Bombs: A weapon designed to explode when deployed. It frequently refers to a hollow case filled with EXPLOSIVE AGENTS.Nuclear Warfare: Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.Nuclear Weapons: A weapon that derives its destructive force from nuclear fission and/or fusion.Radioactive Fallout: The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Blast Injuries: Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.ExplosionsSurvival: Continuance of life or existence especially under adverse conditions; includes methods and philosophy of survival.JapanLeukemia, Radiation-Induced: Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.Radioactivity: The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Terrorism: The use or threatened use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of criminal laws for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom, in support of political or social objectives.World War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced: Congenital changes in the morphology of organs produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Explosive Agents: Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.Radiation Genetics: A subdiscipline of genetics that studies RADIATION EFFECTS on the components and processes of biological inheritance.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Radioactive Pollutants: Radioactive substances which act as pollutants. They include chemicals whose radiation is released via radioactive waste, nuclear accidents, fallout from nuclear explosions, and the like.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Neutrons: Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Europium: Europium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Eu, atomic number 63, and atomic weight 152. Europium is used in the form of its salts as coatings for cathode ray tubes and in the form of its organic derivatives as shift reagents in NMR spectroscopy.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Mass Casualty Incidents: Events that overwhelm the resources of local HOSPITALS and health care providers. They are likely to impose a sustained demand for HEALTH SERVICES rather than the short, intense peak customary with smaller scale disasters.Radioactive Hazard Release: Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.NevadaZebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Chernobyl Nuclear Accident: April 25th -26th, 1986 nuclear power accident that occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (Ukraine) located 80 miles north of Kiev.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
List of bombs: For a rather exhaustive international list of individual nuclear weapons and models see List of nuclear weaponsCultural treatments of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: This is a list of cultural products made about the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It includes literature, film, music and other art forms.List of states with nuclear weapons: There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons. Five are considered to be "nuclear-weapon states" (NWS) under the terms of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT).List of nuclear weapons tests: Nuclear weapons testing according to the standard definition used in treaty language for the space/time requirement is:Blast injury: A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from direct or indirect exposure to an explosion. Blast injuries occur with the detonation of high-order explosives as well as the deflagration of low order explosives.Spaceflight radiation carcinogenesisToronto propane explosionNiigata UniversityDecay productFatwa on Terrorism: The Fatwa on Terrorism and Suicide Bombings is a 600-page (Urdu version), 512-page (English version) Islamic decree by scholar Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri which demonstrates from the Quran and Sunnah that terrorism and suicide bombings are unjust and evil, and thus un-Islamic. It was published in London as a book.World War II in popular culture: There is a wide range of ways in which people have represented World War II in popular culture. Many works were created during the years of conflict and many more have arisen from that period of world history.Automatic exposure control: Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) is an X-ray exposure termination device. A medical radiography x-ray exposure is always initiated by a human operator.Explosive material: An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure. An explosive charge is a measured quantity of explosive material.Survivor Type: "Survivor Type" is a short story by Stephen King, first published in the 1982 horror anthology Terrors, edited by Charles L. Grant, and collected in King's 1985 collection Skeleton Crew.Quasielastic neutron scattering: Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) designates a limiting case of inelastic neutron scattering, characterized by energy transfers being small compared to the incident energy of the scattered particles.Notch signaling pathway: The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved cell signaling system present in most multicellular organisms.Europium(III) chlorideHECT domain: In molecular biology, the HECT domain is a protein domain found in ubiquitin-protein ligases. The name HECT comes from 'Homologous to the E6-AP Carboxyl Terminus'.Lifesaving Awards: The Royal Life Saving Society UK awards several lifesaving awards indicating competence and ability.List of nuclear and radiation accidents by death toll: There have been more than 20 nuclear and radiation accidents involving fatalities. These involved nuclear power plant accidents, nuclear submarine accidents, radiotherapy accidents and other mishaps.Irradiance: In radiometry (measurement of electromagnetic radiation), irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area, and spectral irradiance is the irradiance of a surface per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength. The SI unit of irradiance is the watt per square metre (), while that of spectral irradiance is the watt per square metre per hertz (W·m−2·Hz−1) or the watt per square metre per metre (W·m−3)—commonly the watt per square metre per nanometre ().Las Vegas Grammar School (Las Vegas Boulevard, Las Vegas, Nevada): The Las Vegas Grammar School on Las Vegas Boulevard, also known as the Historic Fifth Street School, is a school listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Nevada and is located in the city of Las Vegas. Built in 1936, the mission style building is the only one remaining from that era.Morphant: An organism which has been treated with a morpholino antisense oligo to temporarily knock down expression of a targeted gene is called a morphant.The Flash Chronicles
(1/30) Key factors for civilian injuries and deaths from exploding landmines and ordnance.
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for death or injury from landmines and ordnance in Kabul City, Afghanistan, so programs can target preventive actions. METHODS: Active surveillance in hospitals and communities for injuries and deaths from landmine and ordnance explosions in Kabul City. RESULTS: Of the 571 people the authors identified during the 25-month period, 161 suffered a traumatic amputation and 94 were killed from a landmine or ordnance explosion. Of those asked, 19% of victims had received mine awareness education before the incident, and of those, the majority was injured while handling or playing with an explosive device. Most victims were young males with a few years of education. The occupation types most at risk were students and laborers, and unemployment was common among the victims. Collecting wood or paper and playing with or handling an explosive were the most frequent activities associated with injuries and deaths. CONCLUSIONS: From May 1996 to July 1998, explosions from landmines and ordnance claimed 571 victims and were an important preventable cause of injury and death among people in Kabul City. Prevention strategies should focus on high-risk groups and changing risky behaviors, such as tampering with explosive devices. (+info)
(2/30) Scenario of a dirty bomb in an urban environment and acute management of radiation poisoning and injuries.
In the new security environment, there is a clear and present danger of terrorists using non-conventional weapons to inflict maximum psychological and economic damage on their targets. This article examines two scenarios of radiation contamination and injury, one accidental in nature leading to environmental contamination, and another of deliberate intent resulting in injury and death. This article also discusses the management of injury from radiological dispersion devices or dirty bombs, with emphasis on the immediate aftermath as well as strategy recommendations. (+info)
(3/30) Weapons of war--humanitarian and medical impact.
Most of us have patients who have loved ones living far away, sometimes in conflict zones or in other dangerous locations, and we share in the anxiety and distress that such situations bring to relatives. (+info)
(4/30) Bomb blast mass casualty incidents: initial triage and management of injuries.
Bomb blast injuries are no longer confined to battlefields. With the ever present threat of terrorism, we should always be prepared for bomb blasts. Bomb blast injuries tend to affect air-containing organs more, as the blast wave tends to exert a shearing force on air-tissue interfaces. Commonly-injured organs include the tympanic membranes, the sinuses, the lungs and the bowel. Of these, blast lung injury is the most challenging to treat. The clinical picture is a mix of acute respiratory distress syndrome and air embolism, and the institution of positive pressure ventilation in the presence of low venous pressures could cause systemic arterial air embolism. The presence of a tympanic membrane perforation is not a reliable indicator of the presence of a blast injury in the other air-containing organs elsewhere. Radiological imaging of the head, chest and abdomen help with the early identification of blast lung injury, head injury, abdominal injury, eye and sinus injuries, as well as any penetration by foreign bodies. In addition, it must be borne in mind that bomb blasts could also be used to disperse radiological and chemical agents. (+info)
(5/30) Terrorism-related perceived stress, adolescent depression, and social support from friends.
(6/30) Brain natriuretic peptide levels in six basic underwater demolitions/SEAL recruits presenting with swimming induced pulmonary edema (SIPE).
Swimming induced pulmonary edema (SIPE) is associated with both SCUBA diving and strenuous surface swimming; however, the majority of reported cases and clinically observed cases tend to occur during or after aggressive surface swimming. Capillary stress failure appears to be central to the pathophysiology of this disorder. Regional pulmonary capillaries are exposed to relatively high pressures secondary to increased vascular volume, elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance, and regional differences in perfusion secondary to forces of gravity and high cardiac output. Acute pulmonary edema can be classified as either cardiogenic or noncardiogenic or both. Cardiogenic pulmonary edema occurs when the pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure exceeds plasma oncotic pressure. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema occurs when pulmonary capillary permeability is increased. Given the pathophysiology noted above, SIPE can be described as a cardiogenic pulmonary edema, at least in part, since an increased transalveolar pressure gradient has been implicated in the pathogenesis of SIPE. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is used in the clinical setting to differentiate cardiac from pulmonary sources of dyspnea, specifically to diagnose cardiogenic pulmonary edema. During clinical management, BNP levels were drawn on six BUD/S recruits simultaneously presenting with pulmonary complaints consistent with SIPE, after an extended surface bay swim. This paper analyzes that data after de-identification and reviews the pathophysiology and clinical management of SIPE. (+info)
(7/30) Clinically significant avoidance of public transport following the London bombings: travel phobia or subthreshold posttraumatic stress disorder?
(8/30) Profiles of referrals to a psychiatric service: a descriptive study of survivors of the Nairobi US Embassy terrorist bomb blast.
OBJECTIVE: To document the socio-demographic characteristics and psychiatric profiles of the survivors of the Nairobi United States Embassy terrorist bomb blast referred to a psychiatric and psychotherapy (counselling) service. METHOD: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Clinical interviews and structured questionnaires for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and stress were administered. Survivors of the bomb blast referred to a psychiatric and psychotherapy service one year or more after the bombing were included in the study. These survivors had been treated using psychopharmacotherapy and individualised (not group) therapy/counselling. RESULTS: Eighty-three consecutive referrals to a psychiatric service participated in this study. There were more males and the sample was generally well educated. The referrals made contact with the referring agency for a number of reasons including seeking psychological, financial and medical assistance. All the patients reported varying degrees of psychiatric symptoms and functional impairment on various aspects of social occupational functioning. High scores for PTSD and other related stress were recorded one or more years after the bombing. CONCLUSION: Although the survivors indicated that initial counselling following the blast had helped them, they still scored high on PTSD suggesting that clinically, the initial counselling had little, if any impact on the development of PTSD. There is need for a holistic approach to the management of psychotrauma in individuals. (+info)