Carbohydrate Epimerases: Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.Racemases and Epimerases: Enzymes that catalyze inversion of the configuration around an asymmetric carbon in a substrate having one (racemase) or more (epimerase) center(s) of asymmetry. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.1.UDPglucose 4-Epimerase: A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC 5.1.3.2.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Plesiomonas: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in fish and other aquatic animals and in a variety of mammals, including man. Its organisms probably do not belong to the normal intestinal flora of man and can cause diarrhea.Azotobacter vinelandii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria first isolated from soil in Vineland, New Jersey. Ammonium and nitrate are used as nitrogen sources by this bacterium. It is distinguished from other members of its genus by the ability to use rhamnose as a carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Iduronic Acid: Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.

*  Carbohydrate Epimerases Summary Report | CureHunter
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3. ... Carbohydrate Epimerases. Subscribe to New Research on Carbohydrate Epimerases Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral ... centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.. Also Known As: Epimerases, Carbohydrate; Isomerases, Carbohydrate ... Carbohydrate Epimerases*UDP acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase: 14. *UDPglucose 4-Epimerase: 8. *N-acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase: 4 ...
  http://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD002238-Carbohydrate-Epimerases.do
*  "Regulation of renin processing and secretion: chemiosmotic control and" by Jean A. King, David J. Lush et al.
Animals; Biological Transport; *Carbohydrate Epimerases; Carrier Proteins; Cytoplasmic Granules; Enzyme Precursors; Enzymes; ...
  https://escholarship.umassmed.edu/psych_pp/361/
*  List of MeSH codes (D08) - Wikipedia
... carbohydrate epimerases MeSH D08.811.399.894.500.700 --- UDP-glucose 4-epimerase MeSH D08.811.464.257.050 --- acetyl-coa ... carbohydrate dehydrogenases MeSH D08.811.682.047.150.225 --- fructuronate reductase MeSH D08.811.682.047.150.250 --- galactose ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D08)
*  L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase - Wikipedia
It belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. ... Mechanism of Ribulose 5-Phosphate 4-Epimerase in active site Aldol and dehydration mechanims L-Ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase ... Other names in common use include phosphoribulose isomerase, ribulose phosphate 4-epimerase, L-ribulose-phosphate 4-epimerase, ... In enzymology, a L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of ribulose 5- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L-ribulose-5-phosphate_4-epimerase
*  UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4-epimerase - Wikipedia
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... Other names in common use include UDP acetylglucosamine epimerase, uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine epimerase, uridine ... In enzymology, an UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-N- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 4-epimerase. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UDP-N-acetylglucosamine_4-epimerase
*  Glucose-6-phosphate 1-epimerase - Wikipedia
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... In enzymology, a glucose-6-phosphate 1-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.15) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction alpha-D- ... Wurster B, Hess B (1972). "Glucose-6-phosphate-1-epimerase from baker's yeast. A new enzyme". FEBS Lett. 23 (3): 341-344. doi: ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-glucose-6-phosphate 1-epimerase. This enzyme participates in glycolysis / ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucose-6-phosphate_1-epimerase
*  DTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase - Wikipedia
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... 5-epimerase, TDP-4-ketorhamnose 3,5-epimerase, dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose 3,5-epimerase, and TDP-4-keto-L-rhamnose-3,5- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose 3,5-epimerase. Other names in common use include ... In enzymology, a dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction dTDP-4- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose_3,5-epimerase
*  UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase - Wikipedia
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... epimerase, uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine 2'-epimerase, and uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine-2'-epimerase. This ... The UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase from rat liver displays both epimerase and kinase activity. As of late 2007, 4 ... In microorganisms this epimerase is involved in the synthesis of the capsule precursor UDP-ManNAcA. An inhibitor of the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UDP-N-acetylglucosamine_2-epimerase
*  GDP-mannose 3,5-epimerase - Wikipedia
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is GDP-mannose 3,5-epimerase. Other names in common use include GDP-D-mannose:GDP-L- ... galactose epimerase, guanosine 5'-diphosphate D-mannose:guanosine 5'-diphosphate, and L-galactose epimerase. This enzyme ... In enzymology, a GDP-mannose 3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction GDP-mannose ⇌ {\ ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GDP-mannose_3,5-epimerase
*  N-acylglucosamine 2-epimerase - Wikipedia
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... Other names in common use include acylglucosamine 2-epimerase, and N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase. This enzyme participates in ... In enzymology, a N-acylglucosamine 2-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction N-acyl-D- ... V. N-Acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase". J. Biol. Chem. 240: 1531-1536. PMID 14285488. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N-acylglucosamine_2-epimerase
*  N-acylglucosamine-6-phosphate 2-epimerase - Wikipedia
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... Other names in common use include acylglucosamine-6-phosphate 2-epimerase, and acylglucosamine phosphate 2-epimerase. This ... In enzymology, a N-acylglucosamine-6-phosphate 2-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction N- ... N-Acyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate 2-epimerase". J. Biol. Chem. 240: 1525-1530. PMID 14285487. Molecular and Cellular Biology ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N-acylglucosamine-6-phosphate_2-epimerase
*  UDP-glucuronate 5'-epimerase - Wikipedia
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... Other names in common use include uridine diphosphoglucuronate 5'-epimerase, UDP-glucuronic acid 5'-epimerase, and C-5-uronosyl ... In enzymology, an UDP-glucuronate 5'-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-glucuronate ... I. Uridine diphosphate-D-glucuronic acid-5-epimerase". J. Biol. Chem. 237: 638-642. PMID 14450717. Molecular and Cellular ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UDP-glucuronate_5'-epimerase
*  ADP-glyceromanno-heptose 6-epimerase - Wikipedia
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... In enzymology, an ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose 6-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.20) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ADP ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose 6-epimerase. This enzyme participates in ... "The Mechanism of the Reaction Catalyzed by ADP-β-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose 6-Epimerase". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126: 8878-9. doi: ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ADP-glyceromanno-heptose_6-epimerase
*  UDP-glucosamine 4-epimerase - Wikipedia
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucosamine 4-epimerase. MALEY F, MALEY GF (1959). "The enzymic conversion of ... In enzymology, an UDP-glucosamine 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.16) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-glucosamine ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UDP-glucosamine_4-epimerase
*  CDP-paratose 2-epimerase - Wikipedia
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... cytidine diphosphodideoxyglucose epimerase, cytidine diphosphoparatose epimerase, and cytidine diphosphate paratose-2-epimerase ... It is also incorrectly known as CDP-abequose epimerase, and CDP-D-abequose 2-epimerase. This enzyme participates in starch and ... Other names in common use include CDP-paratose epimerase, cytidine diphosphoabequose epimerase, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CDP-paratose_2-epimerase
*  UDP-glucuronate 4-epimerase - Wikipedia
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... UDP-galacturonate 4-epimerase, uridine diphosphoglucuronate epimerase, and UDP-D-galacturonic acid 4-epimerase. This enzyme ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucuronate 4-epimerase. Other names in common use include uridine diphospho-D- ... galacturonic acid, UDP glucuronic epimerase, uridine diphosphoglucuronic epimerase, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UDP-glucuronate_4-epimerase
*  Aldose 1-epimerase - Wikipedia
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... In enzymology, an aldose 1-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction alpha-D-glucose ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is aldose 1-epimerase. Other names in common use include mutarotase, and aldose ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldose_1-epimerase
*  UDP-arabinose 4-epimerase - Wikipedia
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... UDP arabinose epimerase, uridine 5'-diphosphate-D-xylose 4-epimerase, and UDP-D-xylose 4-epimerase. This enzyme participates in ... In enzymology, an UDP-arabinose 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-L-arabinose ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-L-arabinose 4-epimerase. Other names in common use include uridine ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UDP-arabinose_4-epimerase
*  Maltose epimerase - Wikipedia
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is maltose 1-epimerase. Shirokane Y, Suzuki M (1995). "A novel enzyme, maltose 1- ... In enzymology, a maltose epimerase (EC 5.1.3.21) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction alpha-maltose ⇌ {\ ... epimerase from Lactobacillus brevis IFO 3345". FEBS Lett. 367 (2): 177-9. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(95)00524-D. PMID 7796915. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maltose_epimerase
*  Chondroitin-glucuronate 5-epimerase - Wikipedia
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... Other names in common use include polyglucuronate 5-epimerase, dermatan-sulfate 5-epimerase, urunosyl C-5 epimerase, and ... In enzymology, a chondroitin-glucuronate 5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.19) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... Assay and properties of the uronosyl C-5 epimerase". Biochem. J. 201 (3): 489-93. PMC 1163673 . PMID 7092807. Molecular and ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chondroitin-glucuronate_5-epimerase
*  L-ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase - Wikipedia
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase. Other names in common use include L-xylulose 5- ... In enzymology, a L-ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.22) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-ribulose ... phosphate 3-epimerase, UlaE, and SgaU. This enzyme participates in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. Yew WS, Gerlt JA (2002 ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L-ribulose-5-phosphate_3-epimerase
*  Cellobiose epimerase - Wikipedia
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and their ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is cellobiose 2-epimerase. Enzymes like these can produce a more rapid syndrome that ... In enzymology a cellobiose epimerase (EC 5.1.3.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction cellobiose ⇌ {\ ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellobiose_epimerase
*  Phosphopentose epimerase - Wikipedia
This enzyme belongs to the isomerase family, specifically those racemases and epimerases which act on carbohydrates and their ... Phosphopentose epimerase (also known as ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase and ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase)(EC 5.1.3.1) is a ... D-ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase, D-xylulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase, and pentose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase. This enzyme participates ... phosphoketopentose 3-epimerase, xylulose phosphate 3-epimerase, phosphoketopentose wpimerase, ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphopentose_epimerase
*  Mannoside phosphorylase (IPR007184) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
... involving two mannoside phosphorylases and cellobiose 2-epimerase: discovery of a new carbohydrate phosphorylase, β-1,4- ...
  http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR007184

Galactose epimerase deficiencyCarbohydrate chemistry: Carbohydrate chemistry is a subdiscipline of chemistry primarily concerned with the synthesis, structure, and function of carbohydrates. Due to the general structure of carbohydrates, their synthesis is often preoccupied with the selective formation of glycosidic linkages and the selective reaction of hydroxyl groups; as a result, it relies heavily on the use of protecting groups.Carbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Plesiomonas shigelloides: Plesiomonas shigelloides is a species of bacteria. It is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium which has been isolated from freshwater, freshwater fish, and shellfish and from many types of animals including cattle, goats, swine, cats, dogs, monkeys, vultures, snakes, and toads.IdoseEutherian fetoembryonic defense system (eu-FEDS) hypothesis: The Eutherian Fetoembryonic Defense System (eu-FEDS) is a hypothetical model describing a method by which immune systems are capable of recognizing additional states of relatedness like "own species" such as is observed in maternal immune tolerance in pregnancy. The model includes descriptions of the proposed signaling mechanism and several proposed examples of exploitation of this signaling in disease states.Immobilized enzyme: An immobilized enzyme is an enzyme that is attached to an inert, insoluble material such as calcium alginate (produced by reacting a mixture of sodium alginate solution and enzyme solution with calcium chloride). This can provide increased resistance to changes in conditions such as pH or temperature.Coles PhillipsSpecificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Phase problem: In physics the phase problem is the name given to the problem of loss of information concerning the phase that can occur when making a physical measurement. The name itself comes from the field of x-ray crystallography, where the phase problem has to be solved for the determination of a structure from diffraction data.CS-BLASTReaction coordinateBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.N-linked glycosylation: N-linked glycosylation, is the attachment of the sugar molecule oligosaccharide known as glycan to a nitrogen atom (amide nitrogen of asparagine (Asn) residue of a protein), in a process called N-glycosylation, studied in biochemistry. This type of linkage is important for both the structure and function of some eukaryotic proteins.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Leguminous lectin family: In molecular biology, the leguminous lectin family is a family of lectin proteins.Starch gelatinization: Starch gelatinization is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites (the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygen) to engage more water. This irreversibly dissolves the starch granule in water.

(1/698) Tissue expression and amino acid sequence of murine UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase.

Neuraminic acids are widely expressed as terminal carbohydrates on glycoconjugates and are involved in a variety of biological functions. The key enzyme of N-acetylneuraminic acid synthesis is UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase, which catalyses the first two steps of neuraminic acid biosynthesis in the cytosol. In this study we report the complete amino acid sequence of the mouse UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase. The ORF of 2166 bp encodes 722 amino acids and a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 79.2 kDa. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization revealed that UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase is expressed at early stages during development and in all tissues investigated with a maximal expression in the liver.  (+info)

(2/698) The recombinant Azotobacter vinelandii mannuronan C-5-epimerase AlgE4 epimerizes alginate by a nonrandom attack mechanism.

The Ca2+-dependent mannuronan C-5-epimerase AlgE4 is a representative of a family of Azotobacter vinelandii enzymes catalyzing the polymer level epimerization of beta-D-mannuronic acid (M) to alpha-L-guluronic acid (G) in the commercially important polysaccharide alginate. The reaction product of recombinantly produced AlgE4 is predominantly characterized by an alternating sequence distribution of the M and G residues (MG blocks). AlgE4 was purified after intracellular overexpression in Escherichia coli, and the activity was shown to be optimal at pH values between 6.5 and 7.0, in the presence of 1-3 mM Ca2+, and at temperatures near 37 degrees C. Sr2+ was found to substitute reasonably well for Ca2+ in activation, whereas Zn2+ strongly inhibited the activity. During epimerization of alginate, the fraction of GMG blocks increased linearly as a function of the total fraction of G residues and comparably much faster than that of MMG blocks. These experimental data could not be accounted for by a random attack mechanism, suggesting that the enzyme either slides along the alginate chain during catalysis or recognizes a pre-existing G residue as a preferred substrate in its consecutive attacks.  (+info)

(3/698) Conversion of dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose to free dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose by the rmIC gene products of Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

dTDP-rhamnose is made from glucose-1-phosphate and dTTP by four enzymes encoded by rmIA-D. An Escherichia coli rmIC mutant was constructed and a crude enzyme extract prepared from it did not produce dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose, in contrast to a crude enzyme extract prepared from a wild-type E. coli strain where small amounts of this intermediate were found after incubation with dTDP-glucose in the absence of NADPH. These results showed that dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose, the product of RmIC, exists as a free intermediate. Further, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis rmIC gene was expressed and incubation of the resulting purified M. tuberculosis RmIC enzyme with dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose resulted in the conversion of approximately 7% of dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose to dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose. The enzyme also allowed for the incorporation of two deuterium atoms from deuterium oxide solvent into dTDP-4-keto-glucose. Thus the rmIC gene encodes dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose epimerase capable of epimerizing at both C-3' and C-5'; this enzyme produces free dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose but the equilibrium of the 4-keto sugar nucleotides lies strongly on the side of the gluco configuration.  (+info)

(4/698) The A modules of the Azotobacter vinelandii mannuronan-C-5-epimerase AlgE1 are sufficient for both epimerization and binding of Ca2+.

The industrially important polysaccharide alginate is composed of the two sugar monomers beta-D-mannuronic acid (M) and its epimer alpha-L-guluronic acid (G). In the bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, the G residues originate from a polymer-level reaction catalyzed by one periplasmic and at least five secreted mannuronan C-5-epimerases. The secreted enzymes are composed of repeats of two protein modules designated A (385 amino acids) and R (153 amino acids). The modular structure of one of the epimerases, AlgE1, is A1R1R2R3A2R4. This enzyme has two catalytic sites for epimerization, each site introducing a different G distribution pattern, and in this article we report the DNA-level construction of a variety of truncated forms of the enzyme. Analyses of the properties of the corresponding proteins showed that an A module alone is sufficient for epimerization and that A1 catalyzed the formation of contiguous stretches of G residues in the polymer, while A2 introduces single G residues. These differences are predicted to strongly affect the physical and immunological properties of the reaction product. The epimerization reaction is Ca2+ dependent, and direct binding studies showed that both the A and R modules bind this cation. The R modules appeared to reduce the Ca2+ concentration needed for full activity and also stimulated the reaction rate when positioned both N and C terminally.  (+info)

(5/698) Mutations in the human UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase gene define the disease sialuria and the allosteric site of the enzyme.

Sialuria is a rare inborn error of metabolism characterized by cytoplasmic accumulation and increased urinary excretion of free N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc, sialic acid). Overproduction of NeuAc is believed to result from loss of feedback inhibition of uridinediphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase (UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase) by cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac). We report the cloning and characterization of human UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase cDNA, with mutation analysis of three patients with sialuria. Their heterozygote mutations, R266W, R266Q, and R263L, indicate that the allosteric site of the epimerase resides in the region of codons 263-266. The heterozygous nature of the mutant allele in all three patients reveals a dominant mechanism of inheritance for sialuria.  (+info)

(6/698) UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase: a regulator of cell surface sialylation.

Modification of cell surface molecules with sialic acid is crucial for their function in many biological processes, including cell adhesion and signal transduction. Uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase (UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase) is an enzyme that catalyzes an early, rate-limiting step in the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway. UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase was found to be a major determinant of cell surface sialylation in human hematopoietic cell lines and a critical regulator of the function of specific cell surface adhesion molecules.  (+info)

(7/698) A novel NDP-6-deoxyhexosyl-4-ulose reductase in the pathway for the synthesis of thymidine diphosphate-D-fucose.

The serotype-specific polysaccharide antigen of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 (serotype b) consists of D-fucose and L-rhamnose. Thymidine diphosphate (dTDP)-D-fucose is the activated nucleotide sugar form of D-fucose, which has been identified as a constituent of structural polysaccharides in only a few bacteria. In this paper, we show that three dTDP-D-fucose synthetic enzymes are encoded by genes in the gene cluster responsible for the synthesis of serotype b-specific polysaccharide in A. actinomycetemcomitans. The first and second steps of the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway are catalyzed by D-glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase and dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase, which are encoded by rmlA and rmlB in the gene cluster, respectively. These two reactions are common to the well studied dTDP-L-rhamnose synthetic pathway. However, the enzyme catalyzing the last step of the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway has never been reported. We identified the fcd gene encoding a dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose reductase. After purifying the three enzymes, their enzymatic activities were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. In addition, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and gas-liquid chromatography analysis proved that the fcd gene product converts dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose to dTDP-D-fucose. Moreover, kinetic analysis of the enzyme indicated that the Km values for dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose and NADPH are 97.3 and 28.7 microM, respectively, and that the enzyme follows the sequential mechanism. This paper is the first report on the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway and dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose reductase.  (+info)

(8/698) Decreased availability of GDP-L-fucose in a patient with LAD II with normal GDP-D-mannose dehydratase and FX protein activities.

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II (LAD II) is caused by a disorder in the metabolism of GDP-L-fucose, which causes hypofucosylation of glycoconjugates. This study analyzes a newly identified LAD II patient who shows the same severe hypofucosylation of glycoconjugates as the other described patients. However, in vitro assays of cytosolic extracts from leukocytes and fibroblasts of the patient demonstrated a normal GDP-L-fucose biosynthesis from GDP-D-mannose. Analysis of the two enzymes involved in the pathway, GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase and FX protein, revealed normal numbers of transcripts without any detectable mutations within the coding regions of either gene. In contrast to previously published observations [Sturla et al. (1998) FEBS Lett. 429, 274-278], the major pathway of GDP-L-fucose synthesis can be normal in LAD II.  (+info)



  • enzymology
  • In enzymology, a L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of ribulose 5-phosphate and xylulose 5-phosphate in the oxidative phase of the Pentose phosphate pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, an UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and one product, UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a glucose-6-phosphate 1-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.15) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction alpha-D-glucose 6-phosphate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } beta-D-glucose 6-phosphate Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, alpha-D-glucose 6-phosphate, and one product, beta-D-glucose 6-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-L-mannose Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose, and one product, dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-L-mannose. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a GDP-mannose 3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction GDP-mannose ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } GDP-L-galactose Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, GDP-mannose, and one product, GDP-L-galactose. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a N-acylglucosamine-6-phosphate 2-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction N-acyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } N-acyl-D-mannosamine 6-phosphate Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, N-acyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate, and one product, N-acyl-D-mannosamine 6-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, an UDP-glucosamine 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.16) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-glucosamine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } UDP-galactosamine Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, UDP-glucosamine, and one product, UDP-galactosamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a L-ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.22) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-ribulose 5-phosphate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } L-xylulose 5-phosphate Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, L-ribulose 5-phosphate, and one product, L-xylulose 5-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • epimerization
  • Mechanism of Ribulose 5-Phosphate 4-Epimerase in active site Aldol and dehydration mechanims L-Ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase catalyzes the epimerization of L-ribulose 5-phosphate to D-xylulose 5-phosphate by retro-aldol cleavage and subsequent aldol reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • First, the retro-aldol cleavage mechanism is analogous to the reaction catalyzed by L-fuculose-phosphate aldolase which has high levels of sequence similarity with L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • The UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase from rat liver displays both epimerase and kinase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of intercellular communication can restore the activity of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in mammalian cells that are deficient in the enzyme UDP-Gal/UDP-GalNAc 4-epimerase. (sciencemag.org)
  • Pure cultures of the 4-epimerase mutant are unable to synthesize normal carbohydrate chains on LDL receptors and many other glycoproteins and therefore do not express LDL receptor activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • When these cells are cocultivated with cells expressing normal 4-epimerase activity, the structure and function of LDL receptors are restored to normal by the transfer of this enzyme's products through intercellular junctions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Further, it was demonstrated that the activity of the precursor-producing enzyme UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4-epimerase, converting UDP-N-acetylglucosamine into UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine, is responsible for the presence of N-acetylgalactosamine in the EPS repeating units of both strains. (hud.ac.uk)
  • The activity of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4-epimerase was higher in both S. thermophilus strains than in a non-EPS-producing control strain. (hud.ac.uk)
  • However, the level of this activity was not correlated with EPS yields, a result independent of the carbohydrate source applied in the fermentation process. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Type
  • On the other hand, both the amounts of EPS and the carbohydrate consumption rates were influenced by the type of carbohydrate source used during S. thermophilus Sfi20 fermentations. (hud.ac.uk)
  • family
  • The Azotobacter vinelandii AlgE mannuronan C-5-epimerase family is essential for the in vivo control of alginate monomer composition and for functi. (growkudos.com)