Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Diagnostic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in examination.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Glycosuria: The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.GlycogenInsulin Infusion Systems: Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Glucose Transporter Type 3: A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Glucose Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions in which the BLOOD GLUCOSE cannot be maintained within the normal range, such as in HYPOGLYCEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA. Etiology of these disorders varies. Plasma glucose concentration is critical to survival for it is the predominant fuel for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Diabetic Diet: A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.PhlorhizinGlucose Dehydrogenases: D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.47; EC 1.1.1.118; EC 1.1.1.119 and EC 1.1.99.10.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Fructosamine: An amino sugar formed when glucose non-enzymatically reacts with the N-terminal amino group of proteins. The fructose moiety is derived from glucose by the "classical" Amadori rearrangement.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Pancreas, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activity of the pancreas. They can be either electromechanical, consisting of a glucose sensor, computer, and insulin pump or bioartificial, consisting of isolated islets of Langerhans in an artificial membrane.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Prediabetic State: The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).Insulin Lispro: Insulin that has been modified so that the B-chain contains a LYSINE at position 28 instead of a PROLINE and a PROLINE at position 29 instead of a LYSINE. It is used to manage BLOOD GLUCOSE levels in patients with TYPE 2 DIABETES.GlucosephosphatesTriglyceridesPlant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.MethylglucosidesCross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Glycogenolysis: The release of GLUCOSE from GLYCOGEN by GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE (phosphorolysis). The released glucose-1-phosphate is then converted to GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE by PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE before entering GLYCOLYSIS. Glycogenolysis is stimulated by GLUCAGON or EPINEPHRINE via the activation of PHOSPHORYLASE KINASE.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide: A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.AlloxanRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Glucose Solution, Hypertonic: Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mice, Inbred C57BLMetformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)Insulin, Long-Acting: Insulin formulations that contain substances that retard absorption thus extending the time period of action.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.PyruvatesDietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Sulfonylurea CompoundsInfusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Acarbose: An inhibitor of ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASES that retards the digestion and absorption of DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES in the SMALL INTESTINE.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.alpha-Glucosidases: Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Receptors, Glucagon: Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Proinsulin: A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Infusions, Subcutaneous: The administration of liquid medication or nutrients under the skin, usually over minutes or hours.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Incretins: Peptides which stimulate INSULIN release from the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS following oral nutrient ingestion, or postprandially.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Tolbutamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors: Compounds that suppress the degradation of INCRETINS by blocking the action of DIPEPTIDYL-PEPTIDASE IV. This helps to correct the defective INSULIN and GLUCAGON secretion characteristic of TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS by stimulating insulin secretion and suppressing glucagon release.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Trigonella: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Cinnamomum zeylanicum: The tree which is known for its bark which is sold as cinnamon. The oil contains about 65-80% cinnamaldehyde and 10% EUGENOL and many TERPENES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Insulin, Isophane: An intermediate-acting INSULIN preparation with onset time of 2 hours and duration of 24 hours. It is produced by crystallizing ZINC-insulin-PROTAMINES at neutral pH 7. Thus it is called neutral protamine Hagedorn for inventor Hans Christian Hagedorn.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Glucagon-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 5-20% of the islet cells. Alpha cells secrete GLUCAGON.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Clinical Alarms: Components of medical instrumentation used for physiological evaluation of patients, that signal when a threshold value is reached.HexosaminesGliclazide: An oral sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent which stimulates insulin secretion.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Sodium-Glucose Transport Proteins: Monosaccharide transport proteins that function as active symporters. They utilize SODIUM or HYDROGEN IONS to transport GLUCOSE across CELL MEMBRANES.Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (GTP): An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the conversion of GTP and oxaloacetate to GDP, phosphoenolpyruvate, and carbon dioxide. This reaction is part of gluconeogenesis in the liver. The enzyme occurs in both the mitochondria and cytosol of mammalian liver. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 4.1.1.32.Glycogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseRandom Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Sorbitol: A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2: A sodium-glucose transporter that is expressed in the luminal membrane of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULES.Deoxy SugarsCarbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Insulin, Regular, Pork: Regular insulin preparations that contain the SUS SCROFA insulin peptide sequence.

*  Blood Glucose Record

... you can use this printable sheet to record his or her blood glucose levels. ...
kidshealth.org/NicklausChildrens/en/parents/glucose-record.html

*  CONTOUR NEXT Blood Glucose Test Strips | Walgreens

Get free shipping at $35 and view promotions and reviews for CONTOUR NEXT Blood Glucose Test Strips ... CONTOUR NEXT Blood Glucose Test Strips at Walgreens. ...
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*  Know your blood glucose target range - Mayo Clinic

Staying in your blood glucose target range is a balancing act. ... Blood glucose monitors. *Blood pressure: Can it be higher in ... This week I would like to talk about the blood glucose target range. What should it be? A normal fasting blood glucose target ... Remember, blood glucose targets are targets. Diabetes is a balancing acting and blood glucoses will fluctuate; even ... Your healthcare provider may personalize your blood glucose target for specific medical conditions. Blood glucose targets ...
mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/expert-blog/blood-glucose-target-range/bgp-20056575

*  Best Blood Glucose Meter Buying Guide - Consumer Reports

... and other must-know topics in our blood glucose meter buying guide to make an informed choice. ... Shopping for a blood glucose meter? Read about types, features, ...
https://consumerreports.org/cro/blood-glucose-meters/buying-guide.htm?pn=1

*  Glucose level blood test Stock Photo & Stock Images | Bigstock

analysis, blood, care, diabetes, diabetic, digital, display, drop, equipment, exam, finger, glaucometer, glucose, gripping, ... Hands of a young patient with diabetes checking his blood sugar levels. Stock Photo ID: 21632684 ...
https://bigstockphoto.com/image-21632684/stock-photo-glucose-level-blood-test

*  Blood Glucose Test Strips Recall « CBS Boston

Abbott Diabetes Care announced a recall of blood glucose test strips. ... Ultima Blood Glucose Test Strips. Read details of the recall. ... Blood Glucose Test Strips Recall. December 22, 2010 1:57 PM. ...
boston.cbslocal.com/2010/12/22/blood-glucose-test-strips-recall/

*  Buying a Continuous Glucose Monitor (CGM): The Insurance Application - Blood Monitors - Diabetes | HealthCentral

Since each insurer within each state has their own requirements, you need to provide blood glucose logs and other documentation ... I will hit the goal of 6.5 A1c and see more flatline in my blood glucose. While my CDE, Judy, wears the Navigator, she ... Buying a Continuous Glucose Monitor (CGM): The Insurance Application. Ann Bartlett , Patient Expert ... There are three continuous glucose monitors on the market right now: Minimed Guardian Real Time CGM , the Freestyle Navigator ...
https://healthcentral.com/article/buying-a-continuous-glucose-monitor-cgm-the-insurance-application

*  Diabetes Q&A: Managing Blood Glucose, Bell's Palsy, and Stiff Shoulders - Diabetes | HealthCentral

As you suspect, blood glucose levels that are elevated in the range that you report that your son has, just don't fit with a ... 7.) My son consistently has high blood glucose levels. They range in the high 100's to 200 [mg/dL; 11.1 mmol/L], and even in ... You don't mention his blood glucose levels, and whether they changed at the time of the palsy or not. Pain in the legs, arms, ... Diabetes Q&A: Managing Blood Glucose, Bell's Palsy, and Stiff Shoulders. Bill Quick, M.D. , Health Professional ...
https://healthcentral.com/article/diabetes-qa-managing-blood-glucose-bells-palsy-and-stiff-shoulders

*  My first day of Blood Glucose testing

I finally got the blood glucose test going. I use the FreeStyle test kit.Mon 4/28/210412:00 No... ... My first day of Blood Glucose testing. Tuesday, April 29, 2014 I finally got the blood glucose test going. I use the FreeStyle ... and after reading a lot about nutrition and blood glucose control I've learnt what I mentioned before,so I thought it might be ... Normally the blood sugar test to see how food you eat is affecting you is 2 hours after you starting eating and the space ...
sparkpeople.com/mypage_public_journal_individual.asp?blog_id=5683169

*  Types of Blood Glucose Tests

There are several types of blood glucose tests used to both diagnose diabetes and treat it. Keep reading to learn about these ... Four types of blood glucose tests. Hemoglobin A1C. This test provides an overview of your blood sugar (glucose) level over a ... Fasting Blood Glucose (formerly called 'Fasting Blood Sugar' or FBS). As the name implies, you need to have this blood draw ... Random or casual blood glucose. This test is performed via blood draw at the lab when you're not fasting. It gives a glimpse ...
diabetesmonitor.com/education-center/diabetes-basics/types-of-blood-glucose-tests.htm

*  Integrating Insulin Delivery and Glucose Sensing in Subcutaneous Tissue for the Treatment of Type-1 Diabetic Patients - Full...

Current treatment of in type 1 diabetes comprises the measurement of glucose in capillary blood obtained by fingersticking and administration of exogenous insulin in the form of a subcutaneous bolus injection or subcutaneous infusion. This treatment could be simplified if there were a stable ratio between blood glucose concentration and tissue glucose level at the site of insulin delivery so that tissue glucose levels could be used to estimate blood glucose levels, thereby circumventing the need for fingerstick blood glucose monitoring.. The aim of this study is to ascertain whether a stable ratio between the blood glucose concentration and the glucose levels at the tissue site of insulin infusion exists when this tissue site is exposed to variable insulin infusion rates. To achieve this, ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00812591

*  ARX MPC for people with type 1 diabetes - DTU Orbit

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by a lack of production of pancreatic insulin, consequently leading to high blood glucose concentrations (hyperglycemia). Hyperglycemia has negative health effects in the long term such as eye, nerve, and kidney disease. Exogenous insulin must be injected to keep the blood glucose in the normoglycemic range (approximately 60 - 140 mg/dL, or 3.3 - 8 mmol/L). However, the dosing of exogenous insulin must be done carefully, because low blood glucose concentrations (hypoglycemia) can have immediate and severe consequences like insulin shock, coma, or even death. Currently, insulin administration is performed by the subject with type 1 diabetes based on infrequent glucose measurements (in the form of finger-sticks), often resulting in an unsatisfactory blood glucose control. An artificial pancreas is a medical ...
orbit.dtu.dk/en/publications/arx-mpc-for-people-with-type-1-diabetes

*  Blood glucose level normal pregnancy - Pregnancy Blog

This may occasionally trigger a pulling or stabbing pang in your decrease pelvic space or groin, or a sharp cramp down your aspect. Cell. My BMs are very regular and I solely get constpatied in my first weeks of blood glucose level normal pregnancy pregnant. Pregnancy how soon symptoms anticipation of that momentous transition to mouth feeding, your baby's digestive system is all set and able to go. This week the girls focus on Wedding ceremony etiquette with one of the trade's high event planners Cassandra Bette. Most ART is finished using the woman's own eggs and her companion's sperm. We additionally helped a lesbian couple be reimbursed for many of their IVF cycle. Lochia Serosa: Blood glucose level normal pregnancy lochia rubra progressively adjustments colour to brown and then yellow blood glucose level normal pregnancy a interval of a couple of week. Topical how accurate are ultrasound measurements ...
tseyijeeptour.com/pregnancy/blood-glucose-level-normal-pregnancy.html

*  What is non-diabetic hyperglycemia? | Reference.com

Non-diabetic hyperglycemia is an elevated blood glucose level not caused by diabetes, says MedicineNet. Random blood glucose levels, where the blood is tested for glucose throughout the day, are...
https://reference.com/health/non-diabetic-hyperglycemia-c25d9c3866b98667

*  Effects of supervised structured aerobic exercise training programon fasting blood glucose level, plasma insulin level,...

Effects of supervised structured aerobic exercise training programon fasting blood glucose level, plasma insulin level, glycemiccontrol, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus
pjms.com.pk/index.php/pjms/article/view/12023

*  Diet Tips To Reduce Blood Sugar Level - Foods That Lower Blood Sugar Level | Natural Home Remedies

Diabetes is the increase in blood sugar level which is the main disease that the people are concerned about today. Living a sedentary life is the main reason
natural-homeremedies.com/blog/diet-tips-to-reduce-blood-sugar-level/

*  Inside Your Brain

Journal: Neurology. Past studies have suggested that diabetes raises the risk for Alzheimer's disease although it's not entirely clear why. New research finds that even in people who don't have diabetes, chronically higher blood glucose levels are associated with poorer outcomes in the brain.. This study looked at 141 people, average age 63, without diabetes or pre-diabetes. No participants were overweight or had memory and thinking impairment.. On cognitive tests, participants with lower blood glucose levels performed better in terms of delayed recall, learning ability and memory consolidation than those with higher levels. What's more, those with higher levels tended to have smaller volumes in the hippocampus, a sea horse-shaped brain structure crucial for memory.. "These results suggest that even for people within the normal range of blood sugar, lowering their blood sugar levels could be a promising ...
thechart.blogs.cnn.com/category/inside-your-brain/

*  Blood Glucose, Insulin & Medications | Store from the American Diabetes Association®

Get your blood glucose levels under control with the help of this handy, pocket-sized blood glucose log book from the ADA. Track your levels, see how food and exercise affect your glucose, and recognize patterns. [4 to a pack. ...
store.diabetes.org/Categories/49-Blood-Glucose-Insulin-Medications.aspx/1/CustomPublishing.aspx

*  Diabetes mellitus ? a devastating metabolic disorder | Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is an endocrinological and/or metabolic disorder with an increasing global prevalence and incidence. High blood glucose levels are s..
alliedacademies.org/abstract/diabetes-mellitus--a-devastating-metabolic-disorder-5212.html

*  Dapagliflozin Lowers Plasma Glucose Concentration and Improves Beta Cell Function. - AdisInsight

This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the pharmacodynamics of dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, with a focus
adisinsight.springer.com/trials/700262571

*  Top nutritionist from udaipur | Dt. Dr Nitisha Sharma

By: Dr Nitisha Sharma. Hi, 14th November is celebrated as World Diabetes day, and on this ocassion I would like to share with you some tips to control Diabetes through a Healthy diet. Diabetes management involves healthy eating, regular physical activity and weight management. Healthy eating means lots of high-fibre carbohydrate foods (wholegrain breads and cereals), vegetables, legumes (beans and lentils), fruit, unsaturated (healthy) fats, lean protein and low-fat dairy but less saturated (unhealthy) fat. The glycaemic index (GI) can be helpful in blood glucose management. Follow this simple healthy tips if you have diabetes: 1.Control your weight: Extra fat can make your body resistant to the action of insulin. Losing weight improves insulin’s activity, which reduces blood-glucose levels. 2.Exercise regularly: Physical activity improves the body’s response to insulin and helps lower blood-glucose ...
nutritionistsinindia.net/dietitian/14138/dr-nitisha-sharma

*  M5045 lantus cmefacgde pad

Inject _____ units of insulin each day • Continue to increase by 1 unit every day until your blood sugar level is _____ mmol/L before • Do not increase your insulin when your fasting • Insulin is usually given at a 90° angle discarded in an approved Sharps container • Weight gain - it is important to see a dietitian and follow • Do not remove the cartridge of insulin from your pen until a healthy lifestyle including regular exercise it is empty; keep the pen with the cartridge in it at room Instructions for Your Oral Diabetes Medications • Store unopened insulin in the refrigerator • Do not use insulin past the expiry date • If you have any concerns about your blood sugar levels • If you have reached your target blood sugar level • If you have a blood sugar less than 4.0 mmol/L and/or symptoms of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), such astrembling, sweating, anxiety, nervousness, irritability, a racing heart, or shaking more ...
findmedarticle.com/c/cfpna.ca1.html

*  New device for patients to monitor blood glucose levels - Physorg | (e) Science News

People with type 1 diabetes must keep a careful eye on their blood glucose levels: Too much sugar can damage organs, while too little deprives the body of necessary fuel. Most patients must prick their fingers several times a day to draw blood for testing.
esciencenews.com/sources/physorg/2010/08/09/new.device.patients.monitor.blood.glucose.levels

*  Is Humulin and Novolin the same ?

Tier Description 1 This drug is available at the lowest co-pay. These are not all of the possible side effects from Novolin N. This restriction typically limits the quantity of the drug that will be covered. We're sorry, an error occurred. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. Your doctor or diabetes educator will determine the appropriate dose according to various lifestyle issues and the blood glucose values obtained while monitoring your blood glucose. Pull back the plunger on the syringe until the black tip reaches the marking for the number of units you will inject. Calculate blood glucose range Calculate median blood glucose Consider eating and activity patterns ...
gemeinde-newel.de/novolin-insulin.php

*  Optimizing the "Second Meal Effect" for a Healthy Glycemic Response - MHICN

America's metabolic based diseases are on the rise; with over 20 million Americans currently having Type 2 diabetes (T2D), it is expected that 1 in 3 will be diagnosed with this disease in their lifetime.1 Furthermore, every year over 610,000 Americans die of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the number of people diagnosed with heart disease continues to climb as well. 1 Taken together, the statistics are staggering.. Both of these preventable diseases are exacerbated by obesity which, itself, is rising dramatically in the United States. 1 It is imperative that sustainable lifestyle changes be implemented in order to stop the steadily rising metabolic disease rates. One key parameter to focus on is the optimization of blood glucose regulation. 2 Blood glucose regulation in turn helps control insulin resistance and may play a key role in the prevention and management of T2D and CVD. New research into a sustainable lifestyle change that can ...
healthcareinstituteforclinicalnutrition.com/blog/optimizing-the-second-meal-effect-for-a-healthy-glycemic-response/

*  Can Milk Raise Glucose Levels? | LIVESTRONG.COM

Blood glucose levels are directly affected by the amount of sugar we eat. Sugar is found in foods in the form of carbohydrates. These carbohydrates are...
livestrong.com/article/232080-can-milk-raise-glucose-levels/

*  This Drink Regulates High Cholesterol And Blood Sugar Levels And Triglycerides, It's Highly Advisable To Drink It If You Have...

Recently, there was an article about a doctor and his friend that was a professor. In the article, the doctor has shown a blood sugar test of his friend.
healthydefinition.com/regulates-high-cholesterol/

*  Blood Glucose Record

Some kids who have diabetes need to regularly check their blood sugar levels. This form can help you keep track of the readings. Talk with your parents and doctor to see if this should be part of your diabetes managment plan.
kidshealth.org/HospitalSantJoandeDeu/en/kids/glucose-record.html

*  Signs of Low Blood Sugar

... levels include hunger, mild dizziness, nausea. Find out signs, symptoms, causes of low blood sugar and treatment
symptomstreatment.org/signs-of-low-blood-sugar/

*  Serum Glucose Test: Facts, Types of Test & Results

The serum glucose blood test measures the amount of glucose in the blood sample obtained from the patient. Learn more on facts, different types of test and outcomes.
medicalhealthtests.com/medical-tests/serum-glucose-test.html

*  D-E-F - Page 2 - Big "C" Discount Drugs

Controlling Glucose Levels Monitoring blood glucose (blood sugar) is an important part of the total treatment program for diabetes. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is a test that all diabetics should be able to perform Read More …. ...
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*  Diabetics & Non-Compliance | LIVESTRONG.COM

Diabetics can develop high levels of glucose in their bloodstreams. Without proper diet, exercise, regular checkups and monitoring of blood glucose levels,...
livestrong.com/article/311411-diabetics-non-compliance/

*  Locations Appropriate For Using A Blood Glucose ... | Diabetic Connect

So I'm busy @ work ..... Manager comes over and says come see me before u leave ..... I'm thinking what have I done wrong , who have offended etc .... Hour l...
diabeticconnect.com/diabetes-discussions/general/17316-locations-appropriate-for-using-a-blood-glucose-meter

*  JoVE Author Search: Adeghate E

Rats, Genes, Time, Blood, Glucose, Proteins, Rat, Streptozotocin, Obesity, Blood Glucose, Disease, Microscopy, Tissue, Gene, Heart, Treatment, Association, Cardiac Muscle, Mortality, Muscle
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Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Glucose transporterDexcomInsulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Spontaneous hypoglycemia: The term "spontaneous hypoglycemia" was coined by the physician Seale Harris. (Who stated their source to be Alabama Hall of Fame, 1968)Anti-diabetic medication: Drugs used in diabetes treat diabetes mellitus by lowering glucose levels in the blood. With the exceptions of insulin, exenatide, liraglutide and pramlintide, all are administered orally and are thus also called oral hypoglycemic agents or oral antihyperglycemic agents.Outline of diabetes: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to diabetes:HyperglycemiaGlucose oxidase: ; }}Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus: A newly identified and potentially treatable form of monogenic diabetes is the neonatal diabetes caused by activating mutations of the KCNJ11 gene, which codes for the Kir6.2 subunit of the beta cell KATP channel.Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes: The Network for Pancreatic Organ donors with Diabetes (nPOD), is a collaborative type 1 diabetes research project funded by JDRF (formerly known as the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation). nPOD supports scientific investigators by providing, without cost, rare and difficult to obtain tissues beneficial to their research.Glucagon rescueOneTouch UltraGlucogenic amino acid: A glucogenic amino acid is an amino acid that can be converted into glucose through gluconeogenesis. This is in contrast to the ketogenic amino acids, which are converted into ketone bodies.Pine Islet LightSLC2A11: Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 11 (SLC2A11) also known as glucose transporter type 10/11 (GLUT-10/11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC2A11 gene.Renal threshold: In physiology, the renal threshold is the concentration of a substance dissolved in the blood above which the kidneys begin to remove it into the urine. When the renal threshold of a substance is exceeded, reabsorption of the substance by the proximal convoluted tubule is incomplete; consequently, part of the substance remains in the urine.Glycogen synthase: ; ; rendered using PyMOL.Carbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIGlucokinase regulatory protein: The glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) also known as glucokinase (hexokinase 4) regulator (GCKR) is a protein produced in hepatocytes (liver cells). GKRP binds and moves glucokinase (GK), thereby controlling both activity and intracellular location of this key enzyme of glucose metabolism.GLUT3: Glucose transporter 3 (or GLUT3), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 3 (SLC2A3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC2A3 gene. GLUT3 facilitates the transport of glucose across the plasma membranes of mammalian cells.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingLow-glycemic diet: A low-glycemic diet is one that selects foods on the basis of minimal alteration of circulating glucose levels. Glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are measures of the effect on blood glucose level after a food containing carbohydrates is consumed.Glucagon-like peptide-2: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a 33 amino acid peptide with the sequence HADGSFSDEMNTILDNLAARDFINWLIQTKITD (see Proteinogenic amino acid) in humans. GLP-2 is created by specific post-translational proteolytic cleavage of proglucagon in a process that also liberates the related glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1).Fructose malabsorptionBeggin' Strips: Beggin' Strips are a brand of dog treats manufactured and sold in North America by Nestlé Purina PetCare division. Beggin' Strips are designed to resemble strips of bacon.Anaerobic glycolysis: Anaerobic glycolysis is the transformation of glucose to pyruvate when limited amounts of oxygen (O2) are available. Anaerobic glycolysis is only an effective means of energy production during short, intense exercise, providing energy for a period ranging from 10 seconds to 2 minutes.ATC code H04: ==H04A Glycogenolytic hormones==Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Diabetic diet: Diabetic diet refers to the diet that is recommended for people with diabetes mellitus, or high blood glucose. There is much disagreement regarding what this diet should consist of.PhlorizinSoluble quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase: Soluble quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase (, soluble glucose dehydrogenase, sGDH, glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-dependent)) is an enzyme with system name D-glucose:acceptor oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionHexokinaseLipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.JDRFMediated transportPRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.TriglyceridePhytomedicineMyokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Glycerol 3-phosphate: -glycerol 1-phosphate-glycerol 3-phosphate-α-glycerophosphate-α-phosphoglycerolAdipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".SLC5A4: The low affinity sodium-glucose cotransporter also known as the sodium/glucose cotransporter 3 (SGLT3) or solute carrier family 5 member 4 (SLC5A4) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC5A4 gene.Starch gelatinization: Starch gelatinization is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites (the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygen) to engage more water. This irreversibly dissolves the starch granule in water.List of puddings: This list includes both sweet and savoury puddings that conform to one of two definitions:KetogenesisGastric inhibitory polypeptide: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), also known as the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide is a member of the secretin family of hormones.AlloxanQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Crustless bread: Crustless bread is bread without crusts. Panko is made from such a bread, which is produced by passing an electric current through the dough.Fluorescent glucose biosensor: Fluorescent glucose biosensors are devices that measure the concentration of glucose in diabetic patients by means of sensitive protein that relays the concentration by means of fluorescence, an alternative to amperometric sension of glucose. No device has yet entered the medical market,No fluorescent biosensor has yet entered the medical market, however, in the market for research tools several fluorescent biosensors are present, such as a kit using [Vibrio fischeri] but, due to the prevalence of diabetes, it is the prime drive in the construction of fluorescent biosensors.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Pioglitazone/metforminInsulin degludec

(1/20872) Induction of bovine polioencephalomalacia with a feeding system based on molasses and urea.

Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), a disease first described in the United States and related to intensive beef production, appeared in Cuba coincident with the use of a new, molasses-urea-based diet to fatten bulls. Because the only experimental means so far of reproducing PEM has been with amprolium, a structural analog of thiamin, the present study attempted to induce the disease using the molasses-urea-based diet. Six Holstein bulls (200-300 kg) were studied during consumption of three successive diets: 1) commercial molasses-urea-restricted forage diet of Cuban feedlots, 2) a period in which forage was gradually withdrawn and 3) a forage-free diet composed only of molasses, urea and fish meal. PEM was reproduced in this way. At ten-day intervals, blood concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and urea were measured, as well as when clinical signs of PEM appeared. The signs, clinical course and lesions of the experimentally induced disease were comparable to those of field cases. The biochemical results suggested a block in pyruvate oxidation as in PEM elsewhere in the world. No evidence existed of urea intoxication. In addition, brain and liver concentration of total thiamin from field cases and normal animals were found to be similar.  (+info)

(2/20872) Effect of trauma on plasma glucagon and insulin concentrations in sheep.

Portal plasma glucagon and insulin concentrations were measured before and after acute trauma (liver biosy). The trauma was sufficient to increase glucagon concentrations and depress insulin concentrations. These changes were associated with a marked hyperglycemia. Infusion of glucagon was insufficient to prevent stress inhibition of insulin secretion. The stimulation of glucagon secretion and inhibition of insulin secretion were of about one hour duration. These findings indicate that glucagon and insulin in conjunction with the nervous system may play an important role in the development of stress related hyperglycemia.  (+info)

(3/20872) Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe.

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

(4/20872) Tissue-specific knockout of the insulin receptor in pancreatic beta cells creates an insulin secretory defect similar to that in type 2 diabetes.

Dysfunction of the pancreatic beta cell is an important defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, although its exact relationship to the insulin resistance is unclear. To determine whether insulin signaling has a functional role in the beta cell we have used the Cre-loxP system to specifically inactivate the insulin receptor gene in the beta cells. The resultant mice exhibit a selective loss of insulin secretion in response to glucose and a progressive impairment of glucose tolerance. These data indicate an important functional role for the insulin receptor in glucose sensing by the pancreatic beta cell and suggest that defects in insulin signaling at the level of the beta cell may contribute to the observed alterations in insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes.  (+info)

(5/20872) Neurosurgery restores late GH rise after glucose-induced suppression in cured acromegalics.

OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: A decrease of GH levels below 2 microg/l after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is still currently accepted as the gold standard for assessing cure in surgically treated acromegaly. Whether glucose-induced suppression of GH is accompanied by a restoration of normal GH late rebound has not yet been evaluated in this disease. In order to assess the restoration of normal GH regulation after removal of a pituitary adenoma, we have evaluated GH changes after an OGTT in a series of selected acromegalic patients (transsphenoidal surgery and lack of pituitary failure). METHODS: Twenty-nine patients (13 male, 16 female, age range 27-70 years) entered the study. Their neuroradiological imaging before neurosurgery showed microadenoma in 7, intrasellar macroadenoma in 8 and macroadenoma with extrasellar extension in 14. Plasma GH levels were assayed up to 300 min after glucose administration (75 g p.o.) and IGF-I on basal samples. RESULTS: Basal GH levels were below 5 microg/l in 20 patients and below 2 microg/l in 5 of these. Normal age-adjusted IGF-I levels were observed in 12 patients. GH values were suppressed below 2 microg/l during an OGTT in 13 patients, and below 1 microg/l in 7 of these. In 9 patients out of these 13, a marked rise in GH levels occurred after nadir. Baseline and nadir GH values of these 9 patients were not different from the corresponding values of the other 4 patients without OGTT-induced late GH peaks. CONCLUSIONS: GH rebound after GH nadir occurs in acromegalic patients considered as cured on the basis of OGTT-induced GH suppression and/or IGF-I normalization. The restoration of this physiological response could be regarded as a marker of recovered/preserved integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Even though the reason for this GH rebound has not yet been elucidated (GHRH discharge?/end of somatostatin inhibition?), the lack of late GH peak in the patients regarded as cured by the usual criteria could be due to injury to the pituitary stalk caused by the adenoma or by surgical manipulation.  (+info)

(6/20872) The treatment of insulin resistance does not improve adrenal cytochrome P450c17alpha enzyme dysregulation in polycystic ovary syndrome.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metformin. when given to non-diabetic women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), results in a reduction of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia while body weight is maintained. Also we aimed to see whether the reduction in insulin levels attenuates the activity of adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme in patients with PCOS. DESIGN: We investigated the 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and androstenedione responses to ACTH, insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glucose disposal rate in an insulin tolerance test before and after metformin therapy (500 mg, orally, twice daily, for 12 weeks). METHODS: The presence of hyperinsulinemia in 15 women with PCOS was demonstrated by an OGTT and results were compared with those of 10 healthy women. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the rate of endogenous glucose disposal after i.v. bolus injection of insulin. 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH were measured in all the women with PCOS and the normal women. RESULTS: Women with PCOS were hyperinsulinemic (102.0+/-13.0 (S.E.M.) VS 46.2+/-4.4 pmol/l) and hyperandrogenemic (free testosterone 15.3+/-1.7 vs 7.9+/-0.6 nmol/l; androstenedione 11.8+/-0.8 vs 8.2+/-0.6 nmol/l) and more hirsute (modified Ferriman-Gallwey score, 17.7+/-1.6 vs 3.0+/-0.3) than healthy women. In addition, women with PCOS had higher 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH when compared with healthy women. Metformin therapy resulted in some improvement in insulin sensitivity and reduced the basal and post-glucose load insulin levels. But 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH were unaltered in response to metformin. CONCLUSIONS: PCOS is characterized by hyperactivity of the adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme and insulin resistance. It seems that there is no direct relationship between insulin resistance and adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme dysregulation.  (+info)

(7/20872) Treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with vanadate and phlorizin prevents the over-expression of the liver insulin receptor gene.

Administration of vanadate, an insulinomimetic agent, has been shown to normalize the increased number of insulin receptors in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the present study, the effects of vanadate on various steps of expression of the liver insulin receptor gene in diabetic rats have been analyzed and compared with those of phlorizin, a glucopenic drug devoid of insulinomimetic properties. Livers of rats killed 23 days after streptozotocin injection showed a 30-40% increase in the number of cell surface and intracellular insulin receptors, a 50-90% increase in the levels of 9.5 and 7.5 kb insulin receptor mRNA species, and a 20% decrease in the relative abundance of the A (exon 11-) insulin receptor mRNA isotype. Daily administration of vanadate or phlorizin from day 5 to day 23 prevented the increase in insulin receptor number and mRNA level, and vanadate treatment also normalized receptor mRNA isotype expression. Unlike observations in vivo, vanadate and phlorizin differentially affected the expression of the insulin receptor gene in Fao hepatoma cells. Vanadate treatment (0.5 mmol/l for 4 h) decreased the levels of the 9.5 and 7.5 kb insulin receptor transcripts by at least twofold, without affecting the relative abundance of the A insulin receptor mRNA isotype. In contrast, phlorizin treatment (5 mmol/l for 4 h) slightly increased or did not affect the levels of the 9.5 and 7.5 kb insulin receptor transcripts respectively, and increased by twofold the relative expression of the A insulin receptor mRNA isotype. It is suggested that, although mediated in part by a reversal of hyperglycemia, normalization of liver insulin receptor gene expression by vanadate treatment in diabetic rats may also involve a direct inhibitory effect of this drug on gene expression.  (+info)

(8/20872) Novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma and PPARdelta ligands produce distinct biological effects.

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) include three receptor subtypes encoded by separate genes: PPARalpha, PPARdelta, and PPARgamma. PPARgamma has been implicated as a mediator of adipocyte differentiation and the mechanism by which thiazolidinedione drugs exert in vivo insulin sensitization. Here we characterized novel, non-thiazolidinedione agonists for PPARgamma and PPARdelta that were identified by radioligand binding assays. In transient transactivation assays these ligands were agonists of the receptors to which they bind. Protease protection studies showed that ligand binding produced specific alterations in receptor conformation. Both PPARgamma and PPARdelta directly interacted with a nuclear receptor co-activator (CREB-binding protein) in an agonist-dependent manner. Only the PPARgamma agonists were able to promote differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In diabetic db/db mice all PPARgamma agonists were orally active insulin-sensitizing agents producing reductions of elevated plasma glucose and triglyceride concentrations. In contrast, selective in vivo activation of PPARdelta did not significantly affect these parameters. In vivo PPARalpha activation with WY-14653 resulted in reductions in elevated triglyceride levels with minimal effect on hyperglycemia. We conclude that: 1) synthetic non-thiazolidinediones can serve as ligands of PPARgamma and PPARdelta; 2) ligand-dependent activation of PPARdelta involves an apparent conformational change and association of the receptor ligand binding domain with CREB-binding protein; 3) PPARgamma activation (but not PPARdelta or PPARalpha activation) is sufficient to potentiate preadipocyte differentiation; 4) non-thiazolidinedione PPARgamma agonists improve hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in vivo; 5) although PPARalpha activation is sufficient to affect triglyceride metabolism, PPARdelta activation does not appear to modulate glucose or triglyceride levels.  (+info)



Diabetes


  • A normal fasting blood glucose target range for an individual without diabetes is 70-100 mg/dL (3.9-5.6 mmol/L). The American Diabetes Association recommends a fasting plasma glucose level of 70-130 mg/dL (3.9-7.2 mmol/L) and after meals less than 180 mg/dL (10 mmol/L). (mayoclinic.org)
  • Blood glucose targets should be in a healthy range to prevent diabetes complications, but also keep you safe from serious low blood glucoses. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Abbott Diabetes Care announced that it has initiated a recall of 359 lots (approximately 359 million strips) of Precision Xtra®, Precision Xceed Pro®, MediSense® Optium™, Optium™, OptiumEZ and ReliOn® Ultima Blood Glucose Test Strips. (cbslocal.com)
  • Regardless of the type of diabetes you have, doctors and patients know that preventive measures like tight blood sugar will prevent complications and, depending on your A1c, it may be more advantageous to have a CGM to reach your diabetes management goals. (healthcentral.com)
  • There are several different blood glucose tests, used to both diagnose diabetes as well as help individuals track and manage their blood sugars. (diabetesmonitor.com)
  • It traditionally requires two fasting blood glucose tests before making a diagnosis of diabetes. (diabetesmonitor.com)
  • In general, a random blood glucose test result over 200 mg/dL may indicate diabetes. (diabetesmonitor.com)
  • If you exhibit any symptoms of diabetes, such as excessive thirst or urination, or if you're in a high-risk category (obese, sedentary or of African-American, Hispanic/Latino or American Indian descent), you should ask your doctor about getting a glucose test at your annual physical. (diabetesmonitor.com)
  • The glucose panel measures blood sugar levels and is used to check for the possibility of diabetes or to monitor those already diagnosed with diabetes. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Roche Diabetes Care today announced the creation of a new Bluetooth version of its Accu-Chek Guide blood glucose monitoring system (BGM), which will be integrated in some of Medtronic's future insulin pumps . (diabetes.co.uk)
  • A study on new BGMs, published in the Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology last year, found that it provides consistent and fairly accurate blood glucose testing results. (diabetes.co.uk)
  • The news of the integration of the Accu-Chek blood glucose meter into Medtronic pumps comes after Roche Diagnostics was reportedly contemplating limiting its involvement in the diabetes sector . (diabetes.co.uk)

tolerance test


  • Glucose tolerance test (GTT). (diabetesmonitor.com)
  • Change in the Disposition Index derived from the Frequently Sampled Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (which shows how the body regulates glucose) over 6 months. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The primary laboratory test used to assess the patient's regulation of blood glucose will be the Disposition Index derived from the Frequently Sampled Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Meter


  • The product itself comes as a Bluetooth-enabled blood glucose meter with an accompanying lacing device manufactured from beautiful chrome. (redmondpie.com)

continuous


  • Pump vs. pens, fingersticks, or a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). (healthcentral.com)
  • GlucoLight's continuous, non-invasive device is a novel approach to glucose monitoring in the acute care environment. (diabeteshealth.com)
  • About GlucoLight Corporation: in 2003, GlucoLight is a development-stage company focused on continuous, non-invasive blood glucose monitoring in the acute care environment. (diabeteshealth.com)
  • Today, GlucoLight's OCGM monitor is the only continuous, non-invasive blood glucose monitor for the acute care environment that is in clinical trials. (diabeteshealth.com)
  • Provides real-life examples and descriptions of how real-time and professional continuous glucose monitoring can translate to health gains. (diabetes.org)

meters


  • It seems like Roche is actually doing the opposite now, as it is in the process of making a series of strategic partnerships to expand the functionality of its blood glucose meters and promote their wider use. (diabetes.co.uk)
  • Roche has, for example, also recently teamed up with the mySugr app to allow users to upload their blood glucose data from either the Accu-Chek Guide or Instant blood glucose meters . (diabetes.co.uk)

measurements


  • The GlucoLight monitor displays real time glucose measurements with an initial single point calibration. (diabeteshealth.com)

targets


  • Remember, blood glucose targets are targets. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), GlucoLight has identified specific physiological targets within the dermis that closely correlate to changes in blood glucose levels. (diabeteshealth.com)
  • GlucoLight's OCGM monitor samples these physiological targets every 30 seconds to track blood glucose levels to a high degree of accuracy. (diabeteshealth.com)

Medications


  • The purpose of this study is to assess and compare how risperidone and olanzapine, two antipsychotic medications, affect the regulation of glucose (sugar) in the body. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, some of the newer antipsychotic medications could have a negative effect on the regulation of blood glucose (sugar) in the body. (clinicaltrials.gov)

symptoms


  • Individuals with hypoglycemic unawareness (limited or no awareness of low blood glucose symptoms) may require a higher target range. (mayoclinic.org)

levels


  • 7.) My son consistently has high blood glucose levels. (healthcentral.com)
  • As you suspect, blood glucose levels that are elevated in the range that you report that your son has, just don't fit with a normal A1C level. (healthcentral.com)
  • You don't mention his blood glucose levels, and whether they changed at the time of the palsy or not. (healthcentral.com)
  • It gives a glimpse into how your body handles the increased blood sugar levels triggered by eating. (diabetesmonitor.com)
  • Up to 100 mg/dl of glucose are normal blood sugar levels. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Using optical coherence tomography (OCT), the device is able to measure blood glucose levels through a unique anatomical area in the skin that shows physiological changes that directly correlate to changes in blood glucose. (diabeteshealth.com)
  • Blood glucose monitoring has been called "the next vital sign", linking elevated levels with complications for all patients following surgery. (diabeteshealth.com)
  • GlucoLight's OCGM device is intended to provide an efficient method to monitor patients' glucose levels in real-time, effectively reducing the time spent on traditional blood testing methods and making it easier to achieve the cost savings associated with intensive glucose control, estimated to be $2,800 per patient. (diabeteshealth.com)
  • Eventually, we will miniaturize our glucose monitoring technology and develop a consumer product that will help both Type I and Type II diabetics better manage their glucose levels, and help decrease the complications associated with this world-wide illness. (diabeteshealth.com)
  • The One Drop Chrome is compatible with iPhone featuring HealthKit and CareKit support, with it not only being able to take accurate blood glucose levels in just five seconds, but also to send those results directly back to the accompanying iOS app, compatible with iPhone, iPad, and Apple Watch. (redmondpie.com)

test


  • I finally got the blood glucose test going. (sparkpeople.com)
  • Normally the blood sugar test to see how food you eat is affecting you is 2 hours after you starting eating and the space between meals 4 to 5 hours, the reason the time to digest the food and the time the body metabolizes the nutrients and enter the blood stream. (sparkpeople.com)
  • This test provides an overview of your blood sugar (glucose) level over a three-month timespan. (diabetesmonitor.com)
  • This test is performed via blood draw at the lab when you're not fasting. (diabetesmonitor.com)
  • Should you get a blood glucose test? (diabetesmonitor.com)
  • All of them involve some type of blood glucose test. (diabetesmonitor.com)
  • What Are the Fasting Requirements for the Glucose Lipid Panel Blood Test? (ehow.co.uk)
  • Fasting glucose panels require you to avoid any food or drink, other than water, for six to eight hours prior to the test. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Exclusive FastDraw design test strip requires just a tiny drop of blood. (medshopexpress.com)
  • Automatically pulls blood into test strip. (medshopexpress.com)

level


  • Third, your son's pediatrician might not be aware but there are a few drugs that lower the A1C level due to interference with normal red blood cell survival (the A1C assumes normal RBC survival duration). (healthcentral.com)
  • With his glucose level being controlled then can this nerve damage be healed, or not? (healthcentral.com)

monitor


  • GlucoLight's OCGM Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Monitor In Clinical Trials. (diabeteshealth.com)

control


  • Intensive glucose control protocols, including the "Portland Protocol" developed by Dr. Tony Furnary, have been shown to decrease mortality and morbidity and reduce infections in post cardiac surgery patients. (diabeteshealth.com)

sugars


  • 11.) I'm 40 years old and pregnant, and even though I sleep on a normal blood sugar, I am experiencing high AM sugars. (healthcentral.com)

readings


  • I have tested his blood glucose first thing in the morning and consistently get readings in the 150+ range. (healthcentral.com)
  • One such company, One Drop, is looking to garner name and fan base with the release of the One Drop Chrome blood glucose monitoring kit, which is capable of producing accurate readings from a user in an impressive five seconds. (redmondpie.com)

counts


  • At 8:20 you had nuts and 4 dates a bit less than 2 later 10:05 your blood sugar was 143, which counts for the effect of the nuts and dates. (sparkpeople.com)

need to provide


  • Since each insurer within each state has their own requirements, you need to provide blood glucose logs and other documentation showing that you are following ADA best practices guidelines. (healthcentral.com)

different blood


  • Here is an overview of different blood glucose tests. (diabetesmonitor.com)
  • A fasting glucose panel and a fasting lipid panel are two different blood tests. (ehow.co.uk)

patients


  • This randomized, double-blind study will assess and compare how risperidone and olanzapine affect the regulation of glucose in the body in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. (clinicaltrials.gov)

tests


  • Both tests may be performed from a single drawing of blood, and one period of fasting is usually sufficient prior to blood being drawn for both tests. (ehow.co.uk)
  • What blood tests need fasting preparation? (ehow.co.uk)

free


  • Download a free chart of the IDF recommended blood glucose ranges. (diabetes.co.uk)

time


  • As for the first time, I'll see the effect of foods on my blood sugar. (sparkpeople.com)
  • It may be ideal to schedule blood drawing early in the morning so fasting time passes overnight while sleeping. (ehow.co.uk)

either


  • Have a backup driver with you in the event that either the fasting or the blood drawing affects your ability to drive. (ehow.co.uk)

talk


  • This week I would like to talk about the blood glucose target range. (mayoclinic.org)

pain


effect


  • In your case you had lunch at 12:30pm so the effect of your lunch was at 2:45 (111) then you had a banana and nuts at 1:00 so by 3:00 your blood sugar was also 111. (sparkpeople.com)

measures


  • A lipid panel measures the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in your blood. (ehow.co.uk)