Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Theobromine: 3,7-Dimethylxanthine. The principle alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean) and other plants. A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than THEOPHYLLINE and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle. It has practically no stimulant effect on the central nervous system. It was formerly used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, pp1318-9)Biflavonoids: Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.Proanthocyanidins: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.Catechin: An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.

*  The UK Cocoa and Chocolate Industry

and on the survival of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) seedlings. Funded by GCGRA and University of Ghana. » University of Ghana. ( ... Biological Control of Damping-Off of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Seedlings and Stem Canker Caused by Phytophthora palmivora ( ... The Cacao Research Scheme in Trinidad 1930-1960. Funded by BCCCA and Govts of Ceylon, Gold Coast, Grenada, Nigeria and Trinidad ... Summarised from Fifty Years of Cocoa Research in Trinidad & Tobago, Posnette A.F. (1986)] The genesis of the Cacao Research ...
cocoaresearch.org.uk/search_projects2.php?category=main_disease

*  Bioglan Raw Bites Cacao & Quinoa Cacao & Quinoa | Holland & Barrett - the UK's Leading Health Retailer

Cacao Butter and Cacao Nibs, Bioglan Raw Bites Cacao & Quinoa will make you feel as good as they taste - and pack a real ... With theobromine-packed Cacao, Cacao Butter and Cacao Nibs, these saintly snacks will make you feel as good as they taste - and ... Bioglan Raw Bites Cacao & Quinoa 140g Wait, don't go! Free delivery on orders over £20 now £2.50 was £4.99 ... Cacao Butter (3.2%), Cacao Nibs (2.9%), Quinoa (2.4%). For allergens see ingredients in bold. ...
hollandandbarrett.com/shop/product/bioglan-raw-bites-cacao-quinoa-60005020

*  The Antioxidant Levels of Cacao | LIVESTRONG.COM

Cacao was once a spicy, astringent drink for... ... Cacao is the name for the beans of the Theobromas cacao tree, ... Cacao is the name for the beans of the Theobromas cacao tree, which grows in tropical climates worldwide. Cacao was once a ... Chocolate liqueur, or cacao paste, is the pulverized bean with all its fat content, or cocoa butter. The percentage of cacao ... Good-quality dark chocolate is made with at least 65 percent cacao and is high in antioxidants. Higher percentages of cacao ...
https://livestrong.com/article/520248-the-antioxidant-levels-of-cacao/

*  Wholesale Cocoa Powder | Made-in-China.com

Wholesale Cacao Wholesale Pure Cocoa Powder Wholesale Gardenia Yellow Wholesale Alkalized Cocoa Powder ...
made-in-china.com/products-search/hot-china-products/Wholesale_Cocoa_Powder.html

*  "The isolation, characterization, and application of WRKY genes as usef" by James William Borrone

... cacao F2 population segregating for resistance to witches' broom disease. Additionally, PCR primers specific for four T. cacao ... Once this method was validated, the diversity of three WRKY loci was evaluated in a germplasm collection of T. cacao. One locus ... 18 from Theobroma cacao L., 21 from Cocos nucifera L. and 9 from Persea americana Mill. Several loci from each species were ... cacao F2 population segregating for resistance to witches' broom disease. Additionally, PCR primers specific for four T. cacao ...
digitalcommons.fiu.edu/etd/2017/

*  Cocoa ( Cacao ), Chocolate - iHerb.com

Brands A-Z Lydia's Organics Cocoa ( Cacao ), Chocolate Categories Food, Groceries Cocoa ( Cacao ), Chocolate ...
https://iherb.com/c/lydia-s-organics/cocoa-cacao

*  Dark Chocolate Improves Coronary Vasomotion and Reduces Platelet Reactivity | Circulation

We believe that the observed improvement of these important cardiovascular surrogates is remarkable and that cacao thus holds ...
circ.ahajournals.org/content/116/21/2376.full

*  Establishing a New (Cacao) Orchard Industry for Hawaii | SBIR.gov

Cacao trees grow and produce well in Hawaii. How can we develope cacao growing and chocolate production to best utilize this ... sold at a high enough price and in large enough quantities to support cacao farmers, cocoa processors and retailers. ...
https://sbir.gov/sbirsearch/detail/177716

*  Philippines Government Pushes for Increased Cacao Production

A government-funded effort to increase cacao production in the Kalinga province of the Philippines was recently ... stating that improved cacao production in the Philippines would help expand the raw cacao industry worldwide. ... concluding that an improvement in Philippine cacao production would serve to expand the raw cacao industry as a whole.. ... Cacao, more commonly called cocoa, is a bean commonly used in manufacturing chocolate. It goes on trees in a leathery, fruit- ...
prweb.com/releases/massage-school-san-diego/cacao-farming-raw-food/prweb9810834.htm

*  Cacao Tree by Tamara Clark

Buy Cacao Tree art prints by Tamara Clark at Imagekind.com. Shop Thousands of Canvas and Framed Wall Art Prints and Posters at ...
imagekind.com/art/Cacao-Treeart_art?IMID=dec1d888-af34-48ad-a51c-43fb394ed533

*  Buy Health Connection Superfoods - Organic Cacao Butter Online | Faithful to Nature

... but you can turn it into super-nutrition with this light yellow healthy fat extracted from raw cacao beans minus all the ... Cacao butter is the real deal used to create all those crave-worthy sugary chocolates you buy, ... How to use Raw Cacao Butter:. Cacao Butter is the good fat or oil content of the Cacao Bean which has been cold pressed out of ... Raw cacao is in fact one of the most antioxidant-rich foods around. Cacao butter has a delicious chocolate-like aroma and an ...
https://faithful-to-nature.co.za/health-connection-superfoods-organic-cacao-butter

*  Cocoa ( Cacao ), Chocolate - iHerb.com

Brands A-Z NuNaturals Cocoa ( Cacao ), Chocolate Categories Food, Groceries Cocoa ( Cacao ), Chocolate ...
https://iherb.com/c/nunaturals/cocoa-cacao

*  Chocolate Polyphenols: How It Can Benefit You

Know six of the many benefits of consuming cacao polyphenols chocolate. Chocolate polyphenols has many benefits Chocolate ... You just have to remember that organic dark chocolate, those that contain at least 72 percent cacao, is where you can find the ... Tagged as: cacao polyphenol chocolate, Chocolate polyphenols, cocoa polyphenols, Dark chocolate polyphenols ... Know six of the many benefits of consuming cacao polyphenols chocolate.. Chocolate polyphenols has many benefits. Chocolate ...
dark-chocolate-antioxidant.com/chocolate-polyphenols-benefit/

*  Cocoa ( Cacao ), Chocolate - iHerb.com

Now Foods, Real Food, Organic, Raw Cacao Nibs, 8 oz (227 g). 44 ... Navitas Organics, Organic, Cacao Sweet Nibs, 4 oz (113 g). 240 ... Now Foods, Real Food, Organic Raw Cacao Powder, 12 oz (340 g). 7 ... Earth Circle Organics, Raw Organic Bali Butter (Cacao), 250 g. ...
https://iherb.com/c/cocoa-cacao

*  Garden of Life Raw Organic Meal Shake & Meal Replacement - Chocolate Cacao 17.9 oz (509 grams) Pwdr - Swanson Health Products

Chocolate Cacao when you need a satisfying snack or you want an on-the-go meal... ... Raw Organic Cacao, Organic Chocolate Flavors, Organic Erythritol, Sea Salt, Organic Stevia Extract (leaf), Organic Vanilla ... Reach for a super-nutritious Garden of Life Raw Organic Meal Shake & Meal Replacement - Chocolate Cacao when you need a ... Raw Organic Meal Shake + Meal Replacement - Chocolate Cacao is rated 4.6 out of 5 by 5. ...
https://swansonvitamins.com/garden-of-life-raw-meal-organic-chocolate-cacao-1-34-lbs-pwdr

*  Use of Theobroma cacao Pod Husk-Derived Biofertilizer is Safe as it Poses neither Ecological nor Human Health Risks | Open...

Cacao farmers use macerated Theobroma cacao pod husks as biofertilizer for restoration of environmentally important soil ... Preparation of cacao pod husk extract. Crude husk extract (CHE) was prepared by chopping 2 tons of cacao pod husks (from CEPLAC ... Cacao farmers use macerated Theobroma cacao pod husks as biofertilizer for restoration of environmentally important soil ... Vriesmann LC, Amboni RDMC, Petkowicz CLO (2011) Cacao pod husks (Theobroma cacao L.): Composition and hot-water-soluble pectins ...
https://omicsonline.org/open-access/use-of-theobroma-cacao-pod-huskderived-biofertilizer-is-safe-as-it-posesneither-ecological-nor-human-health-risks-2471-2728-1000183.php?aid=90767

*  Chocolate prevents colon cancer? - JunkScience.com

... the new study supports this idea and upholds that cacao consumption helps to prevent intestinal complaints linked to oxidative ...
https://junkscience.com/2012/01/chocolate-prevents-colon-cancer/

*  Clipart - cacao

cacao. By. johnny_automatic. Created. 2013-10-27. Description. Drinks of the World by James Mew and John Ashton, 1892 Tags. ... botany , cacao , leaf , plant , pod , seed. Viewed by. 2899 People. Loved by. 1 People. Filesize. 193053 bytes. ...
https://openclipart.org/detail/185905/cacao

*  Cacao Rub | Vitamix

Cacao Rub. Use as a steak seasoning for a unique flavour experience. ...
https://vitamix.com/nz/en_GB/Recipes/Cacao-Rub

*  Cacao Sampaka, Valencia - Restaurants | Travel + Leisure

2017 Time Inc. Affluent Media Group. All rights reserved. TravelandLeisure.com is part of the Affluent Travel Group. Travel + Leisure is a trademark of Time Inc. Affluent Media Group, registered in the United States and other countries. Travel + Leisure may receive compensation for some links to products and services on this website. Offers may be subject to change without notice ...
travelandleisure.com/travel-guide/valencia/restaurants/cacao-sampaka-valencia

*  Cacao Tejate: Ancient Chocolate Drink - The Atlantic

Theobroma cacao). Also known as flor de cacao or flor cacahuaxochitl, rosita de cacao is responsible for the perfumed flavor ... cacao beans, mamey seed, and rosita de cacao--the secret ingredient that makes tejate truly special. Rosita de cacao is the ... To make tejate, the corn, rosita de cacao, mamey seed, cacao, and any other additions are ground together in a molino with a ... During my sourcing trip to Oaxaca two weeks ago, I made a slight detour between visiting cacao farms to check out the town of ...
https://theatlantic.com/health/archive/2009/04/cacao-tejate-ancient-chocolate-drink/16609/

*  Cacao 70 Toronto - blogTO - Toronto

Cacao 70 is heaven for chocolate lovers. The Montreal chain's first Toronto location is situated in the heart of the Distillery ... Cacao 70 is heaven for chocolate lovers. The Montreal chain's first Toronto location is situated in the heart of the Distillery ... To wash it down, I order an Americano ($2.25), which thankfully cuts through some of the richness before I dip into Cacao 70's ... And of you're able to stomach more chocolate after a visit, Cacao 70 sells small boxes of chocolate-covered goodies like coffee ...
blogto.com/restaurants/cacao-70-toronto/

*  cacao

... vs. Cocoa, Plus 6 Delicious Cacao Recipes. Cacao is one of those elusive ingredients that I've dared not used up to this ... Cacao vs cocoa: For starters, there is a pretty big difference between cacao and cocoa. Cacao (pronounced kuh-cow) is the name ... Tag Archives: cacao. Nature's Best Nutrition Secret is Raw Cacao. I get many funny looks when I tell my health coaching clients ... Raw cacao cakes and fancy spelt cookies with cacao nibs - sounds dreamy and all, but my timid self couldn't possibly brave ...
dietsinreview.com/diet_column/tag/cacao/


(1/333) Use of Dorset egg medium for maintenance and transport of Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b.

Studies of bacterial meningitis are hampered by the inability to maintain the viability of etiological agents during transport to reference laboratories. The long-term survival rate of 20 isolates of Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) on Dorset egg medium, supplemented Columbia agar base medium, chocolate agar, and Amies medium was compared with that on 70% GC agar (chocolate) transport medium. N. meningitidis isolates were also inoculated onto 5% horse blood agar, and Hib was inoculated onto Haemophilus test medium. All of the N. meningitidis isolates remained viable on Dorset egg medium for 21 days; viability on the other media was poor after only 7 days. Recovery rates of Hib isolates were similar on Dorset egg and Haemophilus test media (100% after 21 days) and significantly better than on the other media. Dorset egg medium is inexpensive and easy to make and may be invaluable for studies of bacterial meningitis in developing countries.  (+info)

(2/333) Teas and other beverages suppress D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in rats.

We compared the effects of various types of beverages (teas, coffee, and cocoa) on D-galactosamine-induced liver injury by measuring plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in 7-wk-old male Wistar rats. The effects of five fractions extracted with different organic solvents from green tea, different types of dietary fibers, and some short chain fatty acids were also investigated. All of the beverages tested significantly suppressed D-galactosamine-induced enhancement of plasma enzyme activities when powdered beverages were added to the diet (30 g/kg) and fed to rats for 2 wk. Plasma ALT activities were 1155 +/- 82 [micromol/(min.L), control], 289 +/- 61 (green tea), 626 +/- 60 (roasted green tea), 471 +/- 84 (puerh tea), 676 +/- 69 (oolon tea), 423 +/- 76 (black tea), 829 +/- 53 (coffee), and 885 +/- 89 (cocoa). The profile of AST activities was similar. The caffeine-containing fraction from green tea had no significant effect, whereas the other four fractions, including the soluble fiber fraction, significantly suppressed liver injury. In addition to tea fibers, many other types of dietary fiber (hemicellulose, chitin, chitosan, alginate, pectin, guar gum, glucomannan, and inulin, but not cellulose) had liver injury-preventive effects when added to the diet (30 g/kg), suggesting that liver injury-prevention may be one of the general effects of dietary fibers. Of three short-chain fatty acids tested (acetate, propionate, and butyrate), only acetate prevented liver injury when added to the diet (15 g/kg), supporting the possibility that the liver injury-preventive effect of dietary fibers may be mediated at least in part by certain organic acids. These results suggest that several beverages possess preventive effects on certain types of liver injury, such as that induced by D-galactosamine, and that different constituents of high and low molecular weights contribute to the liver injury-preventive effects of green tea.  (+info)

(3/333) Protection against peroxynitrite by cocoa polyphenol oligomers.

Flavonoids, natural plant constituents, protect against peroxynitrite and can thereby play a role in defense against this mediator of inflammation. Procyanidin oligomers of different size (monomer through nonamer), isolated from the seeds of Theobroma cacao, were examined for their ability to protect against peroxynitrite-dependent oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 and nitration of tyrosine. By molarity, oligomers were more effective than the monomeric epicatechin; the tetramer was particularly efficient at protecting against oxidation and nitration reactions. These results suggest that epicatechin oligomers found in cocoa powder and chocolate may be a potent dietary source for defense against peroxynitrite.  (+info)

(4/333) A comparison of blood agar supplemented with NAD with plain blood agar and chocolated blood agar in the isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae from sputum. Bacterial Methods Evaluation Group.

Streptococcus pneumoniae grows well and generally exhibits typical morphology on Columbia blood agar, whereas Haemophilus influenzae requires a more complex medium to meet its growth requirements - usually chocolated blood agar - on which S. pneumoniae is less easily recognisable. Therefore, a single medium that produces typical morphology of S. pneumoniae and facilitates the growth of H. influenzae would have considerable potential advantages. It has been claimed that blood agar supplemented with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is such a medium. However, despite its routine use in several large diagnostic laboratories its performance has never been properly evaluated. In the present study, 1724 sputum samples were examined in four laboratories. The isolation rates of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae on NAD-supplemented blood agar (SBA) were compared with those on a two-plate combination of plain blood (BA) and chocolated blood agar (CBA). The two-plate combination performed significantly better for both organisms; isolation rates for H. influenzae were increased from 8.16% on SBA to 11.07% on BA plus CBA and for S. pneumoniae from 4.18% to 4.68%. Isolation rates were also compared after incubation for 24 and 48 h. With the two-plate combination, isolation rates for H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae were increased by 0.98% and 0.16%, respectively, and for SBA by 0.57% and 0.32% after 48 h. However, despite this increase, SBA still performed less well than the two-plate combination.  (+info)

(5/333) An olfactory discrimination procedure for mice.

This paper describes an olfactory discrimination procedure for mice that is inexpensively implemented and leads to rapid discrimination learning. Mice were first trained to dig in small containers of sand to retrieve bits of buried chocolate. For discrimination training, two containers were presented simultaneously for eight trials per session. One container held sand mixed with cinnamon, and the other held sand mixed with nutmeg. Both containers were baited with chocolate buried in the sand. One odor was designated S+, and mice were allowed to dig and retrieve the chocolate from this container. The other odor was S-, and both containers were removed immediately if subjects began to dig in an S- container. After meeting a two-session acquisition criterion, subjects were given a series of discrimination reversals. In Experiment 1, 12 Swiss-Webster mice (6 male and 6 female) acquired the olfactory discrimination in three to five sessions and completed 3 to 10 successive discrimination reversals within a 50-session testing limit. In Experiment 2, subjects were 14 Pah(enu2) mice, the mouse mutant for phenylketonuria; 7 were homozygotes in which the disorder was expressed (PKU), and 7 were heterozygotes with normal metabolism (non-PKU). Thirteen mice completed pretraining in four to seven sessions, acquisition required 3 to 12 sessions, and all mice completed at least three reversals. Learning rates were similar in PKU and non-PKU mice. We discuss issues related to implementation and several potentially useful procedural variations.  (+info)

(6/333) Cocoa inhibits platelet activation and function.

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown inverse associations between dietary polyphenols and mortality from coronary heart disease. However, the basis for this protective association is uncertain. Food polyphenols reportedly have antioxidant properties and decrease platelet function in vitro. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to evaluate whether consumption of a polyphenol-rich cocoa beverage modulates human platelet activation and primary hemostasis. DESIGN: Peripheral blood was obtained from 30 healthy subjects before and 2 and 6 h after ingestion of a cocoa beverage (n = 10), a caffeine-containing control beverage (n = 10), or water (n = 10). Platelet activation was measured in terms of expression of activation-dependent platelet antigens and platelet microparticle formation by using fluorescent-labeled monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. Primary platelet-related hemostasis was measured with a platelet function analyzer. RESULTS: Ex vivo epinephrine- or ADP-stimulated expression of the fibrinogen-binding conformation of glycoprotein IIb-IIIa was lower 2 and 6 h after consumption of cocoa than before consumption. Cocoa consumption also decreased ADP-stimulated P-selectin expression. In contrast, epinephrine-induced platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa expression increased after consumption of the caffeine-containing beverage but not after water consumption. Platelet microparticle formation decreased 2 and 6 h after cocoa consumption but increased after caffeine and water consumption. Primary hemostasis in response to epinephrine in vitro was inhibited 6 h after cocoa consumption. The caffeine-containing beverage inhibited ADP-induced primary hemostasis 2 and 6 h after consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Cocoa consumption suppressed ADP- or epinephrine-stimulated platelet activation and platelet microparticle formation. Cocoa consumption had an aspirin-like effect on primary hemostasis.  (+info)

(7/333) Food of the gods: cure for humanity? A cultural history of the medicinal and ritual use of chocolate.

The medicinal use of cacao, or chocolate, both as a primary remedy and as a vehicle to deliver other medicines, originated in the New World and diffused to Europe in the mid 1500s. These practices originated among the Olmec, Maya and Mexica (Aztec). The word cacao is derived from Olmec and the subsequent Mayan languages (kakaw); the chocolate-related term cacahuatl is Nahuatl (Aztec language), derived from Olmec/Mayan etymology. Early colonial era documents included instructions for the medicinal use of cacao. The Badianus Codex (1552) noted the use of cacao flowers to treat fatigue, whereas the Florentine Codex (1590) offered a prescription of cacao beans, maize and the herb tlacoxochitl (Calliandra anomala) to alleviate fever and panting of breath and to treat the faint of heart. Subsequent 16th to early 20th century manuscripts produced in Europe and New Spain revealed >100 medicinal uses for cacao/chocolate. Three consistent roles can be identified: 1) to treat emaciated patients to gain weight; 2) to stimulate nervous systems of apathetic, exhausted or feeble patients; and 3) to improve digestion and elimination where cacao/chocolate countered the effects of stagnant or weak stomachs, stimulated kidneys and improved bowel function. Additional medical complaints treated with chocolate/cacao have included anemia, poor appetite, mental fatigue, poor breast milk production, consumption/tuberculosis, fever, gout, kidney stones, reduced longevity and poor sexual appetite/low virility. Chocolate paste was a medium used to administer drugs and to counter the taste of bitter pharmacological additives. In addition to cacao beans, preparations of cacao bark, oil (cacao butter), leaves and flowers have been used to treat burns, bowel dysfunction, cuts and skin irritations.  (+info)

(8/333) Procyanidin content and variation in some commonly consumed foods.

Procyanidins are a subclass of flavonoids found in commonly consumed foods that have attracted increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, little is known regarding their dietary intake levels because detailed quantitative information on the procyanidin profiles present in many food products is lacking. Therefore, the procyanidin content of red wine, chocolate, cranberry juice and four varieties of apples has been determined. On average, chocolate and apples contained the largest procyanidin content per serving (164.7 and 147.1 mg, respectively) compared with red wine and cranberry juice (22.0 and 31.9 mg, respectively). However, the procyanidin content varied greatly between apple samples (12.3-252.4 mg/serving) with the highest amounts on average observed for the Red Delicious (207.7 mg/serving) and Granny Smith (183.3 mg/serving) varieties and the lowest amounts in the Golden Delicious (92.5 mg/serving) and McIntosh (105.0 mg/serving) varieties. The compositional data reported herein are important for the initial understanding of which foods contribute most to the dietary intake of procyanidins and may be used to compile a database necessary to infer epidemiological relationships to health and disease.  (+info)



Abstract Cacao


  • Abstract Cacao trees grow and produce well in Hawaii. (sbir.gov)

cocoa


  • This project research will help define the potential for cocoa production in Hawaii and whether sufficient high end gourmet cocoa products can be produced in a scaled-down factory, appropriate in size for local production, sold at a high enough price and in large enough quantities to support cacao farmers, cocoa processors and retailers. (sbir.gov)
  • The cocoa tree ( Theobroma cacao L., Malvaceae) was domesticated approximately 3,000 years ago in Central America, the Caribbean, Africa and Asia [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)

farmers


  • Cacao farmers use macerated Theobroma cacao pod husks as biofertilizer for restoration of environmentally important soil elements, i.e. (omicsonline.org)