Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids.Eyelashes: The hairs which project from the edges of the EYELIDS.Meibomian Glands: The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.Mite Infestations: Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.Eyelid DiseasesEyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Keratoconjunctivitis: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.Tea Tree Oil: Essential oil extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree). It is used as a topical antimicrobial due to the presence of terpineol.Rosacea: A cutaneous disorder primarily of convexities of the central part of the FACE, such as FOREHEAD; CHEEK; NOSE; and CHIN. It is characterized by FLUSHING; ERYTHEMA; EDEMA; RHINOPHYMA; papules; and ocular symptoms. It may occur at any age but typically after age 30. There are various subtypes of rosacea: erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous, and ocular (National Rosacea Society's Expert Committee on the Classification and Staging of Rosacea, J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 46:584-7).Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Eye Infections, Parasitic: Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Tinidazole: A nitroimidazole antitrichomonal agent effective against Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia infections.ConjunctivitisConjunctivitis, Bacterial: Purulent infections of the conjunctiva by several species of gram-negative, gram-positive, or acid-fast organisms. Some of the more commonly found genera causing conjunctival infections are Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, and Chlamydia.Oxytetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog isolated from the actinomycete STREPTOMYCES rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.Malassezia: A mitosporic fungal genus that causes a variety of skin disorders. Malassezia furfur (Pityrosporum orbiculare) causes TINEA VERSICOLOR.
BlepharitisEyelash: An eyelash or simply lash is one of the hairs that grows at the edge of the eyelid. Eyelashes protect the eye from debris and perform some of the same function as whiskers do on a cat or a mouse in the sense that they are sensitive to being touched, thus providing a warning that an object (such as an insect or dust mite) is near the eye (which then closes reflexively).Meibomian gland: The meibomian glands (or tarsal glands) are a special kind of sebaceous gland at the rim of the eyelids inside the tarsal plate, responsible for the supply of meibum, an oily substance that prevents evaporation of the eye's tear film. Meibum prevents tear spillage onto the cheek, trapping tears between the oiled edge and the eyeball, and makes the closed lids airtight.AcariasisBlepharochalasisHay–Wells syndromeKeratoconjunctivitisOcular rosacea: Ocular rosacea is a manifestation of rosacea that affects the eyes and eyelids. Signs and symptoms generally consist of redness, irritation or burning of the eyes.AlachrymaDiffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis: Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) is a rare condition that occurs in otherwise healthy, often young patients and is due to the presence of a subretinal nematode.Brevipalpus: Brevipalpus is a genus of mites in the family Tenuipalpidae, the flat mites.Brevipalpus californicus.TinidazoleLigneous conjunctivitis: Ligneous conjunctivitis is a rare form of chronic conjunctivitis characterized by recurrent, fibrin-rich pseudomembranous lesions of wood-like consistency that develop mainly on the underside of the eyelid (tarsal conjunctiva). It is generally a systemic disease which may involve the periodontal tissue, the upper and lower respiratory tract, kidneys, middle ear, and female genitalia.Trimethoprim/polymyxinOxytetracyclineMalassezia: Malassezia (formerly known as Pityrosporum) is a genus of fungi. Malassezia is naturally found on the skin surfaces of many animals, including humans.
(1/97) Bacterial conjunctivitis in Muc1 null mice.
PURPOSE: In contrast to wild-type mice, genetically engineered Mucin1 (Muc1) null animals display a marked propensity for development of blepharitis and conjunctivitis. Molecular approaches confirmed the presence of Muc1 mRNA and protein in the conjunctival tissue of wild-type mice and identified the bacterial species in Muc1 null symptomatic mice. METHODS: Muc1 null animals housed in a conventional facility were examined for visually apparent inflammation of the eye and surrounding tissue. Blood taken from overtly affected animals was assayed for antibodies to common murine viral agents. Swabs of infected eyes and whole eye preparations were used to detect and speciate bacterial pathogens. Frozen sections of whole eye, lid margin, and Harderian gland were immunostained with antibodies to Muc1 and cytokeratin 14, both epithelial cell markers. Northern blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed on RNA isolated from conjunctiva and Harderian gland of wild-type mice to compare relative levels of transcript. RESULTS: Student's unpaired t-test performed on the eye inflammation frequency of Muc1 null mice confirmed a statistical significance (P < 0.01) when compared to wild-type background animals housed in the same room. Analysis of blood samples from affected Muc1 null animals detected no common murine viral pathogens. Bacterial analysis of conjunctival swabs and whole eye preparations demonstrated the presence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Streptococcus type alpha, and Corynebacterium group G2. Muc1 antibody staining of wild-type sections revealed the presence of Muc1 on conjunctival goblet and non-goblet cells and on the epithelium of the Harderian gland. Serial sections stained with cytokeratin 14 antibody confirmed the epithelial nature of cells expressing the Muc1 protein. RNA from conjunctiva and Harderian gland subjected to RT-PCR and northern blot analysis showed an abundance of Muc1 transcript in these tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Muc1 mRNA and protein are present in murine conjunctival and Harderian gland epithelia. Animals lacking Muc1 mRNA and protein are predisposed to developing eye inflammation when compared to wild-type animals with an intact Muc1 gene. Muc1 appears to play a critical protective role at the ocular surface, presumably by acting as a barrier to infection by certain bacterial strains. (+info)
(2/97) Identification and antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase negative staphylococci isolated in corneal/external infections.
AIMS: To identify and determine antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from patients with chronic blepharitis, purulent conjunctivitis, and suppurative keratitis. METHODS: A retrospective review of all culture positive cases of chronic blepharitis, purulent conjunctivitis, and suppurative keratitis between July 1995 and December 1996 was performed. Cases in which CoNS were the sole isolates were analysed. Species identification was performed by using a commercially available standardised biochemical test system. Antibiotic susceptibility to penicillin, gentamicin, tetracycline, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and teicoplanin was determined by agar disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer method). Teicoplanin resistance was confirmed by agar dilution. RESULTS: 42 Staphylococcus epidermidis, four S warneri, three S capitis, two S hominis, one each of S xylosus, S simulans, S equorum, and S lugdunensis were identified. 37 CoNS were penicillin resistant, 12 gentamicin resistant, 28 tetracycline resistant, 18 erythromycin resistant, four ciprofloxacin resistant, and one teicoplanin resistant (MIC, 32 microg/ml). In total, 16 strains were resistant to three or more antibiotics. CONCLUSION: Species of CoNS apart from S epidermidis may be isolated from patients with corneal and external infection. Antibiotic susceptibility of CoNS is unpredictable and multiresistant strains are common. As a result, antibiotic susceptibility testing should be performed in all cases of clinically significant ocular infections caused by CoNS. (+info)
(3/97) Suppression of induction of experimental immune mediated blepharoconjunctivitis by tolerogenic conjugates of the antigen and monomethoxypolyethylene glycol.
AIM: Covalent conjugates consisting of diverse antigens coupled to optimal numbers of monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) molecules have been shown to suppress antigen specific antibody formation. In this study, the possibility was examined that the same conjugates might prevent experimental immune mediated blepharoconjunctivitis (EC, formerly EAC) which had been shown to be caused by CD4(+) T cells-that is, to cell mediated immunity. METHODS: 6-8 week old male Lewis rats were used. The test groups of rats received two intravenous injections, each of 300 microg, of a conjugate of ovalbumin mPEG (OVA(mPEG)(11)) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), 14 and 28 days before the single immunisation with OVA in complete Freund's adjuvant. The rats were challenged 3 weeks later by eye drops containing OVA; 24 hours later they were sacrificed, and their eyes, blood, and lymph nodes were harvested for histological examination and determination of anti-OVA antibody titres and levels of cellular immunity. Two control groups received PBS or OVA in PBS before immunisation. Furthermore, the possibility that OVA(mPEG)(11) may have induced OVA specific suppressor cells was tested by establishing the effects of the co-transfer of splenocytes from OVA(mPEG)(11) treated rats with OVA primed lymph node cells on the manifestations of EC. RESULTS: Either PBS or OVA pretreated rats, which had not received OVA(mPEG)(11), developed high levels of antibodies and cell mediated immune responses to OVA, and application of eye drops led to blepharoconjunctivitis with massive cellular infiltration. In contrast, pretreatment with OVA(mPEG)(11) prevented cellular infiltration into the lids and conjunctivas, as well as the formation of detectable humoral and cellular immunity against OVA. Co-transfer of splenocytes from OVA(mPEG)(11) treated rats with OVA primed lymph node cells suppressed the cellular infiltration on application of OVA on the conjunctiva. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that intravenous injection of OVA(mPEG)(11) conjugates suppressed both humoral and cellular immunity by the effects of antigen specific suppressor cells, thus leading to the inhibition of development of EC. (+info)
(4/97) Enhanced secretory group II PLA2 activity in the tears of chronic blepharitis patients.
PURPOSE: Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) hydrolyzes phospholipids, one of the important constituents of human meibomian gland secretions. This study was performed to investigate PLA2 type and activity in the tears of chronic blepharitis patients compared to those of normal persons. METHODS: Tear samples of 36 patients and 10 normal persons were collected in non-heparinized microcapillary tubes. PLA2 activity in the tears was measured by Dole's method, and the results of the blepharitis patients were compared to those of the normal persons. The characterization of PLA2 was performed by the head group preference test and the dithiothreitol (DTT) sensitivity test. The classification of PLA2 type was done using Western blot analysis with anti-human secretory PLA2 antibody. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found among the six categories of chronic blepharitis. However, the mean PLA2 activity in the tears of the chronic blepharitis patients was about two times higher than that of the normal controls with statistical significance (P < 0.05). The PLA2 substrate specificity test revealed group II PLA2 activity. Furthermore, the group II PLA2 was identified as a 14 kDa band in Western blot analysis using an antibody raised against human secretory group II PLA2. CONCLUSIONS: Secretory group II PLA2 activity was significantly enhanced in the tears of the chronic blepharitis patients compared with that of the normal controls. It is suggested that this increased enzymatic activity may decrease the tear film stability through increased hydrolysis of phospholipids. (+info)
(5/97) Herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff (vhs) activity alters periocular disease in mice.
During lytic infection, the virion host shutoff (vhs) protein of herpes simplex virus (HSV) mediates the rapid degradation of RNA and shutoff of host protein synthesis. In mice, HSV type 1 (HSV-1) mutants lacking vhs activity are profoundly attenuated. HSV-2 has significantly higher vhs activity than HSV-1, eliciting a faster and more complete shutoff. To examine further the role of vhs activity in pathogenesis, we generated an intertypic recombinant virus (KOSV2) in which the vhs open reading frame of HSV-1 strain KOS was replaced with that of HSV-2 strain 333. KOSV2 and a marker-rescued virus, KOSV2R, were characterized in cell culture and tested in an in vivo mouse eye model of latency and pathogenesis. The RNA degradation kinetics of KOSV2 was identical to that of HSV-2 333, and both showed vhs activity significantly higher than that of KOS. This demonstrated that the fast vhs-mediated degradation phenotype of 333 had been conferred upon KOS. The growth of KOSV2 was comparable to that of KOS, 333, and KOSV2R in cell culture, murine corneas, and trigeminal ganglia and had a reactivation frequency similar to those of KOS and KOSV2R from explanted latently infected trigeminal ganglia. There was, however, significantly reduced blepharitis and viral replication within the periocular skin of KOSV2-infected mice compared to mice infected with either KOS or KOSV2R. Taken together, these data demonstrate that heightened vhs activity, in the context of HSV-1 infection, leads to increased viral clearance from the skin of mice and that the replication of virus in the skin is a determining factor for blepharitis. These data also suggest a role for vhs in modulating host responses to HSV infection. (+info)
(6/97) Effects of IL-4 and IL-12 on experimental immune-mediated blepharoconjunctivitis in Brown Norway rats.
IL-12 and IL-4 are critical cytokines for Th1 and Th2 differentiation, respectively. To assess the roles of these cytokines in the development of experimental immune-mediated blepharoconjunctivitis (EC) in Brown Norway (BN) rats, their effects were tested either in vitro or in vivo. Draining lymph node cells from rats immunized with ragweed pollen (RW) in Al(OH)3 were collected and cultured for 3 days with RW in the presence of IL-4, IL-12, or PBS as a control. After harvesting the culture supernatants for cytokine ELISA and the cells for cytokine reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, 10 million cells were injected intravenously into syngeneic recipient rats (n = 12 per group). The rats were challenged with RW by eye drops 4 days after transfer. Eyes were harvested for histology 24 h later. Furthermore, IL-12 (500 ng per injection) or PBS was injected intraperitoneally every other day seven times from the day of active immunization (n = 6 per group). One day after the last injection, rats were challenged and EC was evaluated as above. Transfer of cells with IL-4 in vitro augmented eosinophilic infiltration in the conjunctiva compared with the other two groups, whereas IL-12 in vitro suppressed eosinophilic infiltration and increased lymphocytic infiltration. Interferon-gamma production was augmented by IL-12. IL-4 RNA expression was augmented by IL-4. IL-12 administration in vivo augmented lymphocytic infiltration in the conjunctiva without affecting infiltration of eosinophils. In conclusion, IL-4 and IL-12 either in vitro or in vivo augmented Th2 and Th1 immunity, respectively, thus leading to distinct histological features of EC. (+info)
(7/97) Hay-Wells syndrome is caused by heterozygous missense mutations in the SAM domain of p63.
Hay-Wells syndrome, also known as ankyloblepharon-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting (AEC) syndrome (OMIM 106260), is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital ectodermal dysplasia, including alopecia, scalp infections, dystrophic nails, hypodontia, ankyloblepharon and cleft lip and/or cleft palate. This constellation of clinical signs is unique, but some overlap can be recognized with other ectodermal dysplasia syndromes, for example ectrodactyly--ectodermal dysplasia--cleft lip/palate (EEC; OMIM 604292), limb--mammary syndrome (LMS; OMIM 603543), acro-dermato-ungual-lacrimal-tooth syndrome (ADULT; OMIM 103285) and recessive cleft lip/palate--ectodermal dysplasia (CLPED1; OMIM 225060). We have recently demonstrated that heterozygous mutations in the p63 gene are the major cause of EEC syndrome. Linkage studies suggest that the related LMS and ADULT syndromes are also caused by mutations in the p63 gene. Thus, it appears that p63 gene mutations have highly pleiotropic effects. We have analysed p63 in AEC syndrome patients and identified missense mutations in eight families. All mutations give rise to amino acid substitutions in the sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain, and are predicted to affect protein--protein interactions. In contrast, the vast majority of the mutations found in EEC syndrome are amino acid substitutions in the DNA-binding domain. Thus, a clear genotype--phenotype correlation can be recognized for EEC and AEC syndromes. (+info)
(8/97) Primary herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of the eye triggers similar immune responses in the cornea and the skin of the eyelids.
Herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK) and blepharoconjunctivitis in humans are thought partly to result from immunopathological responses to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The corneas of NIH mice were inoculated with HSV-1 (strain McKrae) and mice were examined for signs of disease and infection on days 1, 4, 7, 10, 14 and 21. The eyes and eyelids of infected and control mice were processed for immunohistochemistry and double stained for viral antigens and one of the following cell surface markers (Gr-1, F4/80, CD4, CD8, CD45R or MHC class II) or one of the following cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 or IFN-gamma). All infected mice developed signs of HSK by day 4 and blepharitis by day 7 and these both persisted until day 21, when signs of resolution where apparent. Virus was detected during the first week of infection and became undetectable by day 10. Large numbers of Gr-1(+) cells (neutrophils) infiltrated infected corneas and eyelids in areas of viral antigen and CD4(+) T cells increased significantly in number after virus clearance. In both sites, the predominant cytokines were IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-gamma, with few IL-2(+) and IL-4(+) cells. These observations suggest that the immune responses in the cornea are similar to those in the eyelids but, overall, the responses are not clearly characterized as either Th1 or Th2. In both sites, the neutrophil is the predominant infiltrating cell type and is a likely source of the cytokines observed and a major effector of the disease process. (+info)