Streptanthus breweri: Streptanthus breweri is a species of flowering plant in the mustard family known by the common name Brewer's jewelflower. It is endemic to California, where it can be found in the coastal mountain ranges from the Klamath Mountains south to the San Francisco Bay Area.Heel: The heel is the prominence at the posterior end of the foot. It is based on the projection of one bone, the calcaneus or heel bone, behind the articulation of the bones of the lower leg.
(1/21) Efficacy of injected liquid silicone in the diabetic foot to reduce risk factors for ulceration: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of injecting liquid silicone in the diabetic foot to reduce risk factors for ulceration in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 28 diabetic neuropathic patients without peripheral vascular disease were randomized to active treatment with 6 injections of 0.2 ml liquid silicone in the plantar surface of the foot or to treatment with an equal volume of saline (placebo). No significant differences were evident regarding age or neuropathy status between the 2 groups. All injections were under the metatarsal heads at sites of calluses or high pressures. Barefoot plantar pressures (pedobarography) and plantar tissue thickness under the metatarsal heads (Planscan ultrasound device) were measured at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months after the first injection. Injection sites were photographed at all stages, and callus formation was scored as a change from baseline. Throughout the study, patients were treated by the same podiatrist for all podiatry treatment. RESULTS: Patients who received silicone treatment had significantly increased plantar tissue thickness at injection sites compared with the placebo group (1.8 vs. 0.1 mm) (P < 0.0001) and correspondingly significantly decreased plantar pressures (-232 vs. -25 kPa) (P < 0.05) at 3 months, with similar results at 6 and 12 months. A trend was noted toward a reduction of callus formation in the silicone-treated group compared with no change in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the efficacy of plantar silicone injections in reducing recognized risk factors associated with diabetic foot ulceration. (+info)
(2/21) Preliminary investigation of debridement of plantar callosities in rheumatoid arthritis.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of expert debridement of foot callosities on forefoot pain and plantar pressure distribution in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Plantar callosities on 14 feet of eight RA patients were debrided by a single podiatrist. Measurements of subjective pain severity in the forefoot and global arthritis pain were undertaken using a visual analogue scale, repeated at 7-day intervals to the next treatment (28 days). Plantar pressures were recorded at the lesion sites using an in-shoe flexible transducer insole before and after lesion debridement. RESULTS: Following debridement, all patients reported symptomatic relief with an average change in pain score of 48% (P = 0.01) but the treatment effect was lost by 7 days. Immediately following scalpel debridement, peak pressures were elevated in 10 of 14 feet, whilst contact time was reduced and peak force increased. None, however, reached statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Scalpel debridement of forefoot plantar callosities reduces forefoot pain for about 7 days, but pressure distribution is not significantly altered. (+info)
(3/21) Metatarsal osteotomy for metatarsalgia.
An oblique osteotomy in the distal half of the metatarsal shaft is described for the treatment of metatarsalgia due to prolapse of one or more of the middle three metatarsal heads. Thirty-eight patients who have had this operation have been followed up for a period of from two to five years. The operation is simple, recovery is rapid and symptoms have been well relieved. (+info)
(4/21) The foot in chronic rheumatoid arthritis.
The feet of 200 consecutive admissions with classical or definite rheumatoid arthritis were studied. 104 were found to have pain or deformity. Clinical involvement of the joints was seen more often than radiological joint damage in the ankle, but the reverse was the case in the midtarsal joints. The metatarsophalangeal joints were involved most frequently both clinically and radiologically. Sixty per cent of the patients required modified shoes but only a third of these had received them. The need for more shoes is clear, and although this is a highly selected group of patients they were all under specialist care. The increased expenditure on special footwear would benefit the patient, firstly by improving ambulation, and secondly perhaps by reducing the number of operations necessary. Hallux valgus was very common and occurred with similar frequency to disease in the other metatarsophalangeal joints. Although not exclusive to rheumatoid arthritis, hallux valgus must have been caused for the most part by the rheumatoid arthritis and if so, then it is suggested that the provision of suitable shoes for patients may be less costly than subsequent surgical treatment. (+info)
(5/21) Corns and calluses resulting from mechanical hyperkeratosis.
The formation of corns and calluses can be caused by mechanical stresses from faulty footgear (the wearing of poorly fitting shoes), abnormal foot mechanics (deformity of the foot exerting abnormal pressure), and high levels of activity. Corns and calluses result from hyperkeratosis, a normal physiologic response of the skin to chronic excessive pressure or friction. Treatment should provide symptomatic relief and alleviate the underlying mechanical cause. The lesions will usually disappear following the removal of the causative mechanical forces. Most lesions can be managed conservatively by the use of properly fitting shoes and padding to redistribute mechanical forces. Surgery is only indicated if conservative measures fail and should be aimed at correcting the abnormal mechanical stresses. (+info)
(6/21) The prevalence of foot problems in older women: a cause for concern.
BACKGROUND: Painful feet are an extremely common problem amongst older women. Such problems increase the risk of falls and hamper mobility. The aetiology of painful and deformed feet is poorly understood. METHODS: Data were obtained during a pilot case-control study about past high heel usage in women, in relation to osteoarthritis of the knee. A total of 127 women aged 50-70 were interviewed (31 cases, 96 controls); case-control sets were matched for age. The following information was obtained about footwear: (1) age when first wore shoes with heels 1, 2 and 3 inches high; (2) height of heels worn for work; (3) maximum height of heels worn regularly for work, going out socially and for dancing, in 10-year age bands. Information about work-related activities and lifetime occupational history was gathered using a Life-Grid. The interview included a foot inspection. RESULTS: Foot problems, particularly foot arthritis, affected considerably more cases than controls (45 per cent versus 16 per cent, p = 0.001) and was considered a confounder. Cases were therefore excluded from subsequent analyses. Amongst controls, the prevalence of any foot problems was very high (83 per cent). All women had regularly worn one inch heels and few (8 per cent) had never worn 2 inch heels. Foot problems were significantly associated with a history of wearing relatively lower heels. Few work activities were related to foot problems; regular lifting was associated with foot pain (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Most women in this age-group have been exposed to high-heeled shoes over many years, making aetiological research difficult in this area. Foot pain and deformities are widespread. The relationship between footwear, occupational activities and foot problems is a complex one that deserves considerably more research. (+info)
(7/21) The impact of callosities on the magnitude and duration of plantar pressure in patients with diabetes mellitus. A callus may cause 18,600 kilograms of excess plantar pressure per day.
BACKGROUND: The importance of high peak plantar pressure (PP) in the development of foot ulcer is well known. However, few studies have analyzed the real impact of callosities on plantar pressure and ulcer formation. METHODS: The plantar pressure (PP) in patients with diabetes mellitus was studied in three groups, of a total number of 33 type 2 diabetic patients, without neuropathy or peripheral vascular disease: subjects with callus (A) (n = 10), subjects without callus (B) (n = 10), and a separate group of patients with callus which was submitted to callus removal (C) (n = 13). The plantar pressure (PP) parameters were measured by FSR 174 sensors and computer analyses were performed by LabView. RESULTS: Both maximum peak PP and duration of PP are significantly higher in patients with callus (peak PP: 314 +/- 52 kPa vs 128 +/- 16 kPa, p < 0.005; duration of PP: 621 +/- 27 ms vs 505 +/- 27 ms, p < 0.05). The intervention group C before and after callus removal showed an identical trend. Callus removal has decreased the peak PP by 58% (p < 0.001) and duration of PP has been decreased by 150 milliseconds by step (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study has shown the deleterious role of callus and assuming that an average person walks about 10,000 steps a day, a callus may cause 18,600 kg of excess plantar pressure per day. In addition, this study has proven the importance of early and regular removal of hyperkeratotic tissue. Even more aggressive removal could be recommended in patients with neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease. (+info)
(8/21) Pseudo-knuckle pads: an unusual cutaneous sign of obsessive-compulsive disorder in an adolescent patient.
Knuckle pads are discrete benign cutaneous lesions overlying the extensor surfaces of the fingers and hand joints and are unrelated to trauma, whereas pseudo-knuckle pads may be considered as a form of callosity that appears after repeated trauma. This type of knuckle pad has been described in children with obsessive behavior as "chewing pads" and in adults as occupational disorder. Cases of pachydermodactyly, benign fibromatosis of the fingers, have been described as the unusual forms of knuckle pads that usually affect young adult males. We believe that pseudo-knuckle pads, chewing pads or pachydermodactyly are terms which have been used to decribe the same clinical situation reported in different patients. Here we describe a 12-year-old male patient with pseudo-knuckle pads along the metacarpophalangeal joints developed secondary to repeated trauma reflecting obsessive-compulsive disorder characterized by a tic-like habit. He received fluvaksamine 25 mg/day. The lesions started to disappear after three months of therapy. The recognition of pseudo-knuckle pads by dermatologists and pediatricians is very important in adolescent patients because these lesions may be clues for diagnosis of serious psychiatric problems. The collaboration of a dermatologist or pediatrician with a psychiatrist is essential in the follow-up of these patients. (+info)