Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Personality Disorders: A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Paranoid Personality Disorder: A personality disorder characterized by the avoidance of accepting deserved blame and an unwarranted view of others as malevolent. The latter is expressed as suspiciousness, hypersensitivity, and mistrust.Personality Tests: Standardized objective tests designed to facilitate the evaluation of personality.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Dependent Personality Disorder: A personality disorder characterized by a pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Countertransference (Psychology): Conscious or unconscious emotional reaction of the therapist to the patient which may interfere with treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Compulsive Personality Disorder: Disorder characterized by an emotionally constricted manner that is unduly conventional, serious, formal, and stingy, by preoccupation with trivial details, rules, order, organization, schedules, and lists, by stubborn insistence on having things one's own way without regard for the effects on others, by poor interpersonal relationships, and by indecisiveness due to fear of making mistakes.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder: A personality disorder characterized by an indirect resistance to demands for adequate social and occupational performance; anger and opposition to authority and the expectations of others that is expressed covertly by obstructionism, procrastination, stubbornness, dawdling, forgetfulness, and intentional inefficiency. (Dorland, 27th ed)Transference (Psychology): The unconscious transfer to others (including psychotherapists) of feelings and attitudes which were originally associated with important figures (parents, siblings, etc.) in one's early life.Identification (Psychology): A process by which an individual unconsciously endeavors to pattern himself after another. This process is also important in the development of the personality, particularly the superego or conscience, which is modeled largely on the behavior of adult significant others.Dissociative Disorders: Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.Impulse Control Disorders: Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.Psychoanalytic Therapy: A form of psychiatric treatment, based on Freudian principles, which seeks to eliminate or diminish the undesirable effects of unconscious conflicts by making the patient aware of their existence, origin, and inappropriate expression in current emotions and behavior.Psychoanalytic Theory: Conceptual system developed by Freud and his followers in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior.Identity Crisis: Chaotic concept of self wherein one's role in life appears to be an insoluble dilemma often expressed by isolation, withdrawal, rebellion and extremism.Personality Development: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Personal Construct Theory: A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Crisis Intervention: Brief therapeutic approach which is ameliorative rather than curative of acute psychiatric emergencies. Used in contexts such as emergency rooms of psychiatric or general hospitals, or in the home or place of crisis occurrence, this treatment approach focuses on interpersonal and intrapsychic factors and environmental modification. (APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Schizoid Personality Disorder: A personality disorder manifested by a profound defect in the ability to form social relationships, no desire for social involvement, and an indifference to praise or criticism.Psychopathology: The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Object Attachment: Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Suicidal Ideation: A risk factor for suicide attempts and completions, it is the most common of all suicidal behavior, but only a minority of ideators engage in overt self-harm.Hostility: Tendency to feel anger toward and to seek to inflict harm upon a person or group.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Histrionic Personality Disorder: A personality disorder characterized by overly reactive and intensely expressed or overly dramatic behavior, proneness to exaggeration, emotional excitability, and disturbances in interpersonal relationships.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Paranoid Behavior: Behavior exhibited by individuals who are overly suspicious, but without the constellation of symptoms characteristic of paranoid personality disorder or paranoid type of schizophrenia.Human Characteristics: The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Self Mutilation: The act of injuring one's own body to the extent of cutting off or permanently destroying a limb or other essential part of a body.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Psychotherapy, Psychodynamic: Forms of PSYCHOTHERAPY falling within or deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition, that view individuals as reacting to unconscious forces (e.g., motivation, drive), that focus on processes of change and development, and that place a premium on self understanding and making meaning of what is unconscious.Extraversion (Psychology): A state in which attention is largely directed outward from the self.Ego: The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Sociometric Techniques: Methods for quantitatively assessing and measuring interpersonal and group relationships.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Child Abuse, Sexual: Sexual maltreatment of the child or minor.Anxiety, Separation: Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.Narcissism: A psychoanalytic term meaning self-love.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Psychotherapy, Group: A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.Anger: A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.Emergency Services, Psychiatric: Organized services to provide immediate psychiatric care to patients with acute psychological disturbances.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Character: In current usage, approximately equivalent to personality. The sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of response of an individual.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Criminals: Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Forensic Psychiatry: Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.
Girl, Interrupted: Girl, Interrupted is a best-sellingThe Unconfessional Confessionalist, Time Magazine, July 11, 1994 1993 memoir by American author Susanna Kaysen, relating her experiences as a young woman in a psychiatric hospital in the 1960s after being diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. The memoir's title is a reference to the Vermeer painting Girl Interrupted at her Music.Personality disorder not otherwise specifiedConscientiousness: Conscientiousness is the personality trait of being thorough, careful, or vigilant. Conscientiousness implies a desire to do a task well.Schizotypy: In psychology, schizotypy is a theory stating that there is a continuum of personality characteristics and experiences ranging from normal dissociative, imaginative states to more extreme states related to psychosis and in particular, schizophrenia. This is in contrast to a categorical view of psychosis, where psychosis is considered to be a particular (usually pathological) state, that someone either has, or has not.History of psychopathy: Psychopathy, from psych (soul or mind) and pathy (suffering or disease), was coined by German psychiatrists in the 19th century and originally just meant what would today be called mental disorder, the study of which is still known as psychopathology. By the turn of the century 'psychopathic inferiority' referred to the type of mental disorder that might now be termed personality disorder, along with a wide variety of other conditions now otherwise classified.SchizophreniaHostile dependency: According to the work of Knight Aldrich (1966), hostile dependency is a relationship orientation characterized by the need of relationship members to be dependent on a partner who is hostile or mistrusting of other people.Barratt WaughRole suction: Role suction is a term introduced in the United States by Fritz Redl in the mid-20th century to describe the power of a social group to allocate roles willy-nilly to its members. W.Obsessive–compulsive personality disorderMartin Weaver: Martin Weaver is a psychotherapist, author and media writerThe Tea Party discography: This is the discography for Canadian hard rock group The Tea Party.Dissociative disorder not otherwise specifiedKleptomaniaRichard Bromfield: Richard Bromfield, Ph.D.Paul Ferdinand Schilder: Paul Ferdinand Schilder (February 15, 1886, Vienna – December 7, 1940, New York City) was an Austrian psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, researcher and author of numerous scientific publications. He was a pupil of Sigmund Freud.Interpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).Emotion and memory: Emotion can have a powerful response on humans and animals. Numerous studies have shown that the most vivid autobiographical memories tend to be of emotional events, which are likely to be recalled more often and with more clarity and detail than neutral events.Ontario Correctional ServicesComorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Dog aggression: Dog aggression is a term used by dog owners and breeders to describe canine-to-canine antipathy. Aggression itself is usually defined by canine behaviorists as "the intent to do harm".Timothy's Law: Timothy's Law is the reference used for a New York state statute signed into law on December 22, 2006 by Governor George E. Pataki which took effect January 1, 2007.John Hinckley, Jr.Developmental psychopathology: Developmental psychopathology is the study of the development of psychological disorders, such as psychopathy, autism, schizophrenia and depression, with a lifecourse perspective.Cicchetti, D.Bipolar disorderMental disorderHyperthymic temperament: Hyperthymic temperament, or hyperthymia, from Greek hyper ("over", meaning here excessive) + θυμός ("spirited"), is a proposed personality type characterized by an excessively positive disposition similar to, but more stable than, the hypomania of bipolar disorder.Cynicism (contemporary): Cynic}}BrexpiprazoleOneirology: Oneirology (; from Greek [oneiron, "dream"; and -λογία], ["the study of") is the scientific study of [[dream]s. Current research seeks correlations between dreaming and current knowledge about the functions of the brain, as well as understanding of how the brain works during dreaming as pertains to memory formation and mental disorders.Garry DavidSubstance-related disorderDavid Budescu: David Budescu is a psychologist and academic. He is the Anne Anastasi Professor of Psychometrics and Quantitative Psychology at Fordham University.Skyland Trail: Skyland Trail is a private, not-for profit organization in Atlanta, Georgia offering treatment to adults with mental illness. Skyland Trail specializes in treating adults with Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia, Depression, and Dual Diagnosis.Conspiracy Theory (film)Human Nature (America album): Human Nature is the fourteenth original studio album by American folk rock duo America, released by Oxygen Records in 1998 (see 1998 in music). It was their first new studio album since 1994's "Hourglass".Mass of the Phoenix: The Mass of the Phoenix is a single person ritual within Thelema, a philosophy and religion created and organized by author and occultist Aleister Crowley. The Mass was first printed as Chapter 44 in Crowley's The Book of Lies, published in 1913.Ego (religion)Biosignal: A biosignal is any signal in living beings that can be continually measured and monitored. The term biosignal is often used to refer to bioelectrical signals, but it may refer to both electrical and non-electrical signals.List of awards and nominations received by Genesis: The following list includes all the awards and nominations received by the English rock band Genesis. This does not include any awards or nominations received for solo works or other group activities.Teenage suicide in the United States: Teenage suicide in the United States remains comparatively high in the 15 to 24 age group with 10,000 suicides in this age range in 2004, making it the third leading cause of death for those aged 15 to 24. By comparison, suicide is the 11th leading cause of death for all those age 10 and over, with 33,289 suicides for all US citizens in 2006.Survivors Healing Center: The Survivors Healing Center is a not-for-profit located in Santa Cruz County, California. Founded in 1987, its mission is to provide services for survivors of childhood sexual abuse and educate the public and service agencies about the issue.Maternal bond: A maternal bond or motherly bond is generally the relationship between a mother and her child.Healthy narcissism: Healthy narcissism is a concept that developed slowly out of the psychoanalytic tradition, and became popular in the late twentieth century.Cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is derived from both the cognitive and behavioral schools of psychology and focuses on the alteration of thoughts and actions with the goal of treating various disorders. The cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders emphasizes the minimization of negative thoughts about body image and the act of eating, and attempts to alter negative and harmful behaviors that are involved in and perpetuate eating disorders.The Newtown Neurotics: The Newtown Neurotics (later just The Neurotics) are an English punk rock/post-punk group formed in 1979. They are noted for their openly political music.Thermal grill illusion: The thermal grill illusion is a sensory illusion originally demonstrated in 1896 by the Swedish physician Torsten Thunberg. The illusion is created by an interlaced grill of warm (e.The Otwell Twins: The Otwell Twins are an American singing duo made up of identical twin brothers Roger and David, born August 2, 1956, in Tulia, Texas. They are best known as members of The Lawrence Welk Show from 1977-1982.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Eating Disorder Inventory: The Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) is a self-report questionnaire used to assess the presence of eating disorders, (a) Anorexia Nervosa both restricting and binge-eating/purging type; (b) Bulimia Nervosa; and (c) Eating disorder not otherwise specified including Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The original questionnaire consisted of 64 questions, divided into eight subscales.Hypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.Angels Anger Overkill: Angels Anger Overkill is In Strict Confidence's 3rd full-length album.Emergency psychiatrySocial anxiety disorderTwin reversed arterial perfusionGeneralizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Law: The Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Law (麻薬及び向精神薬取締法 Mayaki oyobi kousei shin'yaku torishimari hou) is a law enacted in Japan in 1953 to control most narcotic and psychotropic drugs.Temperament and Character Inventory: The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is an inventory for personality traits devised by Cloninger et al.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Community mental health service: Community mental health services (CMHS), also known as Community Mental Health Teams (CMHT) in the United Kingdom, support or treat people with mental disorders (mental illness or mental health difficulties) in a domiciliary setting, instead of a psychiatric hospital (asylum). The array of community mental health services vary depending on the country in which the services are provided.FBI Criminal Investigative Division: The Criminal Investigative Division (CID) is a division within the Criminal, Cyber, Response, and Services Branch of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The CID is the primary component within the FBI responsible for overseeing FBI investigations of traditional crimes such as narcotics trafficking and violent crime.Video tape tracking: In a video tape recorder, tracking is a calibration adjustment which ensures that the spinning playback head is properly aligned with the helical scan signal written onto the tape.
(1/313) An unstable trinucleotide-repeat region on chromosome 13 implicated in spinocerebellar ataxia: a common expansion locus.
Larger CAG/CTG trinucleotide-repeat tracts in individuals affected with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) in comparison with control individuals have previously been reported, implying a possible etiological role for trinucleotide repeats in these diseases. Two unstable CAG/CTG repeats, SEF2-1B and ERDA1, have recently been cloned, and studies indicate that the majority of individuals with large repeats as detected by repeat-expansion detection (RED) have large repeat alleles at these loci. These repeats do not show association of large alleles with either BPAD or SCZ. Using RED, we have identified a BPAD individual with a very large CAG/CTG repeat that is not due to expansion at SEF2-1B or ERDA1. From this individual's DNA, we have cloned a highly polymorphic trinucleotide repeat consisting of (CTA)n (CTG)n, which is very long ( approximately 1,800 bp) in this patient. The repeat region localizes to chromosome 13q21, within 1.2 cM of fragile site FRA13C. Repeat alleles in our sample were unstable in 13 (5.6%) of 231 meioses. Large alleles (>100 repeats) were observed in 14 (1. 25%) of 1,120 patients with psychosis, borderline personality disorder, or juvenile-onset depression and in 5 (.7%) of 710 healthy controls. Very large alleles were also detected for Centre d'Etude Polymorphisme Humaine (CEPH) reference family 1334. This triplet expansion has recently been reported to be the cause of spinocerebellar ataxia type 8 (SCA8); however, none of our large alleles above the disease threshold occurred in individuals either affected by SCA or with known family history of SCA. The high frequency of large alleles at this locus is inconsistent with the much rarer occurrence of SCA8. Thus, it seems unlikely that expansion alone causes SCA8; other genetic mechanisms may be necessary to explain SCA8 etiology. (+info)
(2/313) Attentional mechanisms of borderline personality disorder.
We consider whether disruption of a specific neural circuit related to self-regulation is an underlying biological deficit in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Because patients with BPD exhibit a poor ability to regulate negative affect, we hypothesized that brain mechanisms thought to be involved in such self-regulation would function abnormally even in situations that seem remote from the symptoms exhibited by these patients. To test this idea, we compared the efficiency of attentional networks in BPD patients with controls who were matched to the patients in having very low self-reported effortful control and very high negative emotionality and controls who were average in these two temperamental dimensions. We found that the patients exhibited significantly greater difficulty in their ability to resolve conflict among stimulus dimensions in a purely cognitive task than did average controls but displayed no deficit in overall reaction time, errors, or other attentional networks. The temperamentally matched group did not differ significantly from either group. A significant correlation was found between measures of the ability to control conflict in the reaction-time task and self-reported effortful control. (+info)
(3/313) Fluvoxamine reduces responsiveness of HPA axis in adult female BPD patients with a history of sustained childhood abuse.
The aim of the study is to test whether fluvoxamine affects the function of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in female borderline (borderline personality disorder, BPD) patients with and without a history of sustained childhood abuse. Special attention is given to the presence of comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The HPA axis of 30 female BPD patients with (n = 17) and without (n = 13) a history of sustained childhood abuse was challenged with a combined dexamethasone and corticotropin releasing hormone test (DEX/CRH test) before and after 6 (n = 14) and 12 (n = 16) weeks of fluvoxamine treatment (150 mg/day). Both 6- and 12-week fluvoxamine treatments were associated with a significant and robust reduction of the adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol response to the DEX/CRH test. The magnitude of the reduction was dependent on the presence of sustained childhood abuse, but not on the presence of comorbid MDD or PTSD: patients with a history of sustained childhood abuse showed the strongest reduction in ACTH and cortisol. In conclusion, Fluvoxamine treatment reduces the hyperresponsiveness of the HPA axis in BPD patients with a history of sustained childhood abuse. This effect is likely to be obtained in the first 6 weeks of treatment. (+info)
(4/313) Dialectical behaviour therapy for women with borderline personality disorder: 12-month, randomised clinical trial in The Netherlands.
BACKGROUND: Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is widely considered to be a promising treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, the evidence for its efficacy published thus far should be regarded as preliminary. AIMS: To compare the effectiveness of DBT with treatment as usual for patients with BPD and to examine the impact of baseline severity on effectiveness. METHOD: Fifty-eight women with BPD were randomly assigned to either 12 months of DBT or usual treatment in a randomised controlled study. Participants were recruited through clinical referrals from both addiction treatment and psychiatric services. Outcome measures included treatment retention and the course of suicidal, self-mutilating and self-damaging impulsive behaviours. RESULTS: Dialectical behaviour therapy resulted in better retention rates and greater reductions of self-mutilating and self-damaging impulsive behaviours compared with usual treatment, especially among those with a history of frequent self-mutilation. CONCLUSIONS: Dialectical behaviour therapy is superior to usual treatment in reducing high-risk behaviours in patients with BPD. (+info)
(5/313) 'Still-face' interactions between mothers with borderline personality disorder and their 2-month-old infants.
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that psychopathology in mothers may be associated with dysfunctional mother-infant interactions. AIMS: To investigate mother-infant relations when mothers have borderline personality disorder. METHOD: Eight mothers with borderline personality disorder and twelve mothers without psychiatric disorder were videotaped interacting with their 2-month-old infants in three successive phases of interaction: face-to-face play; an episode when the mother adopted a 'still face' and was unreactive; and a period when play interactions were resumed. The videotapes were rated by judges blind to the diagnostic group of the mother. RESULTS: The mothers with borderline personality disorder were more intrusively insensitive towards their infants. During the still-face period, their infants showed increased looking away and dazed looks. Following this, mother-infant interactions were less satisfying and their infants showed dazed looks and lowering of affect. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of borderline personality disorder is associated with a particular pattern of mother-infant interaction. The infants' responses to the still-face challenge might suggest dysfunctional self-regulation, but the developmental significance remains to be assessed. (+info)
(6/313) Dopamine dysfunction in borderline personality disorder: a hypothesis.
Research on the biological basis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has focused primarily on the serotonin model of impulsive aggression. However, there is evidence that dopamine (DA) dysfunction may also be associated with BPD. Pertinent research and review articles, identified by Medline searches of relevant topics, books, references from bibliographies, and conference proceedings from 1975 to 2003, were reviewed. Evidence of DA dysfunction in BPD derives from the efficacy of traditional and atypical antipsychotic agents in BPD, and from provocative challenges with amphetamine and methylphenidate of subjects with the disorder. In addition, human and animal studies indicate that DA activity plays an important role in emotion information processing, impulse control, and cognition. The results of this review suggest that DA dysfunction is associated with three dimensions of BPD, that is, emotional dysregulation, impulsivity, and cognitive-perceptual impairment. The main limitation of this hypothesis is that the evidence reviewed is circumstantial. There is no study that directly demonstrates DA dysfunction in BPD. In addition, the therapeutic effects of antipsychotic agents observed in BPD may be mediated by non-DA mechanisms of action. If the stated hypothesis is correct, DA dysfunction in BPD may result from genetic, developmental, or environmental factors directly affecting specific DA pathways. Alternatively, DA dysfunction in BPD may be a compensatory response to alterations in the primary neural systems that control emotion, impulse control, and cognition, and that are mediated by the brain's main neurotransmitters, glutamate, and GABA, or in one or more other neuromodulatory pathways such as serotonin, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine. (+info)
(7/313) Attachment studies with borderline patients: a review.
Clinical theorists have suggested that disturbed attachments are central to borderline personality disorder (BPD) psychopathology. This article reviews 13 empirical studies that examine the types of attachment found in individuals with this disorder or with dimensional characteristics of BPD. Comparison among the 13 studies is handicapped by the variety of measures and attachment types that these studies have employed. Nevertheless, every study concludes that there is a strong association between BPD and insecure attachment. The types of attachment found to be most characteristic of BPD subjects are unresolved, preoccupied, and fearful. In each of these attachment types, individuals demonstrate a longing for intimacy and--at the same time--concern about dependency and rejection. The high prevalence and severity of insecure attachments found in these adult samples support the central role of disturbed interpersonal relationships in clinical theories of BPD. This review concludes that these types of insecure attachment may represent phenotypic markers of vulnerability to BPD, suggesting several directions for future research. (+info)
(8/313) Positron emission tomography of regional brain metabolic responses to a serotonergic challenge in major depressive disorder with and without borderline personality disorder.
Previous neuroimaging studies of major depression have not controlled for the presence of personality disorders characterized by impulsive aggressive behavior, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using positron emission tomography (PET), we studied regional glucose uptake in response to fenfluramine (FEN) in depressed subjects with BPD (n=11) and depressed patients without Cluster B Axis II disorders (n=8). Subjects were scanned while medication-free after a single blind placebo administration and after FEN on a second day. Brain responses were measured by PET imaging of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and serial prolactin levels. Scans were compared at a voxel level using statistical parametric mapping. Correlations of changes in relative regional cerebral uptake (rCMRglu) with clinical measures were assessed. Depressed borderline patients had greater relative activity in parietotemporal cortical regions (BA 40, BA 22, and BA 42) before and after FEN activation compared to those without BPD. They also had less relative uptake in the anterior cingulate cortex (BA 32) at baseline compared to depressed patients without BPD and FEN abolished this difference. Impulsivity was positively correlated with rCMRglu in superior and middle frontal cortex (BA 6 and 44). Hostility was positively correlated with rCMRglu in temporal cortical regions (BA 21 and 22). In conclusions, borderline pathology in the context of a Major Depressive Disorder is associated with altered activity in parietotemporal and anterior cingulate cortical regions. Controlling for the presence of BPD in future imaging studies of mood disorders may elucidate similarities and differences in regional serotonergic function in these two often comorbid disorders. (+info)