Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Inflammatory Breast Neoplasms: Metastatic breast cancer characterized by EDEMA and ERYTHEMA of the affected breast due to LYMPHATIC METASTASIS and eventual obstruction of LYMPHATIC VESSELS by the cancer cells.Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms: Breast neoplasms that do not express ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and do not overexpress the NEU RECEPTOR/HER-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Breast Neoplasms, Male: Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Breast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Fibrocystic Breast Disease: A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Breast Implants: Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Breast Self-Examination: The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Fibroadenoma: An adenoma containing fibrous tissue. It should be differentiated from ADENOFIBROMA which is a tumor composed of connective tissue (fibroma) containing glandular (adeno-) structures. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Milk, HumanCystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mammaplasty: Surgical reconstruction of the breast including both augmentation and reduction.Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue: Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.Neoplasms, Plasma Cell: Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.Breast Cyst: A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.Appendiceal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Nipples: The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.MCF-7 Cells: An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)Mammary Glands, Human: Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.Cystadenoma, Mucinous: A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue: Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Axilla: Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Breast Implantation: Surgical insertion of an inert sac filled with silicone or other material to augment the female form cosmetically.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.BRCA2 Protein: A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.BRCA1 Protein: The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue: Neoplasms composed of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in muscles.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Genes, BRCA2: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)Sweat Gland NeoplasmsRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous: A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage: Neoplasms composed of sebaceous or sweat gland tissue or tissue of other skin appendages. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the sebaceous or sweat glands or in the other skin appendages.Genes, erbB-2: The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.Vascular Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed: Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Aromatase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.Estrogen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Palatal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cystadenocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mandibular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.Adenofibroma: A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)Thymus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.Splenic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Cystadenoma, Serous: A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972)Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Maxillary Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal: Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.Hemangiosarcoma: A rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating, anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled or lumpy spaces. (Stedman, 25th ed)Anal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the anal gland.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue: Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.Germ-Line Mutation: Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Duodenal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mastectomy, Modified Radical: Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Mucin-1: Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Mediastinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators: A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.

*  Search of: Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies | 'Breast Neoplasms, Male' - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov

IMPORTANT: Listing of a study on this site does not reflect endorsement by the National Institutes of Health. Talk with a trusted healthcare professional before volunteering for a study. Read more... ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?recr=Open&cond="Breast Neoplasms, Male"&pg=2

*  Search of: weill | Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies | 'Breast Neoplasms, Male' - List Results - ClinicalTrials...

weill , 'Breast Neoplasms, Male' (8 studies) Suggestion: Drop the Status Filter (Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available ... Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies , 'Breast Neoplasms, Male' (17 studies) Suggestion: Drop the Other Terms ... weill , Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies , 'Breast Neoplasms, Male') found only a few studies. ... weill , Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies , 'Breast Neoplasms, Male' (2 records) ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=weill&recr=Open&cond="Breast Neoplasms, Male"

*  Malignant Neoplasm Of Breast: Disease Bioinformatics: Novus Biologicals

Learn more about Malignant Neoplasm Of Breast from related diseases, pathways, genes and PTMs with the Novus Bioinformatics ... Malignant Neoplasm Of Breast is also known as Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer Diagnosis, Breast Cancer Nos, Breast Carcinoma, ... Research of Malignant Neoplasm Of Breast has been linked to Malignant Neoplasms, Mammary Neoplasms, Neoplasms, Carcinoma, ... Malignant Neoplasm Of Breast has been studied in relation to diseases such as: *Malignant Neoplasms ...
https://novusbio.com/diseases/malignant-neoplasm-of-breast

*  Phase 2b Study of Taxol Plus Sorafenib or Placebo in Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Breast Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Breast Diseases. Skin Diseases. Paclitaxel. Sorafenib. Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel ... recurrent breast cancer. stage IIIB breast cancer. stage IIIC breast cancer. stage IV breast cancer. stage IIIA breast cancer. ... Phase 2b Study of Taxol Plus Sorafenib or Placebo in Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer. This study is ongoing, but not ... No prior chemotherapy for locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. *More than 4 weeks since prior major surgery or open ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00499525

*  A Clinical Trial to Study the Effects of Nanoparticle Based Paclitaxel Drug, Which Does Not Contain the Solvent Cremophor, in...

Breast Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Breast Diseases. Skin Diseases. Paclitaxel. Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel. ... A Multicentre Phase I Study Of Cremophor FreePaclitaxel Nanoparticle In Advanced Breast Cancer. ... Female patients with histopathologically /cytologically confirmed advanced breast cancer, refractory / recurrent* to previous ... in Advanced Breast Cancer. The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The completion date has passed and the status has ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00915369

*  A Study of Cyclophosphamide/Methotrexate/5-Fluorouracil (CMF) With Pegfilgrastim in Subjects With Breast Cancer - Full Text...

Breast Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Breast Diseases. Skin Diseases. Cyclophosphamide. Methotrexate. Fluorouracil. ... Breast Cancer Drug: pegfilgrastim Drug: cyclophosphamide Drug: methotrexate Drug: 5-fluorouracil Phase 2 ... A Study of Cyclophosphamide/Methotrexate/5-Fluorouracil (CMF) With Pegfilgrastim in Subjects With Breast Cancer. This study has ... Inclusion Criteria: - Histologically confirmed breast cancer Stage I, II or III - Candidate for IV CMF chemotherapy (every 4 ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00124111

*  Oral Health in Breast Cancer Survivors on Aromatase Inhibitors - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Breast Neoplasms. Periodontal Diseases. Gingival Diseases. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Breast Diseases. Skin Diseases. Mouth ... Oral Health in Breast Cancer Survivors on Aromatase Inhibitors. This study has been completed. ... Breast cancer. Periodontal Diseases. Aromatase Inhibitors. Oral Health Related Quality of Life. ... This study will have a sample of 300 postmenopausal women; 150 healthy women and 150 with early breast cancer using Aromatase ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01693731

*  Registry of Mastectomy for Breast Cancer Risk Reduction - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Registry of Mastectomy for Breast Cancer Risk Reduction. Official Title ICMJE Registry of Mastectomy for Breast Cancer Risk ... Eligible patients include those who have a breast cancer-related gene, a strong family history of breast cancer, or a personal ... Breast Neoplasms. *Genetic Predisposition to Disease. *Adjustment Disorder. Intervention ICMJE Not Provided. ... due to being at high risk for developing breast cancer, followed by breast reconstruction. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00555503

*  Understanding Decision Making Processes for Undergoing Genetic Testing Among Women With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer - Full...

Breast Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Breast Diseases. Skin Diseases. ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on ... Bilateral breast cancer, with first diagnosed ≤ 50 OR. *Breast cancer diagnosed at any age with a male relative with breast ... Women with breast cancer and an abnormal copy of BRCA1 or BRCA2 also have a higher chance of getting a second breast cancer in ... Women with Breast Cancer The proposed investigation is a prospective cohort study. Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01386411

*  Laser InGaAlP (660Nm) to Prevent Radiodermatitis in Breast Cancer Patients Submitted to Radiation Therapy - Full Text View -...

Breast Neoplasms. Radiodermatitis. Skin Diseases. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Breast Diseases. Radiation Injuries. Wounds and ... Breast neoplasm is the second most common type in the world. Radiation therapy is a key component in the treatment of breast ... Radiotherapy; Adverse Effect, Dermatitis or Eczema Breast Neoplasms Device: Laser therapy Device: Placebo ... Patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy without breast reconstruction. *Patients undergoing to adjuvant ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02003599?term=breast,cancer,treatment&recr=Open&rank=12

*  "Molecular dependence of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer on a " by Connie Wing-Ching Lee, Christopher M. Raskett et al.

Despite progress in the management of breast cancer, the molecular underpinnings of clinically aggressive subtypes of the disease are not well-understood. Here, we show that activation of Notch developmental signaling in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer cells results in direct transcriptional up-regulation of the apoptosis inhibitor and cell cycle regulator survivin. This response is associated with increased expression of survivin at mitosis, enhanced cell proliferation, and heightened viability at cell division. Conversely, targeting Notch signaling with a peptidyl gamma-secretase inhibitor suppressed survivin levels, induced apoptosis, abolished colony formation in soft agar, and inhibited localized and metastatic tumor growth in mice, without organ or systemic toxicity. In contrast, ER+ breast cancer cells, or various normal cell types, were insensitive to Notch stimulation. Therefore, ER- breast cancer cells become ...
escholarship.umassmed.edu/oapubs/1963/

*  PPT - Overview of Breast Cancer Management PowerPoint Presentation - ID:36625

Overview of Breast Cancer Management Edith A. Perez, MD Director, Clinical Investigations Director, Breast Cancer Program Division of Hematology/Oncology Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, Florida Incidence of Breast Cancer Compared With Other Sites (Women) Breast Lung and bronchus Slideshow 36625 by sandra_john
slideserve.com/sandra_john/overview-of-breast-cancer-management

*  Activity and Toxicity Profile of Eribulin Mesylate in Pretreated Metastatic Breast Cancer: an Observational Multicentric...

The objective of this observatory is to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of eribulin in patients with metastatic breast cancer on a recent
adisinsight.springer.com/trials/700254919

*  Young breast cancer patients often overestimate the benefit of having second breast removed - Dana-Farber Cancer Institute |...

A survey of young women with breast cancer found that many often overestimate the odds that cancer will occur in their other, healthy breast, and decide to have the healthy breast surgically removed even though most understood that removing both breasts does not extend their survival.
dana-farber.org/Newsroom/News-Releases/Young-breast-cancer-patients-often-overestimate-the-benefit-of-having-second-breast-removed.aspx

*  Tykerb and Xeloda Can Help Treat Breast Cancer That's Spread to the Brain

When breast cancer has spread to parts of the body away from the breast, it's called metastatic cancer. Breast cancer can spread to bones, the lungs, the liver, and the brain. Metastatic breast cancer is treatable, but generally not curable. About 30% to 40% of women with metastatic breast cancer have the cancer spread to the brain.. Metastatic breast cancer that has spread to the brain can cause neurological symptoms, including trouble moving, speaking, swallowing, learning, and remembering. Treatment for metastatic breast cancer in the brain is aimed at weakening and shrinking the cancer. Sometimes doctors will surgically remove the cancer if it's possible to do so. If surgery isn't possible, the cancer may be treated with radiation therapy to the brain. But brain radiation also can cause neurological side effects. So doctors have been looking for another way to treat metastatic ...
breastcancer.org/research-news/20110609

*  Institute of Cancer Research Repository - Long-term outcome of HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer patients treated with...

Background: Trastuzumab has changed the natural history of metastatic HER2 positive breast cancer. Some patients remain well and in remission for many years. There is currently no established duration after which trastuzumab in the advanced setting can be safely discontinued. This study aims to evaluate long-term efficacy and cardiac safety of trastuzumab when used as first-line treatment for patients with metastatic HER2 positive breast cancer. Patient and methods: We retrospectively identified 215 patients with HER2 positive, locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer who commenced first line trastuzumab-containing therapy for metastatic disease between 2001 and 2010 at The Royal Marsden Hospital. Results: The median progression free survival for all patients was 12 months (95% CI: 10.3-14.6 months); 103 (48%) patients remained in remission beyond one year, 59 (27%) beyond two years and 25 (12%) beyond five years. The median overall survival was 2.6 ...
publications.icr.ac.uk/14594/

*  Breast Cancer Research Foundation | BCRF

The mission of the Breast Cancer Research Foundation is to prevent and cure breast cancer by advancing the world's most promising breast cancer research.
bcrfcure.org

*  FAC Versus FAC Plus Weekly Paclitaxel as Adjuvant Treatment of Node Negative High Risk Breast Cancer Patients - Full Text View ...

Premenopausal women with hormone receptor positive tumors must receive tamoxifen 20 mg daily for 5 years, after the end of chemotherapy.. Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive tumors are allowed to receive aromatase inhibitors as initial adjuvant hormone therapy or after tamoxifen.. All patients with breast conservative surgery must receive radiotherapy.. Estimated 5-year disease-free survival in the control arm (FAC x 6) is expected to be 80%. It is expected that disease-free survival will increase by 5% in the experimental arm (FAC-paclitaxel). 906 patients per arm must be recruited, to detect this difference with an alpha error of 0.05 and 80% power. Assuming a 6% post-randomization drop-out rate, 960 patients per arm are needed, 1920 in total. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00129389

*  HER2 status of circulating tumor cells in patients with metastatic breast cancer: a prospective, multicenter trial |...

There is a growing body of evidence that HER2 status can change during disease recurrence or progression in breast cancer patients. In this context, re-evaluation of HER2 status by assessment of HER2 expression on circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is a strategy with potential clinical application. The aim of this trial was to determine the HER2 status of CTCs in metastatic breast cancer patients comparing two CTC assays. A total of 254 patients with metastatic breast cancer from nine German university breast cancer centers were enrolled in this prospective study. HER2 status of CTCs was assessed using both the FDA-approved CellSearch® assay and AdnaTest BreastCancer™. Using the CellSearch assay, 122 of 245 (50%) patients had ≥5 CTCs, and HER2-positive CTCs were observed in 50 (41%) of these patients. Ninety of 229 (39%) patients were CTC positive using AdnaTest BreastCancer, and HER2 positivity rate was 47% (42 ...
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10549-010-1163-x

*  Svane, G.: Stereotaxic needle biopsy of non-palpable breast lesions « Ursus Medical - Rotex Biopsy Instrument

A cytologic diagnosis of a non-palpable breast lesion should be as significant as that of a palpable lesion and provide guidance for the treatment of a radiographically detected aberration. If malignant cells are present in cellular material, surgery can be planned as a curative measure, and not only as a diagnostic biopsy. Benign appearance of cellular material may also be helpful and sometimes an operation can be avoided if the radiographic report of the same lesion is "probably benign". On the other hand, a misleading negative report from a cytologic examination of a malignant lesion can delay appropriate treatment. Although the risk of a 'false' negative cytologic diagnosis cannot be wholly eliminated, even with sensitive technique, such a diagnosis has been found in only 4 of the 323 lesions in the present series which were needled but not immediately excised. For 2 of these 4 lesions the cytologic report stated benign epithelium and for the other 2 atypical epithelium. Two of the 4 ...
ursusmedical.com.preview.binero.se/products/references/svane-g-stereotaxic-needle-biopsy-of-non-palpable-breast-lesions-acta-radiol-diagn-1983-24-385-390/

*  Gene signature in breast cancer cells can predict treatment prognosis - Thaindian News

Washington, Aug 30 (ANI): Researchers from Baylor College of Medicine have revealed that genetic response to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) in breast cancer cells can help predict aggressive tumours that are less likely
thaindian.com/newsportal/entertainment/gene-signature-in-breast-cancer-cells-can-predict-treatment-prognosis_10090448.html

*  Team Reports Validation Of Potentially Powerful New Way To Treat HER2-Positive Breast Cancer - Redorbit

CSH. Scientists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) today report a discovery that they hope will lead to the development of a powerful new way of treating an aggressive form of breast cancer.. The breast cancer subtype in question is commonly called "HER2-positive"; it's a subset of the disease affecting about one patient in four, in which tumor cells overexpress a signaling protein called HER2. The blockbuster drug Herceptin is a first-line treatment for many women with HER2-positive breast cancer, but in most cases, resistance to the treatment develops within a year . The prognosis for HER2-positive breast cancer patients is worse than for those with other subtypes of the illness.. In a paper appearing online today in Nature Chemical Biology, a multi-institution team led by CSHL Professor Nicholas Tonks reports that it has found a means of inhibiting another protein, called PTP1B, whose expression is also upregulated in HER2-positive ...
redorbit.com/news/health/1113152874/team-reports-validation-of-potentially-powerful-new-way-to-treat-her2-positive-breast-cancer/

*  Novartis chases Pfizer in hot new breast cancer drug area - ( 4U5TR4L14 ) - Daily Review Blog

LONDON (Reuters) - Novartis is hot on the heels of Pfizer in developing a promising new type of breast cancer drug that analysts believe could generate billions of dollars in annual sales.. The Swiss drugmaker, which has previously kept its research programme under wraps, revealed on Friday that its experimental pill LEE011 was set to enter final-stage Phase III clinical trials next month.. Pfizer's rival drug palbociclib - the first in the class - is already in Phase III testing, but Novartis' rapid progress means the U.S. group could face competition sooner than expected. Both drugs are pills and work by blocking two enzymes known as cyclin dependent kinases (CDK) 4 and 6.. The significance of the new targeted approach to fighting cancer was highlighted in April when U.S. regulators granted a "breakthrough therapy" designation to palbociclib, based on impressive results seen in mid-stage trials.. Palbociclib is widely seen by investors as Pfizer's most valuable compound in late-stage ...
stravaganzzamp.blogspot.com/2013/11/novartis-chases-pfizer-in-hot-new.html

*  Ribociclib improves progression-free survival in advanced breast cancer

The addition of the CDK4/6 inhibitor ribociclib to letrozole therapy significantly improves progression-free survival in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer, researchers reported at the ESMO 2016 Congress in Copenhagen.1. The first interim analysis of data from the randomized, double-blind MONALEESA2 study showed a 44% improvement in progression-free survival with ribociclib plus letrozole as a first-line treatment combination.. 'This was THE definitive study to demonstrate the superiority of the combination of ribociclib and letrozole over letrozole alone,' said principle investigator, Professor Gabriel Hortobagyi, from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas, US.. Researchers randomized 668 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer, who had not undergone any prior systemic treatment, to ribociclib (600 mg/day, 3 weeks on/1 week off) and letrozole (2.5 mg/day, ...
thetutuproject.com/ribociclib-improves-progression-free-survival-in-advanced-breast-cancer/

*  Plus it

Four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, BT-549, MDA-MB-231 and T-47D) and four ovarian cancer cell lines (1A9/A2780, ES-2, MES-OV and OVCAR-3) were selected for taxane resistance by exposing cells to either docetaxel or paclitaxel in the presence of the P-glycoprotein inhibitor, PSC-833 (valspodar, 2 μM). All of these co-selected variants are MDR1/ABCB1(-), and the resistance to taxanes is not transporter-mediated. We have previously reported elevated class III β-tubulin (TUBB3), reduced BRCA1, elevated CDKN1A (p21), and altered epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) genes in the majority of the non-MDR1 taxane variants. Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) proteins directly bind and inhibit several caspases, and may play a critical role in determining cell fate after exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we profiled the expression of IAP proteins and found elevated content in this panel of taxane-resistant human breast and ovarian cancer cell lines. In both the ...
cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/73/8_Supplement/901

*  The AFP Community Blog: October 2016

And do small breast tumors detected by mammograms become large, lethal ones? Sometimes, but not as often as most patients and physicians think, according to an observational study in the New England Journal of Medicine that concluded: "Women [with tumors detected on mammography] were more likely to have breast cancer that was overdiagnosed than to have earlier detection of a tumor that was destined to become large." This study also concluded that most of the reduction in breast cancer mortality over the past 40 years could be attributed to improved systemic therapy rather than earlier tumor detection. In an AFP editorial on counseling women about breast cancer screening, Dr. Mark Ebell and I discussed the benefits and harms of mammography in younger women and noted that for every additional breast cancer death prevented by starting at age 40, two women will be overdiagnosed with (and overtreated for) breast ...
afpjournal.blogspot.com/2016/10/

*  The Runx transcriptional co-activator, CBFβ, is essential for invasion of breast cancer cells | Molecular Cancer | Full Text

In this study we established that CBFβ is expressed in MDA-MB-231 cells and that it is essential for cell invasion. We subsequently demonstrated that CBFβ participates in the activation of genes implicated in cell invasion. Importantly, re-expression of CBFβ in the CBFβ-knockdown cells restored the invasive capacity. The restored invasive capacity was also accompanied by an increase in CBFβ-target gene expression, as exemplified by the increased expression of OPN. We also demonstrated that the metastatic genes OPN and Galectin-3 are Runx2-targets in metastatic breast cancer cells. However, whilst CBFβ was essential for the expression of OPN, MMP-13, MMP-9 and OC it was not required for Galectin-3 expression, despite the fact that CBFβ is recruited to the Galectin-3 promoter. CBFβ is therefore functionally redundant with respect to Galectin-3 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. Together, our data demonstrate that CBFβ is essential for invasion of metastatic breast cancer cells ...
https://molecular-cancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1476-4598-9-171

*  Treatments targeting blood vessels for metastatic breast cancer | Cochrane

Angiogenesis refers to the development of new blood vessels from the pre-existing beds containing the normal supply of blood vessels. Tumours are dependent on the formation of new blood vessels for their growth. Vascular-endothelial-growth-factor (VEGF) is a key molecule in promoting blood vessel growth. VEGF-targeting therapies are a new class of drugs designed to target a specific molecule. One of these drugs is bevacizumab (Avastin) which has been studied in clinical trials in metastatic breast cancer. Trials with other drugs are ongoing. Data are available from seven randomised trials, which evaluated the effect of bevacizumab on the primary endpoint in a total of 4032 patients with metastatic breast cancer. These patients were either-hormone receptor negative or had progressed on hormonal treatment. The primary end point was progression-free survival and secondary end points included overall survival, response rate measuring the change in size of the tumour, quality of ...
cochrane.org/CD008941/BREASTCA_treatments-targeting-blood-vessels-for-metastatic-breast-cancer

*  'Real Life' Study Clarifies Risk of Recurrence for High-Risk Breast Cancer Patients -...

patients with more than 10 positive nodes "We found that patients with ER+/PgR- status, or high expression of HER2 or fewer than 10 positive axillary nodes do not seem to have an increased risk of relapse in comparison to the whole population," Dr. Cazzaniga said. "Massive involvement of axillary nodes seems to be the only factor associated with a higher risk of developing distant or local relapse." "Our results reflect what happens in an unselected population of breast cancer patients, so they are very close to the clinical reality," Dr. Cazzaniga added. "In clinical practice, benefits do not derive only from one study, but from an accurate use of different strategies resulting from different trials and tailored to individual patients. Our study probably reflects the magnitude of benefits of the application of various studies on the whole population." The finding could be very important for patients, she said. "The identification of peculiar characteristics allows clinicians to design ...
redorbit.com/news/health/154255/real_life_study_clarifies_risk_of_recurrence_for_highrisk_breast/

*  Plus it

Background: FAPα is a transmembrane serine protease expressed on cancer associated fibroblast that promotes tumour growth and invasion. In patients (pts) with poor outcome and survival FAPα is highly overexpressed. FAPα is also expressed in stroma across all breast cancer subtypes without association with clinicopathological factors. Pts without Complete Pathological Response (pCR) after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy (NC) had poor outcome. We analysed the relationship between the expression of FAPα in stroma (fibroblast) and in epithelial breast cancer cells of pts without pCR after NC (taxanes, antracyclines and trastuzumab in Her2+).. Methods: 60 pts were included. ER, PR and Ki67 were studied by IHQ (Ventana) and Her2 by FISH (PatnVysion). FAPα expression was determined by IHQ (polyclonal, Ventana). St Gallen guidelines for subtype of breast cancer were used.. Results: 53 pts had tissue. Median age 47 years (range 29-68). Median tumour size 43mm and 10 (18.9%) ...
cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/77/4_Supplement/P4-03-16

*  Origins of breast cancer subtypes and therapeutic implications. - The Christie Research Publications Repository

This Review summarizes and evaluates the current evidence for the cellular origins of breast cancer subtypes identified by different approaches such as histology, molecular pathology, genetic and gene-expression analysis. Emerging knowledge of the normal breast cell types has led to the hypothesis that the subtypes of breast cancer might arise from mutations or genetic rearrangements occurring in different populations of stem cells and progenitor cells. We describe the common distinguishing features of these breast cancer subtypes and explain how these features relate both to prognosis and to selection of the most appropriate therapy. Recent data indicate that breast tumors may originate from cancer stem cells. Consequently, inhibition of stem-cell self-renewal pathways should be explored because of the likelihood that residual stem cells might be resistant to current therapies ...
christie.openrepository.com/christie/handle/10541/70162

*  Breast Cancer deaths continue to decline in U.S. - The Westside GazetteThe Westside Gazette

Breast Cancer deaths continue to decline in U.S.. The racial gap for breast cancer deaths is closing, particularly among younger women, U.S. health officials reported Thursday.. Breast cancer death rates are down overall for both white and Black women, though there's still a disparity between the races. Between 2010 and 2014, death rates dropped faster among white women than among Black women, about 2 percent a year versus 1.5 percent, according to the study from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.. However, among women under 50, the death rate was the same for both races, the researchers found.. "We hope that the signal we are seeing in younger women we will see in older women as time progresses," said lead author Dr. Lisa Richardson. She's director of the division of cancer prevention and control at the CDC.. "Historically, Black women have had higher mortality rates and they still do overall, but for women under 50 the diseases are the ...
thewestsidegazette.com/breast-cancer-deaths-continue-to-decline-in-u-s/

*  Use of ZEN bust-enhancing supplements may increase breast cancer risk

Women who use bust-enhancing dietary supplements containing a naturally occurring toxin could be increasing their risk of breast cancer, health experts hav
news.bioscholar.com/2011/12/use-of-zen-bust-enhancing-supplements-may-increase-breast-cancer-risk.html

*  Modulation of Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-[beta]1 and its implications in breast cancer metastasis :: Electronic Theses...

Overexpresssion of transforming growth factor (TGF)-[beta] has been implicated in promoting immune suppression, tumor angiogenesis, tumor cell migration, and invasion in many cancers including carcinoma of the breast. Thus, targeted downregulation of TGF-[beta]1 expression in breast cancer in situ and determination of its implications potentially could provide new treatment approaches for disease management. siRNA constructs targeting TGF-[beta]1 were validated and used to develop clonal derivatives of the MDA-MB-435 metastatic breast cancer cell line. Inhibition of TGF-[beta]1 expression in MDA-MB-435 cells showed decrease in migration and invasion in vitro with an increase in proliferation. In vivo analysis indicated a 90% decrease in the number of mice bearing macroscopic lung metastases. Analysis of TGF-[beta] signaling pathways in the clonal derivatives showed a decrease in Smad2 activation and an increase in AKT and ERK activation. Analysis of ...
contentdm.mhsl.uab.edu/cdm/ref/collection/etd/id/233/

*  Breast cancer is a disease, not a marketing opportunity. | Breast Cancer Action Québec

PINK RIBBONS MEAN COMPANIES CARE. The wide range of pink ribbon products that appear every October allow the companies that produce them to label themselves as supporters of the fight against breast cancer - and they encourage us to feel we're contributing to the cause by buying these goods. But it's often unclear what proportion of the sale price will be donated, or if there's a cap on donations. Too often, the manufacturer fixes a predetermined amount they will donate, regardless of the volume of sales. In other cases, we're told that a portion of sales will go to support breast cancer research - but the specific organization or organizations that will benefit go unnamed.. Even more troubling are the pink ribbon companies that support breast cancer research while also manufacturing products containing ingredients that may cause breast cancer. An automobile manufacturer may claim to support the fight against breast cancer ...
bcam.qc.ca/content/breast-cancer-disease-not-marketing-opportunity

Breast cancer classification: Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes, each based on different criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes.Inflammatory Breast Cancer Association: rightBreast engorgementLumpectomyRadial scar: In breast pathology, a radial scar of the breast, formally radial scar of the breast, is a benign breast lesion that can radiologically mimic malignancy, i.e.Breastfeeding promotionPancreatoblastomaHormone receptor positive breast tumor: A hormone-receptor-positive tumor is a tumor which consists of cells that express receptors for certain hormones. The term most commonly refers to estrogen receptor positive tumors (i.Mammography Quality Standards ActCystic, mucinous, and serous neoplasms: Cystic, mucinous, and serous neoplasms is a group of tumors.Fibrocystic breast changesCancer biomarkers: A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer.TrastuzumabABCD rating: ABCD rating, also called the Jewett staging system or the Whitmore-Jewett staging system, is a staging system for prostate cancer that uses the letters A, B, C, and D.Breast prosthesesProgesterone receptor: The progesterone receptor (PR, also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3), is a protein found inside cells. It is activated by the steroid hormone progesterone.Breast self-examination: Breast self-examination (BSE) is a screening method used in an attempt to detect early breast cancer. The method involves the woman herself looking at and feeling each breast for possible lumps, distortions or swelling.Ovarian Cancer National Alliance: The Ovarian Cancer National Alliance is an advocacy organization for women with ovarian cancer in the United States. To advance the interests of women with ovarian cancer, the organization advocates at a national level for increases in research funding for the development of an early detection test, improved health care practices, and life-saving treatment protocols.Anaplastic carcinoma: Anaplastic carcinoma is a general term for a malignant neoplasm arising from the uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells of epithelial origin, or showing some epithelial characteristics, but that reveal no cytological or architectural features of associated with more differentiated tumors, such as the glandular formation or special cellular junctions that typical of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively.MastectomyIntraductal papillary mucinous neoplasmTargeted therapy of lung cancer: Targeted therapy of lung cancer refers to using agents specifically designed to selectively target molecular pathways responsible for, or that substantially drive, the malignant phenotype of lung cancer cells, and as a consequence of this (relative) selectivity, cause fewer toxic effects on normal cells.Kidney tumour: Kidney tumours (or kidney tumors), also known as renal tumours, are tumours, or growths, on or in the kidney. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous).Invasive lobular carcinomaQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Bone tumorLymphovascular invasionBreast ultrasoundThyroid cancerNested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Myelodysplastic–myeloproliferative diseases: Myelodysplastic–myeloproliferative diseases are a category of hematological malignancies disorders created by the World Health Organization which have characteristics of both myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative conditions.Antileukemic drug: Antileukemic drugs, anticancer drugs that are used to treat one or more types of leukemia, include:Metastatic liver disease: A liver metastasis is a malignant tumor in the liver that has spread from another organ affected by cancer. The liver is a common site for metastatic disease because of its rich, dual blood supply (the liver receives blood via the hepatic artery and portal vein).Spaceflight radiation carcinogenesisCancer/testis antigen family 45, member a5Sialoblastoma: A sialoblastoma is a low-grade salivary gland neoplasm that recapitulates primitive salivary gland anlage. It has previously been referred to as congenital basal cell adenoma, embryoma, or basaloid adenocarcinoma.CholineMammaplasty: -, |Solution precursor plasma spray: Solution Precursor Plasma Spray (SPPS) is a thermal spray process where a feedstock solution is heated and then deposited onto a substrate. Basic properties of the process are fundamentally similar to other plasma spraying processes.Breast cystGoblet cell carcinoid: The goblet cell carcinoid, abbreviated GCC and also known as crypt cell carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumour with goblet cell differentiation, is a rare biphasic gastrointestinal tract tumour that consists of a neuroendocrine component and a conventional carcinoma, histologically arising from Paneth cells.Nipple adenomaCongenital estrogen deficiency: Congenital estrogen deficiency is a genetic condition by which the body is unable to produce or use estrogens.Breast biopsyPancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm: Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm, also mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas and mucinous cystic tumour, is a grouping of cystic neoplasms that arise from the pancreas. They may be benign, malignant or in between.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingAdenocarcinoma of the lung: Adenocarcinoma of the lung (pulmonary adenocarcinoma) is a common histological form of lung cancer that contains certain distinct malignant tissue architectural, cytological, or molecular features, including gland and/or duct formation and/or production of significant amounts of mucus.Ductal carcinoma: Ductal carcinoma is a type of tumor that primarily presents in the ducts of a gland.Vascular tissue neoplasmPolymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, often abbreviated PLGA, is a rare, asymptomatic, slow-growing malignant salivary gland tumor. It is most commonly found in the palate.Intraocular lymphoma: Intraocular lymphoma is a rare malignant form of eye cancer. Intraocular lymphoma may affect the eye secondarily from a metastasis from a non-ocular tumor or may arise within the eye primarily (primary intraocular lymphoma, PIOL).North American Menopause Society

(1/42895) Diphtheria toxin effects on human cells in tissue culture.

HeLa cells exposed to a single sublethal concentration of diphtheria toxin were found to have diminished sensitivity when subsequently reexposed to the toxin. Three cells strains exhibiting toxin resistance were developed. In the cells that had previously been exposed to toxin at 0.015 mug/ml, 50% inhibition of protein synthesis required a toxin concentration of 0.3 mug/ml, which is more than 10 times that required in normal HeLa cells. There appears to be a threshold level of diphtheria toxin action. Concentrations of toxin greater than that required for 50% inhibition of protein synthesis (0.01 mug/ml) are associated with cytotoxicity, whereas those below this concentration may not be lethal. Several established human cell lines of both normal and neoplastic origin were tested for their sensitivity to the effects of the toxin. No special sensitivity was observed with the cells of tumor origin. Fifty % inhibition of protein synthesis of HeLa cells was achieved with diphtheria toxin (0.01 mug/ml) as compared to the normal human cell lines tested (0.03 and 0.5 mug/ml) and a cell line derived from a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (0.2 mug/ml). A human breast carcinoma cell line showed a maximum of 45% inhibition of protein synthesis. This required a diphtheria toxin concentration of 5 mug/ml. These results suggest that different human cell lines show wide variation in their sensitivity to the toxin.  (+info)

(2/42895) The effects of estrogens and antiestrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture.

We have established or characterized six lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture for at least 1 year and have examined these lines for estrogen responsiveness. One of these cell lines, MCF-7, shows marked stimulation of macromolecular synthesis and cell division with physiological concentrations of estradiol. Antiestrogens are strongly inhibitory, and at concentrations greater than 3 X 10(-7) M they kill cells. Antiestrogen effects are prevented by simultaneous treatment with estradiol or reversed by addition of estradiol to cells incubated in antiestrogen. Responsive cell lines contain high-affinity specific estradiol receptors. Antiestrogens compete with estradiol for these receptors but have a lower apparent affinity for the receptor than estrogens. Stimulation of cells by estrogens is biphasic, with inhibition and cell death at concentrations of 17beta-estradiol or diethylstilbestrol exceeding 10(-7) M. Killing by high concentrations of estrogen is probably a nonspecific effect in that we observe this response with 17alpha-estradiol at equivalent concentrations and in the otherwise unresponsive cells that contain no estrogen receptor sites.  (+info)

(3/42895) The effects of glucocorticoids and progesterone on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture.

Glucocorticoids, at physiological concentration, inhibit cell division and thymidine incorporation in three lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture. At steroid concentrations sufficient to inhibit thymidine incorporation 50%, little or no effect is seen on protein synthesis 48 hr after hormone addition. All three of these lines are shown to have glucocorticoid receptors demonstrable by competitive protein binding assays. Receptors are extensively characterized in one line by sucrose density gradient analysis and binding specificity studies. Good correlation between receptor-binding specificity and biological activity is found except for progesterone, which binds to glucocorticoid receptor but is noninhibitory. Cross-competition and quantification studies demonstrate a separate receptor for progesterone. This receptor has limited binding specificities restricted largely to progestational agents, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor bound both glucocorticoids and progesterone. Two other human breast cancer lines neither contain glucocorticoid receptor nor are inhibited by glucocorticoids. It is concluded that in some cases glucocorticoids can directly limit growth in human breast cancer in vitro without requiring alterations in other trophic hormones.  (+info)

(4/42895) The effects of androgens and antiandrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture.

We have examined five human breast cancer cell lines in continuous tissue culture for androgen responsiveness. One of these cell lines shows a 2- to 4-fold stimulation of thymidine incorporation into DNA, apparent as early as 10 hr following androgen addition to cells incubated in serum-free medium. This stimulation is accompanied by an acceleration in cell replication. Antiandrogens [cyproterone acetate (6-chloro-17alpha-acetate-1,2alpha-methylene-4,6-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) and R2956 (17beta-hydroxy-2,2,17alpha-trimethoxyestra-4,9,11-triene-1-one)] inhibit both protein and DNA synthesis below control levels and block androgen-mediated stimulation. Prolonged incubation (greater than 72 hr) in antiandrogen is lethal. The MCF- cell line contains high-affinity receptors for androgenic steroids demonstrable by sucrose density gradients and competitive protein binding analysis. By cross-competition studies, androgen receptors are distinguishable from estrogen receptors also found in this cell line. Concentrations of steroid that saturate androgen receptor sites in vitro are about 1000 times lower than concentrations that maximally stimulate the cells. Changes in quantity and affinity of androgen binding to intact cells at 37 degrees as compared with usual binding techniques using cytosol preparation at 0 degrees do not explain this difference between dissociation of binding and effect. However, this difference can be explained by conversion of [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone to 5alpha-androstanediol and more polar metabolites at 37 degrees. An examination of incubation media, cytoplasmic extracts and crude nuclear pellets reveals probable conversion of [3H]testosterone to [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Our data provide compelling evidence that some human breast cancer, at least in vitro, may be androgen dependent.  (+info)

(5/42895) Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530.

Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases.  (+info)

(6/42895) Growth inhibition of breast cancer cells by Grb2 downregulation is correlated with inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, cells.

Increased breast cancer growth has been associated with increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Upon activation, RTKs may transmit their oncogenic signals by binding to the growth factor receptor bound protein-2 (Grb2), which in turn binds to SOS and activates the Ras/Raf/MEK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. Grb2 is important for the transformation of fibroblasts by EGFR and ErbB2; however, whether Grb2 is also important for the proliferation of breast cancer cells expressing these RTKs is unclear. We have used liposomes to deliver nuclease-resistant antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (oligos) specific for the GRB2 mRNA to breast cancer cells. Grb2 protein downregulation could inhibit breast cancer cell growth; the degree of growth inhibition was dependent upon the activation and/or endogenous levels of the RTKs. Grb2 inhibition led to MAP kinase inactivation in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, breast cancer cells, suggesting that different pathways might be used by EGFR and ErbB2 to regulate breast cancer growth.  (+info)

(7/42895) Increased expression of fibroblast growth factor 8 in human breast cancer.

Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) is an important developmental protein which is oncogenic and able to cooperate with wnt-1 to produce mouse mammary carcinoma. The level of expression of FGF8 mRNA was measured in 68 breast cancers and 24 non-malignant breast tissues. Elevated levels of FGF8 mRNA were found in malignant compared to non-malignant breast tissues with significantly more malignant tissues expressing FGF8 (P=0.019) at significantly higher levels (P=0.031). In situ hybridization of breast cancer tissues and analysis of purified populations of normal epithelial cells and breast cancer cell lines showed that malignant epithelial cells expressed FGF8 mRNA at high levels compared to non-malignant epithelial and myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts. Although two of the receptors which FGF8 binds to (FGFR2-IIIc, FGFR3-IIIc) are not expressed in breast cancer cells, an autocrine activation loop is possible since expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 4 and FGFR1 are retained in malignant epithelial cells. This is the first member of the FGF family to have increased expression in breast cancer and a potential autocrine role in its progression.  (+info)

(8/42895) Estrogen-dependent and independent activation of the P1 promoter of the p53 gene in transiently transfected breast cancer cells.

Loss of p53 function by mutational inactivation is the most common marker of the cancerous phenotype. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated 17 beta estradiol (E2) induction of p53 protein expression in breast cancer cells. Although direct effects of E2 on the expression of p53 gene are not known, the steroid is a potent regulator of c-Myc transcription. In the present studies, we have examined the ability of E2 and antiestrogens to regulate the P1 promoter of the p53 gene which contains a c-Myc responsive element. Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive T47D and MCF-7 cells were transiently transfected with the P1CAT reporter plasmid and levels of CAT activity in response to serum, E2 and antiestrogens were monitored. Factors in serum were noted to be the dominant inducers of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) expression in MCF-7 cells. The levels of CAT were drastically reduced when cells were maintained in serum free medium (SFM). However, a subtle ER-mediated induction of CAT expression was detectable when MCF-7 cells, cultured in SFM, were treated with E2. In serum-stimulated T47D cells, the CAT expression was minimal. The full ER antagonist, ICI 182 780 (ICI) had no effect. Treatment with E2 or 4-hydroxy tamoxifen (OHT) resulted in P1CAT induction; OHT was more effective than E2. Consistent with c-Myc regulation of the P1 promoter, E2 stimulated endogenous c-Myc in both cell lines. Two forms of c-Myc were expressed independent of E2 stimuli. The expression of a third more rapidly migrating form was E2-dependent and ER-mediated since it was blocked by the full ER antagonist, ICI, but not by the ER agonist/antagonist OHT. These data demonstrate both ER-mediated and ER-independent regulation of c-Myc and the P1 promoter of the p53 gene, and show differential effects of the two classes of antiestrogens in their ability to induce the P1 promoter of the p53 gene in breast cancer cells.  (+info)



metastatic breast cancer


  • PURPOSE: This randomized phase II trial is studying how well paclitaxel works when given together with or without sorafenib in treating patients with locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Compare progression-free survival of patients with locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer treated with sorafenib tosylate and paclitaxel versus placebo and paclitaxel as first-line therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this phase II study, the Investigators will combine metronomic capecitabine with digoxin to treat metastatic breast cancer patients who have progressed on both anthracyclines and taxanes. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Mastectomy


  • This is a registry for patients who have a risk-reduction mastectomy ('prophylactic mastectomy') due to being at high risk for developing breast cancer, followed by breast reconstruction. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients are stratified according to center, type of surgery (mastectomy vs local excision), and breast boost (yes vs no). (clinicaltrials.gov)

Lapatinib


  • This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of Akt inhibitor MK2206 and lapatinib ditosylate when given together with trastuzumab in treating patients with locally advanced or metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive breast, gastric, or gastroesophageal cancer that cannot be removed by surgery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study will examine the inhibition of ErbB1 and ErbB2 phosphorylation and downstream mediators of tumor cell growth and survival tumor tissue in treatment-naive breast cancer patients for three dosing schedules of lapatinib. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Comparison of the effects of 3 dosing schedules of lapatinib on biomarkers involved in regulating tumor cell proliferation and survival in pre-treatment and post-treatment breast tumor tissue samples. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Assessment of safety & tolerability of lapatinib at multiple doses when administered to patients who have not have not been treated for breast tumors. (clinicaltrials.gov)

BRCA2


  • These pathways complement our catalog of research reagents for the study of Malignant Neoplasm Of Breast including antibodies and ELISA kits against AKT1, BCL2, BRCA1, BRCA2, CDKN1A. (novusbio.com)
  • Some women get breast cancer because they are born with an abnormal copy of a gene called BRCA1 or BRCA2. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Women with breast cancer and an abnormal copy of BRCA1 or BRCA2 also have a higher chance of getting a second breast cancer in their other breast. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Cyclophosphamide


  • PURPOSE: This randomized phase II trial is studying paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and pegfilgrastim to compare how well they work when given with or without bevacizumab in treating women with inflammatory or locally advanced breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To compare the efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy comprising docetaxel, fluorouracil, epirubicin hydrochloride, and cyclophosphamide with versus without bevacizumab in patients with HER2-negative nonmetastatic breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Advanced Breast Cancer


  • The main objectives of the study are to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug at different dose levels in the patients with Advanced Breast Cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Female patients with histopathologically /cytologically confirmed advanced breast cancer, refractory / recurrent* to previous anthracycline treatment as adjuvant or first line therapy for metastasis. (clinicaltrials.gov)

among breast cancer survivors


  • This cross-sectional prevalence study seeks to investigate the incidence and severity of oral health changes, specifically of periodontal conditions, among breast cancer survivors and the ways in which these outcomes affect their quality of life. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this study, the investigators will examine whether adding acupuncture to a nutrition education program for weight loss could improve short and long term weight loss among breast cancer survivors post treatment with chemotherapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)

histologically


  • A histologically confirmed, treatment-naive, breast tumor measuring 1 cm or greater that can be readily biopsied. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Radiotherapy


  • The purpose of this study is to use the low power laser in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy treatment to evaluate the effects of Laser InGaAIP 660Nm in preventing radiodermatitis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Determine the benefits of radiotherapy schedules using fraction sizes larger than 2.0 Gy in terms of normal tissue responses, local-regional tumor control, quality of life, and economic consequences in women prescribed postoperative radiotherapy for early stage breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)

chemotherapy


  • Mattioli R, Gridelli C, Castellanos J, Duque A, Falcone A, Mansutti M, Bacon P, Lawrinson S, Skacel T, Casas A. Use of pegfilgrastim support on day 9 to maintain relative dose intensity of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients receiving a day 1 and 8 CMF regimen. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It is not yet known whether giving combination chemotherapy together with or without bevacizumab is more effective in treating patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying how well giving combination chemotherapy works compared with giving combination chemotherapy together with bevacizumab in treating patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study looks at the benefit of adding acupuncture to nutrition education for weight loss in women with early stage breast cancer post-chemotherapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)

quality of l


  • Compare the change from baseline in the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for Breast Cancer quality of life assessment score in patients treated with these regimens. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To determine the oral health-related quality of life among postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer who are receiving adjuvant AI therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)

axillary


  • Pathologic complete response (pCR), commonly defined as the absence of residual invasive cancer in both the breast and axillary lymph nodes, has emerged as a surrogate endpoint for disease-free and overall survival, as the achievement of a pCR is associated with a favorable long-term prognosis in all breast cancer subtypes. (clinicaltrials.gov)

pegfilgrastim


  • The purpose of this study is to assess the relative dose intensity (RDI) of intravenous (IV) CMF on a Day 1 and 8 schedule given every 28 days with pegfilgrastim support in subjects with stage I-III breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)

adjuvant


  • To determine the prevalence and severity of oral conditions in postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer using adjuvant AI therapy as compared to postmenopausal women not using adjuvant AI therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Drug


  • If tissue sampling permits, the investigators may use some of the breast cancer tissue to develop models for human cancer for drug targeting. (clinicaltrials.gov)

patients


  • Patients, dental professionals and medical oncologists will benefit from a greater understanding of the best oral care follow up practices of breast cancer survivors using aromatase inhibitors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Eligible patients include those who have a breast cancer-related gene, a strong family history of breast cancer, or a personal history of high-risk conditions such as cancer in the other breast or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients are enrolled from the plastic surgery, breast surgery, or oncology clinics at Georgetown University Hospital who are at elevated risk for breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients at an elevated risk for breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The investigators will use blood, urine, and tissue samples from patients with Pregnancy Associated Breast Cancer (PABC) versus non-PABC, as well as comparing different types of breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A breast boost is recommended in all arms for patients with microscopic evidence of invasive or in situ cancer at, or within 1 mm of, a resection margin. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Radiation Therapy


  • Radiation therapy is a key component in the treatment of breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Had prior radiation therapy to the chest to treat this incidence of breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It is not yet known which regimen of radiation therapy is more effective following surgery for breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • PURPOSE: Randomized phase III trial to compare the effectiveness of two different regimens of radiation therapy following surgery in treating women who have early stage breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)

diagnosed with breast cancer


  • Genetic testing may be done right after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Women who are between the ages of 18 and 49 who have been diagnosed with breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This information will include whether they have been diagnosed with breast cancer in the previous year. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Genetic


  • Because of this, women who might have a mutation may have genetic testing soon after their breast cancer diagnosis to learn about their risks of getting another cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Researchers have been looking at cells found in breast milk to study genetic changes related to breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Comparing the results of genetic tests will help improve understanding of breast cancer risk in all women. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To study genetic changes related to breast lesions, including breast cancer, in African American women. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Male


treatment


  • Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer will decide whether to undergo BRCA testing either before or after completion of local surgical treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Understanding the immune response and suppression in different types of cancer will help us understand mechanisms involved in breast cancer better and help the investigators in developing new treatment in the future. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It is not yet known which treatment regimen is more effective in treating women with breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Received treatment for breast cancer, and treatment must have been completed at least 2 weeks prior to enrollment in trial, but no longer than 1 year post-treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)

participants


  • After the box is returned, participants will be asked to provide a copy of the biopsy report for any breast biopsies they have had. (clinicaltrials.gov)

second


Research


  • Research of Malignant Neoplasm Of Breast has been linked to Malignant Neoplasms, Mammary Neoplasms, Neoplasms, Carcinoma, Neoplasm Metastasis. (novusbio.com)
  • The study of Malignant Neoplasm Of Breast has been mentioned in research publications which can be found using our bioinformatics tool below. (novusbio.com)
  • A new study wants to collect breast milk samples from African American women for further research. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Condition


  • Any known autoimmune condition, chronic steroid use, underlying immune disease (other than breast cancer), use of immunomodulatory prescription drugs for any medical condition. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Type


  • Diagnosed with another type of cancer within 5 years except for breast cancer, cervical or non-melanomatous skin cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)

samples


years


  • African American women at least 18 years of age who are nursing a baby and who either have had or are being considered for a breast biopsy. (clinicaltrials.gov)

different


  • The investigators will be looking at the level of immune suppression in different types of breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)

risk


  • At present, women do not have very accurate tests to inform of them of their personal risk of developing breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • More information on the changes associated with both benign and cancerous breast lesions will help develop better risk information. (clinicaltrials.gov)

note


  • NOTE: *In cases with multifocal disease in one breast, or bilateral disease, the size to be used for the stratification is the sum of the single largest diameter of all measurable tumors. (clinicaltrials.gov)

learn


  • This study plans to learn more about the immune system's response to breast cancer in young women. (clinicaltrials.gov)