 oral SCC patients showed positive RT-PCR results. However, there is no clear relationship between the haematogenous CK20 mRNA and the metastasis. After initial treatment, all of the tumour-free survivors tested showed negative RT-PCR results. CK20 mRNA in peripheral blood can be used as a marker for tumour recurrence but not not for metastasis in oral SCC patients. (+info)
(4/236) A population-based survey of the management of women with cancer of the cervix.
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of diagnostic throughput on survival outcome for women with cancer of the cervix. We conducted a case note review of 359 women in Lancashire and Greater Manchester diagnosed with cancer of the cervix during 1990, identified from records held by the North Western Regional Cancer Registry. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were undertaken to investigate the influence on survival of woman, disease and treatment related factors. Following adjustment for woman- and disease-related factors there was no evidence of a statistically significant association between diagnostic throughput and survival. The findings of this study do not support the need for any change in the referral patterns to gynaecologists of women with symptoms suggestive of cancer of the cervix. (+info)
(5/236) Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 in carcinoma of the pancreas.
The level of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 has been investigated recently in various human carcinomas. In the present study, we examined the distribution and extent of COX-2 protein in human pancreatic tumors using immunohistochemistry. A strong expression of COX-2 protein was present in 23 of 52 (44%) pancreatic carcinomas, a moderate expression was present in 24 of 52 (46%) pancreatic carcinomas, and a weak expression was present in 5 of 52 (10%) pancreatic carcinomas. In contrast, benign tumors showed weak expression or no expression of COX-2, and only islet cells displayed COX-2 expression in normal pancreatic tissues. Overexpression of COX-2 in carcinoma tissues was also confirmed by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, consistent with the results at protein levels, reverse transcription-PCR analyses indicated that COX-2 mRNA was overexpressed in 7 of 13 (54%) carcinomas, but in none of 3 benign tumors. Our findings suggest that COX-2 inhibitors might be potentially effective against pancreatic carcinomas and that COX-2 may be involved in certain biological processes in pancreatic islets. (+info)
(6/236) Adenosquamous carcinoma of the prostate.
An unusual adenosquamous carcinoma originating in the prostate of a 73-year-old man is described. The histological finding showed a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma admixed in an adenocarcinomatous area. A transitional area of 2 carcinomatous elements was also noted. Seven months prior to the development of this lesion, a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma had been established by transurethral resection of the prostate and the patient had been treated with bilateral orchiectomy. This is the first case of adenosquamous carcinoma of the prostate reported in Korea. The pathogenesis and previous reports of this lesion will be discussed. (+info)
(7/236) Carbonic anhydrase IX antigen differentiates between preneoplastic malignant lesions in non-small cell lung carcinoma.
The MaTu interval (MN)/carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX tumour-associated antigen is a protein that is normally expressed in the gut and belongs to the carbonic anhydrase enzyme family (CA IX). It has been detected in tumour cell lines and in some solid tumours including cervical, oesophageal and clear cell renal carcinoma. This study determined MN/CA IX expression in 65 primary non-small cell lung cancer resected with curative intent and in 38 bronchial preneoplastic lesions, carcinoma in situ or microinvasive carcinoma as well as in normal bronchial tissue. The presence of MN/CA IX was detected using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, whenever frozen material was available. Immunostaining was positive in 52/65 (80%) of the tumour samples. The staining was more often focal than diffuse. The percentage of stained cells in positive tumours was highly variable, ranging 1-85%. The pattern of immunostaining was predominantly cytoplasmic with a membranous reinforcement (87%). The intensity was mainly strong (69%). The presence of the protein in the tumour was confirmed by Western blot analysis in the eight samples tested. All the morphologically normal epithelia, except in close vicinity of tumours in some cases, as well as the preneoplastic bronchial lesions (basal cell hyperplasia, metaplasia and dysplasia) were immunonegative for MN/CA IX expression. In contrast, carcinoma in situ and microinvasive epithelioma showed the presence of MN-immunopositive tumoural cells in 5/7 and 4/5 of the samples, respectively. These data suggest that MN/CA IX is a useful marker for the differentiation between preneoplastic lesions and bronchial non-small cell lung cancer in the lung. (+info)
(8/236) Inhibitory effects of combined administration of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs on lung tumor development initiated by N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine in rats.
The effects of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs on the promotion stage of lung carcinogenesis initiated with N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine (BHP) in rats were investigated in two experiments with a similar protocol. In experiment 1, rats received tap water containing 2000 p.p.m. BHP for 12 weeks followed by basal diet or basal diet containing 0.02% erythromycin (EM), 0. 04% ampicillin (ABPC), 1.5% sho-saiko-to, 0.02% EM plus 1.5% sho-saiko-to or 0.04% ABPC plus 1.5% sho-saiko-to for 8 weeks after BHP administration. The development of adenocarcinomas (AC), squamous cell carcinomas (SqC) and adenosquamous carcinomas (ASqC) was completely inhibited in rats given ABPC plus sho-saiko-to and the numbers of lung lesions including alveolar hyperplasias, adenomas and carcinomas were decreased in rats given EM plus sho-saiko-to or ABPC plus sho-saiko-to. Neutrophil and macrophage infiltration into alveolar spaces of the lung were also markedly suppressed. In experiment 2, rats received BHP in the same manner as in experiment 1 and basal diet or basal diet containing 0.04% ABPC, 0.006% piroxicam, 0.04% ABPC plus 0.006% piroxicam and 0.04% ABPC plus 0.75% ougon for 8 weeks. The incidence and number of carcinomas, including ACs, SqCs and ASqCs were decreased in rats given ABPC plus piroxicam or ABPC plus ougon. Bacteria, mainly Escherichia coli, were detected in broncho-alveolar lavage of rats receiving BHP. The results suggest that chronic inflammation might be involved in the progression of lung carcinogenesis by BHP in rats and its suppression may therefore be useful as a chemopreventive strategy in lung cancer clinics. (+info)