Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Cola: A plant genus of the family STERCULIACEAE. This is the source of the kola nut which contains CAFFEINE and is used in popular beverages.Tea: The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Coffee: A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.Energy Drinks: Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Food and Beverages: Edible or potable substances.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Soy Milk: A beverage prepared from SOYBEANS.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Tooth Erosion: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Cooking and Eating UtensilsNutritive Sweeteners: Any agent that adds not only sweet taste but some energy value to food. They include natural sugars such as SUCROSE; FRUCTOSE; and GALACTOSE; and certain SUGAR ALCOHOLS.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Aspartame: Flavoring agent sweeter than sugar, metabolized as PHENYLALANINE and ASPARTIC ACID.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Ilex paraguariensis: A plant species of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. An infusion of the leaves is commonly drunk in South America for stimulating effect in much the same manner as coffee is in other cultures.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Menu PlanningSchools: Educational institutions.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Mineral Waters: Water naturally or artificially infused with mineral salts or gases.Dental Enamel Solubility: The susceptibility of the DENTAL ENAMEL to dissolution.United StatesSatiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Saliva, Artificial: A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Flavoring Agents: Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Banisteriopsis: A plant genus of the family MALPIGHIACEAE which includes an Amazonian psychoactive plant that contains the beta-carboline harmine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine.

*  Calories in The Coca-Cola Company Fanta Orange, Frozen Carbonated Beverage - Nutritional Information and Diet Info

Frozen Carbonated Beverage. This is part of our comprehensive database of 40,000 foods including foods from hundreds of popular ... Frozen Carbonated Beverage. Learn about the number of calories and nutritional and diet information for The Coca-Cola Company ... Beverages / Carbonated Soft Drinks Nutritional Information, Diet Info and Calories in Fanta Orange, Frozen Carbonated Beverage ...
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*  Coca-Cola Commercial ft. Tyrese Gibson (1994) - YouTube

PROMO USE ONLY!!! http://www.coca-cola.com Coca-Cola Commercial ft. Tyrese Gibson (1994) Hi-Quality Video Remastered by Me!!! © 2013 The Coca-Cola Company, A...
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*  Drinking coca-cola! - Page 2 - Mothering Forums

It adds the "tart" in cola drinks (not all carbonated sodas). type phosphoric acid carbonated soft drinks in yahoo and you get ... the National Soft Drink Association presented official objections to putting aspartame in beverages.. I'll read you one of ...
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*  Coca-Cola to settle some Vitaminwater deceptive advertising lawsuits

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*  Are Carbonated Beverages Bad for Athletes? | LIVESTRONG.COM

... carbonated beverages are not ideal as they may cause stomach upset. There are times, though, when carbonated beverages may ... Are Carbonated Beverages Bad for Athletes? by ANDREA CESPEDES Last Updated: Oct 03, 2017. ... Adult carbonated beverages are commonly found in the recovery tent after marathons and triathlons and are a regular tradition ... Soda and other carbonated energy beverages have a carbohydrate concentration of greater than 10 percent, which slows down ...
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*  Carbonated beverage, lemon-lime soda, contains caffeine Nutrition

... - BellaOnline Nutrition Database - BellaOnline is committed ... Carbonated beverage, lemon-lime soda, contains caffeine. Food Group: Beverages. Long Description: Carbonated beverage, lemon- ... Carbonated beverage, lemon-lime soda, contains caffeine Nutrition. This page is all about the nutrition of Carbonated beverage ... Carbonated beverage, lemon-lime soda, contains caffeine Nutrition Information - Full Details. All values shown in the detailed ...
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*  CARB/NON-CARBONATED BEVERAGES | BidNet

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*  Global Carbonated Beverage Processing Equipment Ma

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*  The Effects of Carbonated Beverages on Kidneys | LIVESTRONG.COM

Drinking soda or other carbonated beverages each day may be a recipe for high blood pressure, reduced kidney function and ... Be it a cola, non-cola, diet soda or other sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage, carbonated beverages can increase your risk of ... That is, carbonated beverages that aren't colas can also cause damage. The sugars in them, particularly fructose in the form of ... The Effects of Carbonated Beverages on Kidneys by ANGELA OGUNJIMI Last Updated: Oct 03, 2017. ...
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*  How does drinking carbonated beverages or alcohol cause hiccups?

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*  Expanding deposit to non-carbonated beverages could help recycling - News - Uticaod - Utica, NY

... which now account for nearly a third of all beverages sold in the state, were left out of the law, meaning billions of lemonade ... Non-carbonated drinks, which now account for nearly a third of all beverages sold in the state, were left out of the law, ... Non-carbonated drinks, which now account for nearly a third of all beverages sold in the state, were left out of the law, ... Expanding deposit to non-carbonated beverages could help recycling. Monday. Mar 31, 2008 at 12:01 AM Mar 31, 2008 at 9:12 PM ...
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*  Research and Markets: Prefeasibility Report on a Carbonated Beverage Manufacturing Plant | Business Wire

Research and Markets (http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/84f2lp/prefeasibility) has announced the addition of the 'Prefeasibility Report
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*  Carbonated beverage, pepper-type, contains caffeine: USDA Nutrition Facts: RecipeTips.com

Carbonated beverage, pepper-type, contains caffeine from the USDA Nutrition Facts on RecipeTips.Com ...
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*  Topo Chico Topo Sangria Carbonated Beverage Reviews

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*  China Carbonated Beverage Filling, Carbonated Beverage Filling Manufacturers, Suppliers | Made-in-China.com

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*  Rhäzünser Plus Elderflower Flavoured Carbonated Beverage 6x50cl | Rhäzünser | coop@home

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*  Patente US7356381 - Refrigerator operable to display an image and output a carbonated beverage - Google Patentes

The refrigerator has an input device coupled to the drink supply container which enables a user to cause carbonated beverage to ... is configured to support at least one drink supply container which can contain a drink syrup associated with a carbonated ... Counter with integral carbonated beverage dispenser. US5118009. 5 Dic 1990. 2 Jun 1992. Charles Novitsky. Carbonated beverage ... Beverage Works, Inc.. Refrigerator that displays beverage images, reads beverage data files and produces beverages. ...
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*  Calories in Fanta Fanta Wild Cherry, Frozen Carbonated Beverage - Nutritional Information and Diet Info

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*  Calorie Counter : Carbonated beverage, lemon-lime soda, contains caffeine - 1 fl oz

Calories in Carbonated beverage, lemon-lime soda, contains caffeine - 1 fl oz. ... Calorie Counter » Foods » Beverages » Calories in Carbonated beverage, lemon-lime soda, contains caffeine ... Carbonated beverage, lemon-lime soda, contains caffeine. 13 calories in 1 fl oz. Search for foods.... ... Carbonated beverage, low calorie, other than cola or pepper, without caffeine. Sprite ...
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*  Repair Kits for SD-3 Dual Check Valves with Atmospheric Port & Strainer for Carbonated Beverage Machines - Backflow Prevention ...

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*  'Fat taxes' beginning to be imposed on carbonated beverages | CEE...

Fat taxes' beginning to be imposed on carbonated beverages. Alan Heath3 May 2013 ... Carbonated drinks are bad for your health as they contain huge amounts of refined sugar, yet the production of plastic bottles ... The soft drinks industry has not escaped tax hikes and in January 2012, a new 'fat' tax was imposed on sugary beverages ... many consumers have sought to reduce consumption of higher priced beverages, and a trend of trading down to less expensive, ...
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*  Bottled Water Gains Popularity as Sales of Carbonated Beverages Drop: QY Research

Bottled Water Gains Popularity as Sales of Carbonated Beverages Drop. Published By : 02 Mar 2016 , Published By : QYRESEARCH ... The rising concerns over the effect of carbonated beverages on the health of the consumers and the easy availability of new and ... When it comes to beverages, bottled water is not just the fastest selling beverage in the world but also one of the biggest ... to close down a number of plants in the country owing to insufficient demand for carbonated and sugar sweetened beverages. The ...
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*  Sandwalk: Do you believe that drinking carbonated beverages containing sugar will cause your telomeres to shorten and hasten...

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*  Calorie Counter : Carbonated beverage, low calorie, other than cola or pepper, with sodium saccharin, without caffeine ★...

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*  寻找可应用于食品、饮料与营养保健品行业的Color Group of Sensient Technologies - Shandong Oceanchem

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Sports drink: Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy after training or competition, though their efficacy for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise which is only moderate.List of Coca-Cola brands: List of all brands (fully or partially) owned by The Coca-Cola Company:Blended malt whisky: A blended malt, formerly called a vatted malt, or pure malt, is a blend of different single malt whiskies from different distilleries. These terms are most commonly used in reference to Scotch whisky, or whisky in that style, such as Japanese whisky.Sweetness: Sweetness is one of the five basic tastes and is universally regarded as a pleasurable experience, except perhaps in excess. Foods rich in simple carbohydrates such as sugar are those most commonly associated with sweetness, although there are other natural and artificial compounds that are sweet at much lower concentrations, allowing their use as non-caloric sugar substitutes.Draught beer: Draught beer, also spelt draft, is beer served from a cask or keg rather than from a bottle or can. Canned draught is beer served from a pressurised container featuring a widget.Glucerna: Glucerna is the brand name of a family of tube feeding formula, bottled or canned shakes, and snack bars manufactured by Abbott Laboratories. These medical nutritional products are meant for people with diabetes and are promoted for their ability to satisfy hunger without causing rapid increases in glucose concentration in the bloodstream.Rice wineCola (plant): Cola is a genus of trees native to the tropical rainforests of Africa, classified in the family Malvaceae, subfamily Sterculioideae (or treated in the separate family Sterculiaceae). Species in this genus are sometimes referred to as Kola tree or Kola nut for the caffeine-containing fruit produced by the trees that is often used as a flavoring ingredient in beverages.Green tea extractList of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.White coffee: White coffee can refer to any of a number of different kinds of coffees or coffee substitutes worldwide.Energy shot: Energy shots are a specialized kind of energy drink that contain a dose of the stimulant caffeine in a small amount of liquid. Whereas most energy drinks are sold in cans or bottles, energy shots are usually sold in 50ml bottles.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.Fruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score: Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) is a method of evaluating the protein quality based on both the amino acid requirements of humans and their ability to digest it. The PDCAAS rating was adopted by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) in 1993 as "the preferred 'best'" method to determine protein quality.Soy milk: Soy milk, also referred to as soymilk or soya milk, is a plant milk produced byCastleberry's Food Company: Castleberry's Food Company was an Augusta, Georgia-based canned food company founded in the 1920s by Clement Stewart Castleberry with the help of his father Clement Lamar Castleberry and closed permanently in March 2008 by the United States Food and Drug Administration.School meal programs in the United States: School meal programs in the United States provide school meals freely, or at a subsidized price, to the children of low income families. These free or reduced meals have the potential to increase household food security, which can improve children's health and expand their educational opportunities.Ethanol fuel: Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline.Powdered milk: Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content.Orange Peel (horse): Orange Peel was a Thoroughbred stallion that had a significant influence on the breeding of sport horses.Australian referendum, 1913 (Trade and Commerce): The Constitution Alteration (Trade and Commerce) 1912 was an Australian referendum held in the 1913 referendums which sought to alter the Australian Constitution to extend Commonwealth legislative power in respect to trade and commerce.Health effects of natural phenols and polyphenols: Because of the large structural diversity and extensive metabolism of dietary polyphenols, it is difficult to determine their fate in vivo and assert specific health effects. Although many are speculated to be part of the health-promoting effects of consuming fruits and vegetables, no evidence exists to date that dietary polyphenols actually provide health benefits.Cookware and bakeware: Pan}}Fructose malabsorptionAspartameCaffeineClassification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Healthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.Mate con malicia: Mate con malicia (Spanish: "mate with malice") or mate con punta ("spiked mate")is a drink made of mate infusion and aguardiente or pisco, consumed mainly in rural areas of Chile. Huarisnaque is typically drunk by huasos, gauchos, fishermen and lumberjacks to warm up, as it combines both alcohol and the psychoactive substances of yerba mate, namely caffeine, theobromine and theophylline.Alcohol intoxicationWhite chocolate: White chocolate is a chocolate derivative. It commonly consists of cocoa butter, sugar and milk solids and is characterized by a pale yellow or ivory appearance.Carbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.AlkylphenolMenu FoodsSt. Vrain Valley School DistrictVegetable juiceDamavand Mineral Water Co.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Sensory-specific satiety: Sensory-specific satiety is a sensory hedonic phenomenon that refers to the declining satisfaction generated by the consumption of a certain type of food, and the consequent renewal in appetite resulting from the exposure to a new flavor or food.Raynor H, Epstein L.California Proposition 29 (2012): Proposition 29, the California Cancer Research Act, is a California ballot measure that was defeated by California voters at the statewide election on June 5, 2012.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning: Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning (31 March 1817–18 November 1861), one of the most prolific women artists in India, was the wife of Charles Canning, 1st Earl Canning. Two portfolios in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London contain some three hundred and fifty watercolours by her, the result of four major tours in India.Artificial butter flavoring: Artificial butter flavoring may contain diacetyl, acetylpropionyl, or acetoin, three natural compounds in butter that contribute to its characteristic flavor. Because of this, manufacturers of margarines or similar oil-based products typically add diacetyl, acetylpropionyl and acetoin (along with beta carotene for the yellow color) to make the final product butter-flavored, because it would otherwise be relatively tasteless.Food desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Candy: Candy, also called sweets or lollies, is a confection that features sugar as a principal ingredient. The category, called sugar confectionery, encompasses any sweet confection, including chocolate, chewing gum, and sugar candy.Tetrahydroharmine

(1/259) Caffeine content of beverages as consumed.

Quantitative analysis of beverages prepared at home by staff of the Addiction Research Foundation revealed a lower and much more variable caffeine content of both tea and coffee than had been reported in earlier studies, most of which were based on analysis of laboratory-prepared beverages. Median caffeine concentration of 37 home-prepared samples of tea was 27 mg per cup (range, 8 to 91 mg); for 46 coffee samples the median concentration was 74 mg per cup (range, 29 to 176 mg). If tea and coffee as drunk contain less caffeine than generally supposed, the potency of caffeine may be greater than commonly realized, as may the relative caffeine content of certain commercial preparations, including chocolate and colas. The substantial variation in caffeine content emphasizes the need to establish actual caffeine intake in clinical, epidemiologic and experimental investigations of caffeine effects.  (+info)

(2/259) Neurobiological and psychophysical mechanisms underlying the oral sensation produced by carbonated water.

Carbonated drinks elicit a sensation that is highly sought after, yet the underlying neural mechanisms are ill-defined. We hypothesize that CO(2) is converted via carbonic anhydrase into carbonic acid, which excites lingual nociceptors that project to the trigeminal nuclei. We investigated this hypothesis using three methodological approaches. Electrophysiological methods were used to record responses of single units located in superficial laminae of the dorsomedial aspect of trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) evoked by lingual application of carbonated water in anesthetized rats. After pretreatment of the tongue with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide, neuronal responses to carbonated water were significantly attenuated, followed by recovery. Using c-Fos immunohistochemistry, we investigated the distribution of brainstem neurons activated by intraoral carbonated water. Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) was significantly higher in the superficial laminae of dorsomedial and ventrolateral Vc in animals treated with carbonated water versus controls. Dorzolamide pretreatment significantly reduced FLI in dorsomedial Vc. We also examined the sensation elicited by carbonated water in human psychophysical studies. When one side of the tongue was pretreated with dorzolamide, followed by bilateral application of carbonated water, a significant majority of subjects chose the untreated side as having a stronger sensation and assigned significantly higher intensity ratings to that side. Dorzolamide did not reduce irritation elicited by pentanoic acid. The present data support the hypothesis that carbonated water excites lingual nociceptors via a carbonic anhydrase-dependent process, in turn exciting neurons in Vc that are presumably involved in signaling oral irritant sensations.  (+info)

(3/259) An experimental investigation of the influence of health information on children's taste preferences.

Promotion of healthy diets often involves provision of information about which food types are most favourable for health. This is based on the assumption that the rational consumer will, other things being equal, choose the food that they know is healthier. However, health information may not always have a positive effect, since there is evidence that some people, particularly children, believe that healthiness and tastiness are mutually exclusive characteristics. To the extent that taste governs preferences and consumption, the characterization of a food as healthy could reduce its anticipated pleasantness. The present study tested the idea that a 'healthy' label would reduce liking for a novel drink. The results showed that the children rated a 'healthy labelled' drink as less pleasant and said they would be less likely to ask their parents to buy it than the same drink presented with control information. These results suggest that care may need to be exercised in promoting foods to children through an emphasis on health, unless the implications of healthiness can be rendered more positive.  (+info)

(4/259) Small taxes on soft drinks and snack foods to promote health.

Health officials often wish to sponsor nutrition and other health promotion programs but are hampered by lack of funding. One source of funding is suggested by the fact that 18 states and 1 major city levy special taxes on soft drinks, candy, chewing gum, or snack foods. The tax rates may be too small to affect sales, but in some jurisdictions, the revenues generated are substantial. Nationally, about $1 billion is raised annually from these taxes. The authors propose that state and local governments levy taxes on foods of low nutritional value and use the revenues to fund health promotion programs.  (+info)

(5/259) Maternal milk consumption predicts the tradeoff between milk and soft drinks in young girls' diets.

Milk intake constitutes an important source of dietary calcium for young girls but declines throughout childhood. Recent work shows that the intake of soft drinks may contribute to this decline. Influences on the apparent tradeoff between soft drinks and milk in young girls' diets are not well described. The objective of this research was to test a model depicting maternal beverage choices as predictors of their daughters' milk and soft drink intake. A structural equation model describing maternal influences on daughters' milk, soft drink and calcium intakes was tested using data from 180 non-Hispanic, white families with 5-y-old daughters. Mothers' calcium, milk and soft drink intakes were evaluated as predictors of their daughters' intakes. Mothers' and daughters' soft drink intakes were also examined as predictors of their own milk and calcium intakes. The model provided a good fit to the data, revealing mother-daughter similarities in beverage intake. Mothers who drank milk more frequently had daughters who drank milk more frequently and drank fewer soft drinks. For both mothers and daughters, soft drink consumption was negatively related to both milk and calcium intake. This research provides evidence that mothers' beverage choices influence the tradeoff between milk and soft drinks in their daughters' diets. In particular, mothers' milk and soft drink intakes may affect their daughters' calcium adequacy in early childhood by influencing the frequency with which their daughters consume those beverages.  (+info)

(6/259) Dental erosion in a group of British 14-year-old school children. Part II: Influence of dietary intake.

OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were first to investigate the dietary intake pattern of UK teenagers and secondly to determine the relationship, if any, between dental erosion and dietary intake in these children. METHODS: The study group consisted of a cluster random sample of 14-year-old school children in Birmingham, UK: 418 children were examined from 12 different schools; 209 were male and 209 female. Data on the rate and frequency of consumption of drinks, foods, and fruits were obtained from a self-reported questionnaire supplemented by a structured interview. The data were analysed using SPSS with Chi-square, and Spearman correlation analysis. RESULTS: Over 80% of the teenagers regularly consumed soft drinks but approximately half of these children had a relatively low weekly consumption. However, 13% and 10% respectively had more than 22 intakes per week of cola and other carbonated drinks. Almost a quarter of these 14-year-olds had alcoholic drinks, with significantly more males than females involved (Chi-square P < 0.05) . Girls had a greater intake of fruits. Statistically significant correlations were found between the prevalence of erosion and the consumption of soft drinks, carbonated beverages, alcohol drinks, fresh fruits, Vitamin-C tablets and foodstuffs (Spearman correlation analysis P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: It was concluded that consumption particularly of soft drinks was high and common in teenage school children in Birmingham, UK. In addition there was a relationship between dental erosion and acidic dietary intake. Further investigation of the erosive potential of these drinks and foods is required.  (+info)

(7/259) The oral sensation of carbonated water: cross-desensitization by capsaicin and potentiation by amiloride.

The oral sensation elicited by carbonated water is reduced by capsaicin and by blockers of carbonic anhydrase. We have investigated the temporal profile of this sensation and its cross-desensitization by capsaicin. We additionally tested if the sensation is influenced by amiloride. Following pretreatment of half of the dorsal tongue with 33 p.p.m. capsaicin, carbonated water was flowed over the tongue bilaterally for 5, 15 or 60 s. Subjects then performed a two-alternative forced choice test by indicating which side of the tongue had a stronger sensation and separately rated the sensory intensity on each side. Capsaicin significantly reduced the intensity of sensation elicited by carbonated water, consistent with cross-desensitization. This effect was weaker at 60 s because of a significant decline (desensitization) in ratings of the intensity of carbonated water on both sides of the tongue. Pretreatment with amiloride resulted in a small but significant increase in the intensity of the sensation elicited by the 15 s carbonated water stimulus, suggesting an amiloride-sensitive transduction mechanism.  (+info)

(8/259) Carbonated beverages and urinary calcium excretion.

BACKGROUND: Intake of carbonated beverages has been associated with increased fracture risk in observational studies. The usual explanation given is that one or more of the beverage constituents increase urinary calcium. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the short-term effects on urinary calcium excretion of carbonated beverages of various compositions. DESIGN: An incomplete random block design was used to study 20-40-y-old women who customarily consumed > or =680 mL carbonated beverages daily. Four carbonated beverages were tested: 2 with caffeine and 2 without. Two contained phosphoric acid as the acidulant and 2 contained citric acid. The study included one neutral control (water) and one positive control (skim or chocolate milk). Serving size was 567 mL for the carbonated beverages and water and 340 mL for the milks. Beverages were consumed with a light breakfast after an overnight fast; no other foods were ingested until urine collection was complete. pH, titratable and total acidity, sodium, creatinine, and calcium were measured in 2-h (morning) fasting and 5-h postbeverage urine specimens. RESULTS: Relative to water, urinary calcium rose significantly only with the milks and the 2 caffeine-containing beverages. The excess calciuria was approximately 0.25 mmol, about the same as previously reported for caffeine alone. Phosphoric acid without caffeine produced no excess calciuria; nor did it augment the calciuria of caffeine. CONCLUSIONS: The excess calciuria associated with consumption of carbonated beverages is confined to caffeinated beverages. Acidulant type has no acute effect. Because the caffeine effect is known to be compensated for by reduced calciuria later in the day, we conclude that the net effect of carbonated beverage constituents on calcium economy is negligible. The skeletal effects of carbonated beverage consumption are likely due primarily to milk displacement.  (+info)



sugar-sweetened


  • Be it a cola, non-cola, diet soda or other sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage, carbonated beverages can increase your risk of serious health issues. (livestrong.com)
  • The rising incidence of diabetes and obesity among adults as well as children has also resulted in the declining sales of soft drinks and other sugar sweetened beverages. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Despite the fact that summer is almost on its way in India, Coca Cola India has been forced to close down a number of plants in the country owing to insufficient demand for carbonated and sugar sweetened beverages. (qyresearchreports.com)

Lemon-Lime


  • This page is all about the nutrition of Carbonated beverage, lemon-lime soda, contains caffeine. (bellaonline.com)

drinks


  • Non-carbonated drinks, which now account for nearly a third of all beverages sold in the state, were left out of the law, meaning billions of lemonade, iced tea, Gatorade and water bottles wind up in the trash or in recycling bins. (uticaod.com)
  • You'll still find trash cans overflowing with empties, though, but these are empty water bottles, discarded bottles of Gatorade and other sports drinks, iced tea, lemonade and other non-carbonated beverages. (uticaod.com)
  • Under the state's bottling law, which went into effect in 1983, bottles and cans of carbonated beverages like soft drinks, beer and mineral water can be redeemed for a nickel a piece. (uticaod.com)
  • Legislation introduced this year would expand the bottle bill to include water and other non-carbonated drinks, and raise the redemption on bottles and cans to 10 cents to adjust for inflation since the law was passed. (uticaod.com)
  • Adding water, juice and non-carbonated drinks to the bottle bill, she said, will keep a huge volume of plastic, glass and aluminum out of landfills and incinerators, while allowing towns to run smaller curbside recycling programs for other items, including paper and non-beverage containers. (uticaod.com)
  • Carbonated drinks are bad for your health as they contain huge amounts of refined sugar, yet the production of plastic bottles and cans especially is highly reliant on this industry which could be hit if 'fat taxes' are imposed on them. (ceepackaging.com)
  • The soft drinks industry has not escaped tax hikes and in January 2012, a new 'fat' tax was imposed on sugary beverages equating to around 1 cent per container, and expected to raise in the region of €150m for the French Treasury. (ceepackaging.com)
  • When it comes to beverages, bottled water is not just the fastest selling beverage in the world but also one of the biggest commercially sold categories of drinks. (qyresearchreports.com)

Kidneys


  • In 2007, a group of kidney specialists reporting in the "Journal of the American Society of Nephrology" said excessive consumption of fructose-containing beverages was a risk factor for kidney disease, marked by high blood pressure, as well as inflammation and damage to the kidneys. (livestrong.com)

Consumption


  • In the light of such a tax regime, and in line with the general economic malaise affecting France, many consumers have sought to reduce consumption of higher priced beverages, and a trend of trading down to less expensive, lower sugar products has been seen in the country over the last 12 months. (ceepackaging.com)

Soda


  • Soda and other carbonated energy beverages have a carbohydrate concentration of greater than 10 percent, which slows down gastric emptying and inhibits fluid absorption. (livestrong.com)
  • You probably won't be chugging sparkling water or club soda during a competition, but this calorie-free carbonated beverage offers a hydration alternative to still water at non-workout times. (livestrong.com)
  • Are There Health Benefits of Soda and Carbonated Water? (livestrong.com)
  • Drinking soda or other carbonated beverages each day may be a recipe for high blood pressure, reduced kidney function and kidney stones. (livestrong.com)
  • Phosphoric acid gives food a tangy taste and beverages the acidic taste you've come to associate with soda. (livestrong.com)

beer


  • Reformulating beer, though, may make this carbonated beverage an ideal recovery drink. (livestrong.com)

Water


  • Including water and other beverages in the bottle bill, they said, would almost certainly drive consumers to keep millions of bottles out of the trash, easing the burden on local trash collection programs. (uticaod.com)
  • The rising concerns over the effect of carbonated beverages on the health of the consumers and the easy availability of new and innovative flavors in functional beverages have resulted in the growing demand for bottled water. (qyresearchreports.com)

drink


  • Hiccups are commonly caused by distention of the stomach, which you get if you eat too much, drink carbonated beverages, or swallow too much air. (fluther.com)
  • The housing is configured to support at least one drink supply container which can contain a drink syrup associated with a carbonated beverage. (google.es)
  • The refrigerator has an input device coupled to the drink supply container which enables a user to cause carbonated beverage to flow to a beverage collector. (google.es)

cause


  • During most workouts, carbonated beverages are not ideal as they may cause stomach upset. (livestrong.com)
  • That is, carbonated beverages that aren't colas can also cause damage. (livestrong.com)
  • That action, the researchers said, is a major mechanism through which fructose-sweetened beverages cause cardiorenal disease. (livestrong.com)
  • How does drinking carbonated beverages or alcohol cause hiccups? (fluther.com)
  • c) cause the serving of carbonated beverage to flow to a beverage collector. (google.es)
  • 4. The refrigerator of claim 1 , wherein the memory device stores at least one instruction executable by the processor to read a beverage data file, the beverage data file including information about the carbonated beverage, the memory device stores a plurality of instructions executable by the processor to cause the display device to graphically represent at least a portion of the information. (google.es)
  • 6. The refrigerator of claim 4 , wherein the beverage data file read by the processor includes price information, and the memory device stores a plurality of instructions executable by the processor to cause the display device to graphically represent at least a portion of the price information. (google.es)

report


  • In this report, the global Carbonated Beverage Processing Equipment market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (bharatbook.com)

price


  • Unlike community-wide recycling programs, which are paid for by all taxpayers, deposits on redeemable beverages are factored into the sale price, hitting only those customers who buy a product. (uticaod.com)

times


  • There are times, though, when carbonated beverages may offer up a performance or recovery boost. (livestrong.com)

alternative


  • If you or a close relative has a kidney-related health issues, talk to your doctor or dietitian about alternative beverages that can fit into your diet. (livestrong.com)

review


  • Start your review of Topo Chico Topo Sangria Carbonated Beverage! (influenster.com)