Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Charadriiformes: An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA Shuffling: The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.Helping Behavior: Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Sparrows: The family Passeridae comprised of small, mainly brown and grey seed-eating birds with conical bills.Clutch Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Falconiformes: An order of diurnal BIRDS of prey, including EAGLES; HAWKS; buzzards; vultures; and falcons.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Anestrus: A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Herpestidae: The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.Housing, AnimalAnimals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Swallows: The family Hirundinidae, comprised of small BIRDS that hunt flying INSECTS while in sustained flight.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Starlings: The family Sturnidae, in the order PASSERIFORMES. The starling family also includes mynahs and oxpeckers.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Animals, ZooGenetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Humpback Whale: The species Megaptera novaeangliae, in the family Balaenopteridae, characterized by its huge flippers and the arching of their back when diving. They are also known for their breaching and singing.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Brachiaria: A plant genus of the family POACEAE originating from the savanna of eastern Africa. It is widely grown for livestock forage.Hybrid Vigor: The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Anseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Wool: The hair of SHEEP or other animals that is used for weaving.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Estrus Synchronization: Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Pair Bond: In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.DairyingAnimals, LaboratoryBehavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Hawks: Common name for many members of the FALCONIFORMES order, family Accipitridae, generally smaller than EAGLES, and containing short, rounded wings and a long tail.Mole Rats: Any of several burrowing rodents of the families MURIDAE and Bathyergidae, found in eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia. They have short limbs, small eyes with permanently closed lids, and no tail. Three genera SPALAX (Muridae), Heterocephalus (Bathyergidae) and Cryptomys (Bathyergidae) are used frequently as experimental animals in biomedical research. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed)Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Cajanus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is used for food in NIGERIA.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Marsupialia: An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Cicer: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for the edible beans.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Hip Dysplasia, Canine: A hereditary disease of the hip joints in dogs. Signs of the disease may be evident any time after 4 weeks of age.Seals, Earless: The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Mortuary Practice: Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.Parrots: BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Homing Behavior: Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Eagles: Large members of the FALCONIFORMES order of birds, family Accipitridae, most especially the genera Aquila, Haliaeetus, Harpia, and Circaetus. They are characterized by their powerful talons, which carry long, curved, pointed claws and by their opposable hindtoe.Oviparity: The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Dystocia: Slow or difficult OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH.Raptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.Sheep, Domestic: A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Antelopes: Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Eucalyptus: A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Musa: A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Crows: Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).Inheritance Patterns: The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tetraploidy: The presence of four sets of chromosomes. It is associated with ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; and MISCARRAGES.Fur Seals: A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Yukon Territory: A territory of northwest Canada, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the south by British Columbia, and on the west by Alaska. Its capital is Whitehorse. It takes its name from the Yukon River, the Indian yu-kun-ah, meaning big river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1367 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p608)Macropodidae: A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Population: The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis: The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Rosaceae: The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.Animal Identification Systems: Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Remote Sensing Technology: Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.MontanaPlant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.

*  Glossary

... herdbook Cattle breeding, Cattle Genetics beef, Angus, SimGenetics crossbreeding ... EBV (Estimated breeding value) EBVs are an estimate of an animal's true breeding value based on performance data and pedigree ... Accuracy values range from 0 to 1 with 0 meaning the EPD is not close to the animal's true breeding value and 1 meaning the EPD ... Additive value in genetics refers to breeding value for traits that are controlled by multiple genes (polygenic), each gene ...

*  Breeding Cows on the Family Homestead - Sustainable Farming - MOTHER EARTH NEWS

What you need to know about breeding cows, pregnancy, delivery and recognizing complications. ... Breeding Cows on the Family Homestead Learn basic obstetrics for the family cow. What you need to know about breeding cows, ... Breeding Cows. Whether you have one cow or a hundred, the most critical time on your calendar of herdsman's activities is the ... If you've kept accurate breeding records you'll be all predict the expected calving dates of your herd with reasonable accuracy ...

*  What are reproductive isolating mechanisms? |

... mechanisms are a set of behavioral and physiological processes set to prevent members of different species from breeding with ... According to the University of Miami, reproductive isolating mechanisms that prevent breeding between two species are known as ... These mechanisms block hybridization by either preventing breeding between species at all or preventing fertilization and ... mechanisms are a set of behavioral and physiological processes set to prevent members of different species from breeding with ...

*  Organic Eprints - Genetics of sow efficiency in the Finnish landrace and large white populations

Animal husbandry , Breeding and genetics. Research affiliation:. Finland , Luke Natural Resources Institute. ...

*  Samoyed | Dog Breed Health

Dog Breeding Reform Group. (DBRG) is a charitable trust set up in 2015 to campaign for the improved regulation of dog breeding ... You are also advised to buy from a breeder who follows the Dog Breeding Reform Group's (DBRG) Standard for Dog Breeding:. www. ... Estimated Breeding Values (EBVs) are now available for Hip Dysplasia and Elbow Dysplasia: ... Seeks an end to the breeding of dogs based on looks. Dogs bred to the KC's breed standards could suffer from pain, hereditary ...

*  What are the steps of selective breeding?

What is the difference between breeding and selected breeding? Breeding is just breeding any pair of parents together to get ... How is cross breeding different from selective breeding? Cross breeding is simply taking two breeds of animals and mating them ... What is selective breeding? Selective breeding is the process in which two animals from the same species reproduce due to ... Cross-breeding is a type of selective breeding except with animals from two organisms from the same species but not the same ...

*  Breeding

Dogs - Cats - Terrific Pets is a website you can find information on dog breeds, dog breeders, dogs for sale, puppies for sale, dog names and more.

*  Perspectives of Genome Editing in Plant Breeding | MedCrave

Conventional plant breeding requires a long term project with doubtful results and genetic engineering is suitable usually for ... Perspectives of Genome Editing in Plant Breeding Panagiotis Madesis1*, Ioannis Ganopoulos1,2, Aliki Xanthopoulou1,2, Athanasios ... 2Departments of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece ... molecular mechanisms and also for the breeding community for the improvement of new varieties over conventional breeding or ...

*  Vizsla Dogs| Vizsla Dog Breed Info & Pictures | petMD

They faced a great deal of decline by the end of the nineteenth century, but fortunately, proper breeding helped to revive ...

*  Random regression models on Legendre polynomials to estimate genetic parameters for weights from birth to adult age in Canchim...

Title: Journal of animal breeding and genetics = Zeitschrift für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie Volume: 127 ISSN: 1439-0388 ...

*  Breeding system evolution and sex ratio in Caenorhabditis - The University of Arizona Campus Repository

Breeding system evolution and sex ratio in Caenorhabditis. Author:. Cutter, Asher Damon. Issue Date:. 2004 Publisher:. The ... Different breeding systems lead to varying levels of inbreeding, outcrossing, and sex ratios---with concomitant effects on ... Different breeding systems lead to varying levels of inbreeding, outcrossing, and sex ratios---with concomitant effects on ... These results indicate that mutational theories are unlikely to fully explain the evolution of breeding system and sex.. en_US ...

*  MPs compromise over BSE and breeding | New Scientist

BRITISH MPs have reached a compromise on the controversial issue of whether breeding should be banned from cattle infected by ... MPs compromise over BSE and breeding. BRITISH MPs have reached a compromise on the controversial issue of. whether breeding ... farmers breeding from BSE-affected cows should not be compensated for the. loss of calves which have to be culled. There is no ... last week that breeding should be discouraged, but refused to recommend. an official ban. It also endorsed the government's ...

*  USDA NIFA has announced the FY 2014 Agricultura...

NIFA offers two new programs areas (CARE and Exploratory). , Plant Breeding and Genomics News ... Plant Breeding and Genomics News's insight: "Breeding for Water Stress". Minneapolis, MN August 5-8, 2014Registration opens in ... In his 100th video, PETE PERRY passes on his knowledge of plant breeding with primulas and narcissus. Pete has been breeding ... Scooped by Plant Breeding and Genomics News onto Plant Breeding and Genomics News ...

*  In Defense of Grade Horses |

... or of significantly mixed breeding) are largely to blame for the horse overpopulation issue. ... Anyone breeding a horse, be it grade or purebred, mare or stallion, is responsible to breed for a quality animal. Horse ... In many cases these diseases have decimated breeding populations of purebreds. Foundation breeds may not be available to ' ... or of significantly mixed breeding) are largely to blame for the horse overpopulation issue. The May 2010 issue of The Horse ...

*  Winter feeding of birds increases productivity in the subsequent breeding season | Biology Letters

... to have an impact on breeding biology, the effects of such feeding would have to be 'carried over' into the subsequent breeding ... 1996 Breeding time, food supply and fitness components of blue tits Parus caeruleus in the Mediterranean region Ibis 138 644- ... 1994 Energetic bottle-necks during breeding and the reproductive cost of being too early J. Anim. Ecol 63 200-208. doi:10.2307/ ... Winter feeding of birds increases productivity in the subsequent breeding season. Gillian N Robb, Robbie A McDonald, Dan E ...

*  Breeding.html

Breedings Here Star is being bred to Alpha of Big Chief Kennels. This breeding was not so easy, he was not qiute the ladies man ...

*  plant breeding : NPR

plant breeding

*  George Breeding

Breeding was born Nov. 13, 1910, in Edinburgh, son of the late Bernard Breeding and Marie Mutz Breeding Buck. He married Dorcas ... George Breeding. Indianapolis. EDINBURGH - George Breeding, 67 of Southeastern Street in Indian-apolis, died Sunday morning at ... He was preceded in death by his first wife, Leda Parkhurst Breeding, and a son, Jack Edward Breeding. ... BREEDING, George. Date of birth: 13 Nov 1910 - Edinburg, Johnson County, Indiana Date of death: 21 May 1978 - Indianapolis, ...

*  Breeding Death - Wikipedia

Breeding Death - 4:26 Omnious Bloodvomit - 3:47 Furnace Funeral - 5:04 Breeding Death (demo) - 4:20* Omnious Bloodvomit (demo ... EN) Breeding Death, su MusicBrainz, MetaBrainz Foundation. (EN) Breeding Death, su Encyclopaedia Metallum.. ... Breeding Death è il primo EP della band death metal svedese Bloodbath, pubblicato nel 2000 dalla Century Media e ristampato sei ... Mikael Åkerfeldt - voce Anders Nyström - chitarra Jonas Renkse - basso Dan Swanö - batteria (EN) Breeding Death, su Discogs, ...

*  breeding

You asked about mixed breeding....That is not a yes no answer. And when everyone said are they one who got rude.... ... I asked how people felt about mixed breeding. I am not lieing about anything and if I'm lieing then I guess everyone is lieing ... You need to grow up before you try anything like breeding....Leave it to the adults, and the people who know what they are ...

*  Breeding Programs | Care2 Causes

A thousand years ago, red squirrels were plentiful in woodlands all over Britain, but in time.... ...

*  Carnell Breeding @ARTISTdirect

Information on Carnell Breeding Music, Free Carnell Breeding Music Videos, News, Interviews, Fee Music Downloads and More... ... Carnell Breeding - we are all about Latest News & ...

*  Breeding Cockatiels - Birds

Breeding Cockatiels. Guest Author - Mavis Metcalf. Cockatiels are very popular pet birds. They are easily tamed if parent fed ... Breeding birds of any kind take a lot of time and commitment and cockatiels are no exception. Please take the time to do it ... Hopefully you have homes lined up for future babies before starting a breeding session.. If the pair of birds are compatible ...

Plant breedingReproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Sexual motivation and hormones: Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In most mammalian species, sex hormones control the ability to engage in sexual behaviours.Geolocation software: In computing, geolocation software is used to deduce the geolocation (geographic location) of another party. For example, on the Internet, one geolocation approach is to identify the subject party's IP address, then determine what country (including down to the city and post/ZIP code level), organization, or user the IP address has been assigned to, and finally, determine that party's location.Nest (protein structural motif): The Nest is a type of protein structural motif. Peptide nests are small anion-binding molecular features of proteins and peptides.Bird trapping: Bird trapping techniques to capture wild birds include a wide range of techniques that have their origins in the hunting of birds for food. While hunting for food does not require birds to be caught alive, some trapping techniques capture birds without harming them and are of use in ornithology research.Kittiwake: The kittiwakes (genus Rissa) are two closely related seabird species in the gull family Laridae, the black-legged kittiwake (R. tridactyla) and the red-legged kittiwake (R.Silence of the Songbirds: Silence of the Songbirds (ISBN 978-0-8027-1609-5) is a book by bird lover and scientist Bridget Stutchbury about the rapid decline and loss of many species of songbirds. Some major threats covered include pesticides, sun-grown coffee, city lights, cowbirds, and global warming.College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand: The College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand was founded in 1964. It is a part of AAU, Anand, Gujarat, India.Inbreeding depression: Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. Population biological fitness refers to its ability to survive and reproduce itself.Skylark launch tower: A Skylark tower is a tower used for the launch of earlier versions of Skylark rockets. As Skylark rockets have no guidance system and accelerate slowly, they require a safe launch tower with a height of at least 24 metres with a guidance system.Selection (relational algebra): In relational algebra, a selection (sometimes called a restriction to avoid confusion with SQL's use of SELECT) is a unary operation written asLow Fertility Cohorts Study: The Low Fertility Cohorts Study, 1978: A Survey of White, Ever-Married Women Belonging to the 1901-1910 United States Birth Cohorts,Data Sharing For Demographic Research consists of personal interviews of white, ever-married women born between July 1, 1900, and June 30, 1910. In 1978, a national survey of 1,049 married women between the ages of 68 and 78 were interviewed between the months of March and July in order to investigate low fertility during the 1920s and 1930s and the women of childbearing age during those decades.Plant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.Genetic variation: right|thumbDeep litter: Deep litter is an animal housing system, based on the repeated spreading of straw or sawdust material in indoor booths. An initial layer of litter is spread for the animals to use for bedding material and to defecate in, and as the litter is soiled, new layers of litter are continuously added by the farmer.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Microsatellite: A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 2–5 base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. Microsatellites occur at thousands of locations in the human genome and they are notable for their high mutation rate and high diversity in the population.Corriedale: Corriedale sheep are a dual purpose breed, meaning they are used both in the production of wool and meat. The Corriedale is the oldest of all the crossbred breeds, a Merino-Lincoln cross developed almost simultaneously in Australia and New ZealandStock Types, The Land, North Richmond, c.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.EcosystemFlightless birdThreshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentPlasmodium circumflexum: Plasmodium circumflexum is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Giovannolaia.Hele-Shaw clutch: The Hele-Shaw clutch was an early form of multi-plate wet clutch, in use around 1900. It was named after its inventor, Professor Henry Selby Hele-Shaw, who was noted for his work in viscosity and flows through small gaps between parallel plates.Griffon: Griffon is a type of dog, a collection of breeds of originally hunting dogs. There are three lines of the griffon type recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI): the griffon vendéens, the wirehaired pointers, and the smousje (Belgian companion dogs or Dutch Smoushond).Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Red Feather Development Group: Red Feather Development Group is a non-profit organization that builds straw-bale homes on American Indian reservations.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Hybrid inviability: Hybrid inviability is a post-zygotic barrier, which reduces a hybrid's capacity to mature into a healthy, fit adult.Hybrid inviability.Monty the meerkat: Monty the meerkat is a meerkat that made headlines in the mainstream British media in September 2007 for his purported ability to take pictures using a digital camera. The story turned out to be a hoax perpetrated by workers at Longleat Safari Park.Gestation crate: A gestation crate, also known as a sow stall, is a metal enclosure used in intensive pig farming, in which a female breeding pig (sow) may be kept during pregnancy and for most of her adult life.Wilson G.Interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs: The interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs is an ongoing process affecting the population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia. The current population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia is now probably higher than in the past.Chromosome regionsNicotiana rusticaErnest StarlingWheat middlings: Wheat middlings (also known as millfeed, wheat mill run, or wheat midds) is the middle of three grades into which flour and meal are classified: patents, middlings, and clears. Middlings are often used in animal feed.Santa Fe College Teaching ZooPanmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Weedy rice: Weedy rice, also known as red rice, is a variety of rice (Oryza) that produces far fewer grains per plant than cultivated rice and is therefore considered a pest. The name "weedy rice" is used for all types and variations of rice which show some characteristic features of cultivated rice and grow as weeds in commercial rice fields.Male lactation: Male lactation in zoology means production of milk from mammary glands in the presence of physiological stimuli connected with nursing infants. It is well documented in the Dayak fruit bat.Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Meramec Conservation AreaSalt Cay, Turks Islands: Salt Cay is the second largest of the Turks Islands, one of the two island groups forming of the British territory Turks and Caicos Islands in the Caribbean. Its size is 6.Tomato seed oil: Tomato seed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of tomatoes.Southern corn leaf blight: Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) is a fungal disease of maize caused by the plant pathogen Bipolaris maydis (also known as Cochliobolus heterostrophus in its teleomorph state).Andesobia jelskiiSong control system: A song system, also known as a song control system (SCS), is a series of discrete brain nuclei involved in the production and learning of song in songbirds. It was first observed by Fernando Nottebohm in 1976 in a paper titled "Central control of song in the canary, Serinus canarius", published in the Journal of Comparative Neurology.Fungicide use in the United States: A more accurate title for this page would be "Common plant pathogens to food crops in the United States".Terminal crossbreeding: Terminal crossbreeding is a breeding system used in animal production. It involves two (different) breeds of animal that have been crossbred.Scrotal ligament: The scrotal ligament is actually the remnant of gubernaculum in a fetus. This ligament secures the testis to the most inferior portion of the scrotum, tethering it in place and limiting the degree to which the testis can move within the scrotum.Ecdysis: Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticle in many invertebrates. This process of moulting is the defining feature of the clade Ecdysozoa, comprising the arthropods, nematodes, velvet worms, horsehair worms, tardigrades, and Cephalorhyncha.Anopheles culicifacies: Anopheles culicifacies (sensu lato) is one of the major vectors of malaria on the Indian Subcontinent. It has been reported to be a species complex consisting of five sibling species which have been provisionally designated as species A, B, C, D, and E.Victor Willard: Victor M. Willard (1813 – December 10, 1869) was an American farmer from Waterford, Wisconsin who spent two years (1849–1850) as a Free Soil Party member of the Wisconsin State Senate from the 17th District.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Aedes aegyptiBokhara Trumpeter: The Bokhara Trumpeter is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. Bokhara Trumpeters, along with other varieties of domesticated pigeons, are all descendants from the rock pigeon (Columba livia).Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Wool (disambiguation): Wool is the fibre commonly produced from sheepControlled internal drug release: Controlled internal drug release (CIDR) devices are used in livestock for the synchronization of estrus. They are T-shaped devices with a silicone-coated nylon core.WGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Wet-tailSupercow (dairy): Supercow (or super cow) is a term used in the dairy industry to denote lines or individual animals that have superior milk production: that is, which produce more milk per day, or in some cases produce more fat per gallon of milk. Biology of the super cow.Circulation plan: A circulation plan is a schematic empirical projection/model of how pedestrians and/or vehicles flow through a given area, like, for example, a neighborhood or a Central Business District (CBD). Circulation plans are used by city planners and other officials to manage and monitor traffic and pedestrian patterns in such a way that they might discover how to make future improvements to the system.

(1/4007) Early induction of angiogenetic signals in gliomas of GFAP-v-src transgenic mice.

Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for solid tumor growth. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most common malignant brain tumor, is characterized by extensive vascular proliferation. We previously showed that transgenic mice expressing a GFAP-v-src fusion gene in astrocytes develop low-grade astrocytomas that progressively evolve into hypervascularized glioblastomas. Here, we examined whether tumor progression triggers angiogenetic signals. We found abundant transcription of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in neoplastic astrocytes at surprisingly early stages of tumorigenesis. VEGF and v-src expression patterns were not identical, suggesting that VEGF activation was not only dependent on v-src. Late-stage gliomas showed perinecrotic VEGF up-regulation similarly to human glioblastoma. Expression patterns of the endothelial angiogenic receptors flt-1, flk-1, tie-1, and tie-2 were similar to those described in human gliomas, but flt-1 was expressed also in neoplastic astrocytes, suggesting an autocrine role in tumor growth. In crossbreeding experiments, hemizygous ablation of the tumor suppressor genes Rb and p53 had no significant effect on the expression of VEGF, flt-1, flk-1, tie-1, and tie-2. Therefore, expression of angiogenic signals is an early event during progression of GFAP-v-src tumors and precedes hypervascularization. Given the close similarities in the progression pattern between GFAP-v-src and human gliomas, the present results suggest that these mice may provide a useful tool for antiangiogenic therapy research.  (+info)

(2/4007) Morphometric study of the equine navicular bone: variations with breeds and types of horse and influence of exercise.

Navicular bones from the 4 limbs of 95 horses, classified in 9 categories, were studied. The anatomical bases were established for the morphometry of the navicular bone and its variations according to the category of horse, after corrections were made for front or rear limb, sex, weight, size and age. In ponies, navicular bone measurements were smallest for light ponies and regularly increased with body size, but in horses, navicular bone dimensions were smallest for the athletic halfbred, intermediate for draft horse, thoroughbreds and sedentary halfbreds and largest for heavy halfbreds. The athletic halfbred thus showed reduced bone dimensions when compared with other horse types. Navicular bones from 61 horses were studied histomorphometrically. Light horses and ponies possessed larger amounts of cancellous bone and less cortical bone. Draft horses and heavy ponies showed marked thickening of cortical bone with minimum intracortical porosity, and a decrease in marrow spaces associated with more trabecular bone. Two distinct zones were observed for the flexor surface cortex: an external zone composed mainly of poorly remodelled lamellar bone, disposed in a distoproximal oblique direction, and an internal zone composed mainly of secondary bone, with a lateromedial direction for haversian canals. Flexor cortex external zone tended to be smaller for heavy ponies than for the light ponies. It was the opposite for horses, with the largest amount of external zone registered for draft horses. In athletic horses, we observed an increase in the amount of cortical bone at the expense of cancellous bone which could be the result of reduced resorption and increased formation at the corticoendosteal junction. Cancellous bone was reduced for the athletic horses but the number of trabeculae and their specific surfaces were larger. Increased bone formation and reduced resorption could also account for these differences.  (+info)

(3/4007) Estimating the effective number of breeders from heterozygote excess in progeny.

The heterozygote-excess method is a recently published method for estimating the effective population size (Ne). It is based on the following principle: When the effective number of breeders (Neb) in a population is small, the allele frequencies will (by chance) be different in males and females, which causes an excess of heterozygotes in the progeny with respect to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. We evaluate the accuracy and precision of the heterozygote-excess method using empirical and simulated data sets from polygamous, polygynous, and monogamous mating systems and by using realistic sample sizes of individuals (15-120) and loci (5-30) with varying levels of polymorphism. The method gave nearly unbiased estimates of Neb under all three mating systems. However, the confidence intervals on the point estimates of Neb were sufficiently small (and hence the heterozygote-excess method useful) only in polygamous and polygynous populations that were produced by <10 effective breeders, unless samples included > approximately 60 individuals and 20 multiallelic loci.  (+info)

(4/4007) The importance of genetic diversity in livestock populations of the future.

Farm animal genetic diversity is required to meet current production needs in various environments, to allow sustained genetic improvement, and to facilitate rapid adaptation to changing breeding objectives. Production efficiency in pastoral species is closely tied to the use of diverse genetic types, but greater genetic uniformity has evolved in intensively raised species. In poultry, breeding decisions are directed by a few multinational companies and involve intense selection, the use of distinct production lines, and very large populations. In dairy cattle, the Holstein breed dominates production. Intensive sire selection is leading to relatively rapid inbreeding rates and raises questions about long-term effects of genetic drift. Key questions in management of farm animal genetic diversity involve the distribution of potentially useful quantitative trait locus alleles among global livestock breeds. Experiments with tomato, maize, and mice suggest that favorable alleles can exist in otherwise lowly productive stocks; this cryptic variation may potentially contribute to future selection response. Genetic improvement under relatively intense unidirectional selection may involve both increases in the frequency of favorable additive alleles as well as the progressive breakdown of homeostatic regulatory mechanisms established under the stabilizing selection that is characteristic of natural populations. Recombination among closely linked regulatory loci and new, potentially favorable mutations are possible sources of long-term genetic variation. A greater understanding of the potential that these alternative mechanisms have for supporting long-term genetic improvement and of genetic relationships among global livestock populations are priorities for managing farm animal genetic diversity.  (+info)

(5/4007) Evaluation of carcass, live, and real-time ultrasound measures in feedlot cattle: I. Assessment of sex and breed effects.

Carcass and live-animal measures from 1,029 cattle were collected at the Iowa State University Rhodes and McNay research farms over a 6-yr period. Data were from bull, heifer, and steer progeny of composite, Angus, and Simmental sires mated to three composite lines of dams. The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for carcass traits, to evaluate effects of sex and breed of sire on growth models (curves), and to suggest a strategy to adjust serially measured data to a constant age end point. Estimation of genetic parameters using a three-trait mixed model showed differences between bulls and steers in estimates of h2 and genetic correlations. Heritability for carcass weight, percentage of retail product, retail product weight, fat thickness, and longissimus muscle area from bull data were .43, .04, .46, .05, and .21, respectively. The corresponding values for steer data were in order of .32, .24, .40, .42, and .07, respectively. Analysis of serially measured fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, body weight, hip height, and ultrasound percentage of intramuscular fat using a repeated measures model showed a limitation in the use of growth models based on pooled data. In further evaluation of regression parameters using a linear mixed model analysis, sex and breed of sire showed an important (P < .05) effect on intercept and slope values. Regression of serially measured traits on age within animal showed a relatively larger R2 (62 to 98%) and a smaller root mean square error (RMSE, .09 to 8.85) as compared with R2 (0 to 58%) and RMSE (.31 to 67.9) values when the same model was used on pooled data. We concluded that regression parameters from a within-animal regression of a serially measured trait on age, averaged by sex and breed, are the best choice in describing growth and adjusting data to a constant age end point.  (+info)

(6/4007) Comparison of three weaning ages on cow-calf performance and steer carcass traits.

An experiment was conducted to compare three weaning ages on cow-calf performance and steer carcass traits. Crossbred steers (n = 168; 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Angus x 1/4 Hereford) were randomly assigned to three treatments with eight pens per treatment: groups were 1) weaned at an average of 90 d of age (90 +/- 13 d) and placed in the feedlot, 2) weaned at an average of 152 d of age (152 +/- 13 d) and placed in the feedlot, and 3) weaned at an average of 215 d of age (215 +/- 13 d) and placed in the feedlot. The number of days steers were finished decreased by 55 and 38 d (linear, P = .0001) as weaning age increased when slaughtered at a constant fat end point (.81 cm). Weaning at an average of 90 and 152 d of age improved overall ADG by .15 and .07 kg/d, respectively, over weaning at an average of 215 d of age (linear, P = .005). Over the entire finishing period, intake increased (linear, P = .0006) and efficiency was poorer (linear, P = .004) as weaning age increased. Owing to differences in finishing days and intake, total concentrate consumed increased (linear, P = .03) as weaning age decreased. No differences (P > .21) were observed for carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, or yield grade. No differences (P > .19) were observed in marbling score or percentage of steers grading greater than or equal to Choice or Average Choice. Cow body condition score improved (linear, P = .0001) as weaning age decreased. Pregnancy rate improved 12 percentage units (linear, P = .15) for cows on the 90-d weaning treatment. In this study, early weaning improved gain and feed efficiency, but it increased total concentrate consumed.  (+info)

(7/4007) Effects of milk yield on biological efficiency and profit of beef production from birth to slaughter.

Effect of milk yield (MY) on biological efficiency and gross margin as an indicator of profit potential of beef production from birth to slaughter was determined. Data included 9 yr of spring-born single male calves. Biological efficiency was calculated as carcass weight/total feed energy intake, including nonlactating and lactating intakes of cow and creep and feedlot intakes of calf. Slaughter end point was finish constant at 9 mm of fat thickness. Gross margin was determined as returns minus feed costs. Three breeding systems were analyzed: purebred Hereford (HE), large rotational (LR), and small rotational (SR). Analyses were performed separately by breeding system when differences in the effect of MY among breeding systems were significant. Increased MY was associated with increased preweaning gain (P < .001), increased weight at start of feedlot trial (P < .001), and increased hot carcass weight (P < .05). No significant (P > .10) effect of MY on age at slaughter or on carcass weight per day of age at slaughter was found. Increased MY was associated with increased cow lactating energy intake (P < .10) and negatively associated with calf creep intake (P < .01). No effects of MY on intake of the cow during the nonlactating period, calf feedlot intake, or total feed intake were found. Increased MY was associated with a reduction in backfat thickness of the cow during the lactating period (P < .01) with no change in body weight. In the subsequent nonlactating period, increasing MY was associated with increased backfat thickness (P < .10) and body weight (P < .05). No effect of MY on change in backfat or weight of cow from calving to the end of the next nonlactating period was found. No effect of MY on biological efficiency to slaughter was detected. Milk yield was positively associated with gross margin from birth to slaughter (P < .05); results were similar when cow feed prices were reduced by 30%. Increased MY was associated with increased biological efficiency to weaning in HE (P < .01) and SR (P < .10), with no effect found in LR. When feeding cows to requirements, milk yield has a positive effect on the profit potential of beef production from birth to slaughter.  (+info)

(8/4007) Modulation of allospecific CTL responses during pregnancy in equids: an immunological barrier to interspecies matings?

Maternal immune recognition of the developing conceptus in equine pregnancy is characterized by the strongest and most consistent alloantibody response described in any species, a response directed almost exclusively against paternal MHC class I Ags. This work investigated the cellular immune response to paternal MHC Ags in pregnant and nonpregnant horses and donkeys, and in horses carrying interspecies hybrid mule conceptuses. We observed profound decreases in classical, MHC-restricted, CTL activity to allogeneic paternal cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes from both horse mares and donkey jennets carrying intraspecies pregnancies, compared with cells from nonpregnant controls. This is the first evidence in a randomly bred species for a generalized systemic shift of immune reactivity away from cellular and toward humoral immunity during pregnancy. Surprisingly, mares carrying interspecies hybrid mule conceptuses did not exhibit this transient, pregnancy-associated decrease in CTL activity. The failure of interspecies pregnancy to down-regulate cellular immune responses may be a heretofore-unrecognized, subtle barrier to reproductive success between species.  (+info)


  • Breeding birds of any kind take a lot of time and commitment and cockatiels are no exception. (


  • Please note that not all urban breeding species are listed (only the focal species that we are studying), and many of the species listed may not breed in urban habitats. (
  • If species have undergone a major decline recently (for example, Asian vultures, some aerial insectivores), please record the historical breeding status in your city. (
  • Banking into the wind and then gliding out of sight, a male California condor flew back into the wild after a captive breeding program that helped save North America's largest species of land bird. (
  • The only Sumatran rhinoceros in the United States will be sent to Indonesia so it can have a chance to mate, an Ohio zoo famous for breeding the endangered species said on Tuesday. (


  • Keep in mind that the results of a breeding soundness evaluation provide a marker for a set point in time. (
  • Manuscripts on marker assisted breeding are also of major interest, in particular novel approaches and new results of marker assisted breeding, QTL cloning, integration of conventional and marker assisted breeding, and QTL studies in crop plants. (


  • Molecular Breeding is an international journal publishing papers on applications of plant molecular biology, i.e., research most likely leading to practical applications. (
  • All papers published should contribute to the understanding and progress of modern plant breeding, encompassing the scientific disciplines of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, physiology, pathology, plant breeding, and ecology among others. (
  • Molecular Breeding also welcomes relevant articles addressing intellectual property issues, regulation and public attitudes to plant biotechnology and also significant technology advances in applied plant molecular biology and (trans)gene expression technology. (


  • I think it's one of the main reasons that breeding is in danger of becoming a spectator sport for the middle class . (


  • Two giant pandas arrived by plane at Amsterdam's Schiphol airport Wednesday after a marathon 8,000 km journey from China, the first breeding pair on Dutch soil in three decades. (


  • I want to have it be like a 'Journal of a Breeding' so that I can use it later to refresh my memory and/or whatever, it also might be cool to start people comparing and contrasting their experiences and what's worked for them and maybe help me as my memory has faded (older, lingering lyme disease, older yet, etc.) since Rosalee was born. (


  • When using sires by natural service, he suggests having your veterinarian perform a breeding soundness evaluation on bulls in advance of turn-out time. (
  • Semen from some bulls seems to have reduced viability when used by artificial insemination (AI) in a fixed-time breeding protocol. (
  • When using a sire by AI for the first time in a fixed-time breeding protocol, ask your semen supplier about the bull's expected pregnancy rate in such a program. (


  • He was preceded in death by his first wife, Leda Parkhurst Breeding, and a son, Jack Edward Breeding. (
  • Breeding Death è il primo EP della band death metal svedese Bloodbath, pubblicato nel 2000 dalla Century Media e ristampato sei anni dopo con un nuovo artwork, testi completi e due tracce bonus. (
  • Breeding Death - 4:26 Omnious Bloodvomit - 3:47 Furnace Funeral - 5:04 Breeding Death (demo) - 4:20* Omnious Bloodvomit (demo) - 3:35* * Incluse solo nella ristampa del 2006. (
  • Mikael Åkerfeldt - voce Anders Nyström - chitarra Jonas Renkse - basso Dan Swanö - batteria (EN) Breeding Death, su Discogs, Zink Media. (
  • EN) Breeding Death, su MusicBrainz, MetaBrainz Foundation. (
  • EN) Breeding Death, su Encyclopaedia Metallum. (
  • Breeding the Spawn é o segundo álbum de estúdio da banda de death metal Suffocation. (


  • But unlike in Gossip Girl, many people are taking a permanent vacation from breeding, and the show provides one clue as to why. (