Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Photobioreactors: Devices for generating biological products that use light as the energy source. They are used for controlled BIOMASS production such as growing cyanobacteria, mosses, or algae.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Microalgae: A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Salix: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)FiresPhosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.SmokeForestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Autotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Atlantic OceanCulture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Eucalyptus: A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Heterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Cladocera: A suborder of CRUSTACEA, order Diplostraca, comprising the water fleas. They are benthic filter feeders that consume PHYTOPLANKTON. The body is laterally compressed and enclosed in a bivalved carapace, from which the head extends.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.XyloseGeologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Alnus: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE that is distinguished from birch (BETULA) by its usually stalked winter buds and by cones that remain on the branches after the small, winged nutlets are released.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Typhaceae: A plant family of the order Typhales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) that contains a single genus, Typha, that grows worldwide.Zosteraceae: A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). This is a group of perennial aquatic herbs with basal leaves.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Saccharum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.
Everything About Wood: Advantages and disadvantages of composition and properties of biomass in comparison with coal: An...An extended overview of the advantages and disadvantages of biomass composition and properties for biofuel application was conducted based on reference peer-reviewed data plus own investigations. Initially, some general considerations and comparisons about composition and properties of biomass and coal as the most popular solid fuel are addressed. Then, some of the major advantages related to the composition and properties of biomass and/or biomass ash (BA) are discussed. They include: (1) high values of volatile matter, H, structural organic components, extractives and reactivity of biomass, water-soluble nutrient elements and alkaline-earth elements in biomass and BA, and pH of BA; and (2) low values of C, fixed C, ash, N, S, Si and initial ignition and combustion temperatures of biomass, and low contents of many trace elements including hazardous ones in biomass and BA. ...
Rapid analysis of composition and reactivity in cellulosic biomass feedstocks with near-infrared spectroscopy | Biotechnology...High-throughput methods for the determination of biomass composition and recalcitrance, as it relates to the production of biofuels and chemicals, are increasingly valuable for screening large numbers of plants for suitability as biofuel feedstocks, as well as determining plants that may require further genetic modification of traits that lead to higher fuel yields [1,2]. These methods are vital in reducing the cost of biofuel production by allowing for a more rapid assessment of cost-effective paths forward . The technique of relating near-infrared (NIR) spectral data to a variety of qualitative and quantitative parameters using multivariate analysis has seen a wide variety of applications . In the biofuel sector, NIR rapid analysis has been used at several points in the conversion process, and analysts have developed and published multivariate models to predict composition of native biomass and washed and dried dilute acid pretreated biomass, and ...
De novo prediction of the genomic components and capabilities for microbial plant biomass degradation from (meta-)genomes |...Lignocellulosic biomass is the primary component of all plants and one of the most abundant organic compounds on earth. It is a renewable, geographically distributed and a source of sugars, which can subsequently be converted into biofuels with low greenhouse gas emissions, such as ethanol. Chemically, it primarily consists of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Saccharification - the process of degrading lignocellulose into the individual component sugars - is of considerable biotechnological interest. Several mechanical and chemical procedures for saccharification have been established; however, all are relatively expensive, slow and inefficient . An alternative approach is realized in nature by various microorganisms, which use enzyme-driven lignocellulose degradation to generate sugars as sources of carbon and energy. The search for novel enzymes allowing an efficient breakdown of plant biomass has therefore attracted considerable interest [2-5]. In particular, the ...
ScholarSpace at University of Hawaii at Manoa: Utilization of invasive algal biomass for bioethanol production and the dynamics...Algae represent the most promising feedstock for biomass derived biofuel production. Certain invasive algae in Hawaii can form dense biomass and are potential feedstocks for bioethanol production. In this study, the biomass from the invasive algae Gracilaria salicornia was used as feedstock for ethanol production using the ethanologenic strain Escherichia coli KO11. The algal hydrolysates were successfully utilized in a two-stage saccharification and fermentation platform, showing no inhibition of its bacterial fermenting ability, and producing 79.1 g ethanol from one kilogram of dry algal mass. Algae contain large quantities of species-dependent polysaccharides that cannot be readily metabolized by current ethanologenic bacteria. To fully explore the potential of microbial conversion of algal biomass and increase the systematic efficiency for ethanol production, culture-dependent and independent methods were applied to identify bacterial ...
CRAN - Package BIOMASSContains functions to estimate aboveground biomass/carbon and its uncertainty in tropical forests. These functions allow to (1) retrieve and to correct taxonomy, (2) estimate wood density and its uncertainty, (3) construct height-diameter models, (4) estimate the above-ground biomass/carbon at the stand level with associated uncertainty. To cite BIOMASS, please use citation("BIOMASS").. ...
Heterogeneity and assessment uncertainties in forest characteristics and biomass carbon stocks: Important considerations for...The management of forests to store carbon and mitigate climate change has received significant inter- national attention during the last decade. Using in situ data from a 2008-2009 forest inventory field campaign in Sri Lanka, this study describes the structural characteristics and carbon stocks of six natural forest types. This paper has a dual scope: i) to highlight the variation in carbon stored in aboveground biomass within and between forest types and ii) to determine the implications of the allometric equa- tions chosen to calculate biomass carbon stocks. This study concerns work related to climate change interventions, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) and other forest-related, performance-based initiatives that require proper monitoring, reporting, and verification of carbon stocks, sinks and emissions. The results revealed that forests are heterogeneous in terms of tree density and height-diameter relationships, both ...
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Sensors | Free Full-Text | Estimation of Aboveground Biomass in Alpine Forests: A Semi-Empirical Approach Considering Canopy...In this study, a semi-empirical model that was originally developed for stem volume estimation is used for aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation of a spruce dominated alpine forest. The reference AGB of the available sample plots is calculated from forest inventory data by means of biomass expansion factors. Furthermore, the semi-empirical model is extended by three different canopy transparency parameters derived from airborne LiDAR data. These parameters have not been considered for stem volume estimation until now and are introduced in order to investigate the behavior of the model concerning AGB estimation. The developed additional input parameters are based on the assumption that transparency of vegetation can be measured by determining the penetration of the laser beams through the canopy. These parameters are calculated for every single point within the 3D point cloud in order to consider the varying properties of the vegetation in an appropriate way. Exploratory Data ...
High Force And High Stress Destructuring Of Cellulosic Biomass (E I Du Pont De Nemours And)A process for mechanical destructuring of cellulosic biomass was developed that makes use of a short application of high compression, impact, and shearing forces. The biomass may be destructured using a specific energy input that is less than 40% of the total combustible energy of the biomass. The destructured biomass,
Biomasses | Define Biomasses at Dictionary.comBiomasses definition, Ecology. the amount of living matter in a given habitat, expressed either as the weight of organisms per unit area or as the volume of organisms per unit volume of habitat. See more.
Ethanol inducible expression of a mesophilic cellulase avoids adverse effects on plant development | Biotechnology for Biofuels...The exact role of glucanases in the development of plants and their cell wall is not yet fully understood. Both the absence and overabundance of glucanases has an impact on plant growth and cell wall development, which is a major challenge for the expression of recombinant glucanases in plants for biomass degradation [9, 10].. Plants have been widely used for the production of recombinant proteins [1, 2] including glucanases and other biomass-degrading enzymes [4, 6]. However, in many instances the constitutive expression of such enzymes has been shown to negatively affect plant health, including reducing plant growth, altering the morphology of leaves, reducing plants' stress tolerance or changing the structure of the cell wall [4, 16, 17, 21, 38]. Alternative strategies are therefore desired for the production of cellulases in plants without affecting growth or development. Some suggested strategies include sequestration into subcellular compartments  and the ...
Biomass EnergyDifferent forms of biomass, such as plant waste, can be an environmentally-friendly alternative to fossil fuels and raw materials. It can also be used as a raw material in the chemicals and materials industry. It is estimated that biomass has the potential to provide 25% of the world's energy needs. It is particularly suited to use as a raw material for heavy fuels for marine and aircraft propulsion and as a base material for the chemicals industry. At TU Delft, we conduct research into how non-edible biomass (agricultural waste, forestry residues, seaweed, sludge, sewage waste, micro-algae) can be converted into energy carriers and biochemicals using thermal, chemical and biotechnological techniques (biobased economy). We also conduct research into the transport and logistics of biomass. ...
NexSteppe sells its Palo Alto high biomass sorghum in Brazil | Biomassmagazine.comNexSteppe recently announced that it sold more than 1,000 hectares (2,500 acres) of its Palo Alto high biomass sorghums for biopower in Brazil this past growing season. The feedstock can be used alongside bagasse to provide renewable power.
Uncertainty for the Biomass Industry Grows | NRDCIt's not easy to turn around a big ship. When policymakers get it wrong, it can be a long hard slog to set things right. We're in the midst of just such a course correction on biomass energy policies, and there's some good news to report this week. Mounting demand for wood in Europe--which lacks adequate biomass sourcing standards and allows wood-burning to be counted as "carbon free" under EU climate policies--has led to an explosive growth in pellet mills across the Southern US that are exporting wood pellets to supply the European electricity market. But plans for one such mill in Pike County, Mississippi appear to be off, a sign that uncertainty for the future of the pellet industry is growing.. Pike BioEnergy, the company behind the mill, is owned by Drax Power. Drax is the UK's largest utility and a top purchaser of wood pellets sourced from the forests of the US South. These pellets are loaded onto cargo ships and shipped across the ocean to be burned in British power ...
Soil CO2efflux in a bioenergy plantation with fast-growingPopulustrees - influence of former land use, inter-row spacing and...The annual SCE of the present study, 589 g m−2 yr−1 of C, was comparable to (Lagomarsino et al. 2012) or lower than values reported for SRC plantations in Europe (King et al. 2004; Vande Walle et al. 2007; Abou Jaoudé et al. 2011). Two-year old poplar plantations in Canada and China showed higher SCE rates up to annual means of 5.74 μmol m−2 s−1 (Arevalo et al. 2011; Yan et al. 2011). Whereas the average fine root biomass sampled in our field amounted to 34.2 g m−2 in the 15 cm upper soil layer (average of the two former land use types, Table 1), all these afore mentioned studies reported root biomass values of more than 100 g m−2. The low values in our study could be attributed to the fact that the two-year old trees of our plantation were raised from cuttings, while the previously mentioned studies used coppice stools or plantations established from rooted plantlets. Furthermore, our soil was characterized by a high N-availability, resulting from the previous agricultural ...
Estimation of adenosine-5'-triphosphate by bioluminescence and its use as an indicator of bacterial biomass in rumen liquidSusmel, P.; Stefanon, B.; Mills, C.R.; Colitti, M., 1991: Estimation of adenosine-5'-triphosphate by bioluminescence and its use as an indicator of bacterial biomass in rumen liquid
Cover crop effects on the fate of N in sweet maize (Zea mays L. saccharata Sturt.) production in a semiarid regionThis research aimed to determine the effects of different cover crops and application ofbio-fertilizer on dynamic of nitrogen in the soil and sweet maize yield. Also, we evaluated theeffect of fall-winter species (common vetch, field pea, winter oats, fodder kale) and a mixtureof vetch and field pea with oats used as cover crops, as such as dead organic mulch andtraditional variant, without coverage on biomass, chlorophyll and protein content in leaves andgrain of main crop. Biomass production and N uptake by cover crops ranged from 4.25 to 90.20kg ha-1 and from 0.34 to 133.80 kg ha-1 N, respectively, depending on cover crop type. Atharvest soil nitrate content in treatments with cover crops was 50-90% lower than in the control,reducing spring N leaching risk. Residual mineral N significantly increased with application ofmicrobiological fertilizer. The chlorophyll content of the main crop was significantly lower intreatments without cover crops. Consequently, sweet maize ...
"Hydrolysis of concentrated dilute base pretreated biomass slurries." by Gregory A. Brockmann 1987Enzymatic hydrolysis is an important, but time limiting step in the process of converting biomass into ethanol. High solids concentrations are desired in order to minimize reactor size and achieve a higher concentration of glucose in the end product stream. However, higher solids concentrations lead to higher viscosities and hence, mixing and mass transfer becomes more difficult. In this study, a mixer designed to overcome the mass transfer limitations was used to conduct enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute-base pretreated corn stover, wheat, and miscanthus at high solids concentrations. This was done to determine if overcoming the mass transfer limitations would improve glucose release rates and yields, as was the case in a previous study on dilute acid pretreated corn stover. Solids concentrations were tested at 20%, 25%, and 30% for each substrate. The glucose yields during mixer trials were higher for lower solids concentrations for all three substrates, contradicting the previous results ...
Citation Machine: Biomass And Bioenergy format citation generator for multivolume workCitation Machine™ helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use. Cite your multivolume work in Biomass and Bioenergy format for free.
Modeling Biomass Behavior During Combustion- A Thermochemical Approach To Predict Slagging; Effect Of The S/Cl Molar RatioThermochemical modeling seems a promising tool in the biomass combustion field to avoid ash-related problems during combustion: slagging, fouling and corrosion...
Biomass | HuffPost CanadaDistrict heating is a simple idea. Produce the heat in a large centralized plant and then pipe it to nearby customers, but it still hasn't cracked into the mainstream in Canada yet. The heating provided by the biomass project can cover half of the heating load on the coldest prairie winter day of the year and the vast majority of the heating loads the rest of the year ...
Methods For Botanical And/or Algae Extraction (Basf)The present disclosure relates to methods for extraction of biomass. Biomass of most interest is that which contains biologically active, extracts suitable for the skin care market. The biomass of interest includes botanicals (plant extracts and bioferments thereof), algae (red, brown, green and red, including bioferments thereof), fungi and even
How to Hide an Aboveground Pool | eHowHow to Hide an Aboveground Pool. Aboveground pools appear harsh in contrast with a green lawn. They can be an eyesore from a distance, decreasing the aesthetic value of your house -- which can make or break a deal when it comes time to sell. If you live in a gated community, aboveground pools can also lead to fines and citations for their...
2013 PublicationsIn Nature Microbiology, a team led by researchers at UC Santa Barbara has found for the first time that early lineages of fungi can form complexes of enzymes capable of degrading plant biomass. The work was enabled by harnessing the capabilities of two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facilities: the DOE JGI and EMSL. Read more ...
ICCOE 2018The Possibility of the Application of Plant Biomass Enriched with Cr(III), Zn(II), Cu(II) and Mn(II) Ions as a Feed Additive for Horses with EMS (Equine Metabolic Syndrome ...
Canadian Renewable Fuels Association: The Canadian Renewable Fuels Association (CRFA) is a non-profit organization in Canada, created in 1984. Its stated purpose is to "promote renewable fuels for transportation through consumer awareness and government liaison activities", and its membership includes "representatives from all levels of the ethanol and biodiesel industry", including agricultural associations and producers of ethanol and biodiesel.EcosystemIndex of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Carbon–carbon bond: A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. The most common form is the single bond: a bond composed of two electrons, one from each of the two atoms.Energy security of the People's Republic of China: Energy security of the People's Republic of China concerns the need for the People's Republic of China to guarantee itself and its industries long- term access to sufficient energy and raw materials. China has been endeavoring to sign international agreements and secure such supplies; its energy security involves the internal and foreign energy policy of China.Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Coniferyl aldehydeNitrogen deficiencyWood fibre: Wood fibers are usually cellulosic elements that are extracted from trees and used to make materials including paper.Paddock: A paddock has two primary meanings in different parts of the English-speaking world. In Canada, the USA and UK, a paddock is a small enclosure used to keep horses.Carbon fixation: Carbon fixation or сarbon assimilation refers to the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms. The most prominent example is photosynthesis, although chemosynthesis is another form of carbon fixation that can take place in the absence of sunlight.Endodermis: The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants. It is made of compact living cells surrounded by an outer ring of endodermal cells that are impregnated with hydrophobic substances (Casparian Strip) to restrict apoplastic flow of water to the inside.BioreactorPhotobioreactor: A photobioreactor is a bioreactor that utilizes a light source to cultivate phototrophic microorganisms. These organisms use photosynthesis to generate biomass from light and carbon dioxide and include plants, mosses, macroalgae, microalgae, cyanobacteria and purple bacteria.Microalgal bacterial flocs: == MaB-flocs ==Lactic acid fermentationPhytoplanktonAlliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Phlogiston theory: The phlogiston theory is an obsolete scientific theory that postulated that a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion. The name comes from the Ancient Greek [phlogistón (burning up), from φλόξ] phlóx (flame).Gentle frying: Gentle frying or low-temperature frying is an oil- or fat-based cooking method used for relatively fragile or starchy foods.fissler.Revegetation: Revegetation is the process of replanting and rebuilding the soil of disturbed land. This may be a natural process produced by plant colonization and succession, or an artificial (manmade) wilderness engineering, accelerated process designed to repair damage to a landscape due to wildfire, mining, flood, or other cause.Deconstruction Tour: Deconstruction Tour is a one-day punk music and skate festival that is staged in various countries across Europe. It first took place in 1999, and has occurred annually since.Canna Leaf Roller: Cannas are largely free of pests, but in the USA plants sometimes fall victim the Canna Leaf Roller, which can actually be two different insects. Larva of the Brazilian skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlius), also known as the Larger Canna Leaf Roller, cut the leaves and roll them over to live inside while pupating and eating the leaf.Biotechnology Industry Organization: The Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) is the largest trade organization to serve and represent the biotechnology industry in the United States and around the world.Anna Edney, "Biosciences Defy U.Panicum coloratum: Panicum coloratum is a species of grass known by the common names kleingrass, blue panicgrassPanicum coloratum. Tropical Forages.Microbial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).Meramec Conservation AreaWater Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area: Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area (French, Eau Agriculture Et Sante Et Milieu Tropical (E.A.BiodegradationCellulose fiber: Cellulose fibers () are fibers made with ether or esters of cellulose, which can be obtained from the bark, wood or leaves of plants, or from a plant-based material. Besides cellulose, these fibers are compound of hemicellulose and lignin, and different percentages of these components are responsible for different mechanical properties observed.Pith: 250px|right|thumb|[[Elderberry shoot cut longitudinally to show the broad, solid pith (rough-textured, white) inside the wood (smooth, yellow-tinged). Scale in mm.Salix Pharmaceuticals: Salix Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is a specialist American pharmaceutical company.Indoor air pollution in developing nations: Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a significant form of indoor air pollution (IAP) that is little known to those in the developed world.Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek [phōs, "light", and σύνθεσις], synthesis, "putting together".Gemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996: The Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996 is an amendment to the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, a law governing the management of marine fisheries in the United States. Another major amendment to this legislation was later made under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act of 2006.Carbon dioxide removal: Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) methods refers to a number of technologies which reduce the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Among such technologies are bio-energy with carbon capture and storage, biochar, direct air capture, ocean fertilization and enhanced weathering.Rumford furnace: A Rumford furnace is a kiln for the industrial scale production in the 19th century of calcium oxide, popularly known as quicklime or burnt lime. It was named after its inventor, Benjamin Thompson, also known as Count Rumford, and is sometimes called a Rüdersdorf furnace after the location where it was first built and from where the design rapidly spread throughout Europe.Forum for Renewable Energy Development in Scotland: The Forum for Renewable Energy Development in Scotland, also known as FREDS is a partnership between industry, academia and Government aimed at enabling Scotland to capitalise on its significant renewable energy resource and thereby secure economic benefits."Forum for Renewable Energy Development" Scottish Government.National Fire Academy: The National Fire Academy (NFA)National Fire Academy Mission Accessed: 6/12/2012 is one of two schools in the United States operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) at the National Emergency Training Center (NETC) in Emmitsburg, Maryland. Operated and governed by the United States Fire Administration (USFA) as part of the U.Phosphorus deficiency: Phosphorus deficiency is a plant disorder associated with insufficient supply of phosphorus. Phosphorus refers here to salts of phosphates (PO43−), monohydrogen phosphate (HPO42−), and dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4−).Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Chemical defense: Chemical defense is the use of chemical compounds by plants and animals to deter herbivory and predation. Chemical defenses can also be used in competitive interactions to prevent overgrowth or maintain spatial dominance.Animals and tobacco smoke: Animals are exposed to tobacco smoke and other cigarette by-products through their use as experimental subjects and through contact with smokers, as in the case of pets in houses where smoking takes place.History of the New York State College of Forestry: The New York State College of Forestry, the first professional school of forestry in North America, opened its doors at Cornell University, in Ithaca, New York, in the autumn of 1898.http://foresthistory.Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Deep chlorophyll maximum: A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) is a subsurface maximum in the concentration of chlorophyll in the ocean or a lake. A DCM is not always present--sometimes there is more chlorophyll at the surface than at any greater depth--but it is a common feature of most aquatic ecosystems.Organic fertilizer: Organic fertilizers are fertilizers derived from animal matter, human excreta or vegetable matter. (e.Anoxic event: Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area. During some of these events, euxinia develops - euxinia refers to anoxic waters that contain hydrogen sulfide.List of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsExogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.In Memory of Celtic Frost: In Memory of... Celtic Frost is a Celtic Frost tribute album released in 1996.Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Eucalyptus globulus: The Tasmanian blue gum, southern blue gum or blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) is an evergreen tree, one of the most widely cultivated trees native to Australia. They typically grow from tall.Carbonization: Carbonization (or carbonisation) is the term for the conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue through pyrolysis or destructive distillation. It is often used in organic chemistry with reference to the generation of coal gas and coal tar from raw coal.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Marine fungi: Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments. They are not a taxonomic group but share a common habitat.Lacandonia: Lacandonia is a mycoheterotrophic plant that contains no chlorophyll and has the unusual characteristic of inverted positions of the male (androecium) and female (gynoecium) floral parts, something that had not been seen in any other plants with the occasional exception of some individuals of the related 'Esteban Martinez and Clara Hilda Ramos Lacandoniaceae (Triuridales): Una Nueva Familia de Mexico. Ann.Breeding for drought stress toleranceContinuous Plankton Recorder: The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey is one of the longest running marine biological monitoring programmes in the world. Started in 1931 by Sir Alister Hardy, the CPR has provided marine scientists with their only measure of plankton communities on a pan-oceanic scale.Gas heater: A gas heater is a space heater used to heat a room or outdoor area by burning natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, propane or butane.Seaweed farming: Seaweed farming is the practice of cultivating and harvesting seaweed. In its simplest form, it consists of the management of naturally found batches.Plant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.MoinaEutrophication: Eutrophication (Greek: eutrophia—healthy, adequate nutrition, development; ) or more precisely hypertrophication, is the ecosystem's response to the addition of artificial or natural nutrients, mainly phosphates, through detergents, fertilizers, or sewage, to an aquatic system.Schindler, David and Vallentyne, John R.List of rivers of Brazil: This is a list of rivers in Brazil.Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.D-xylose reductase: D-xylose reductase (, XylR, XyrA, msXR, dsXR, monospecific xylose reductase, dual specific xylose reductase, NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase, xylose reductase) is an enzyme with system name xylitol:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionNankai Trough gas hydrate site: Nankai Methane Hydrate Site (or Japanese Methane Hydrate R&D Program at Nankai, Nankai Trough Methane Hydrate Site) is located in the Nankai Trough, Japan.Shatter (novel): Shatter is a psychological thriller written by the Australian author Michael Robotham that was published in 2008. Professor Joseph O'Loughlin (referred to as Joe throughout the novel) is tasked by the police with stopping a woman, Christine Wheeler, from committing suicide, only to fail.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Tank chassis: Tank container chassis, also referred to as tank chassis, drop frame chassis or tank trailers, are a form of intermodal transportation for portable bulk liquid containers or ISO tank containers. They are characteristically longer and have lower deck height ideal for transporting constantly shifting payloads.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Arbuscular mycorrhiza: An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (plural mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas, a.k.Red chlorophyll catabolite reductase: In molecular biology, the red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCC reductase) family of proteins consists of several red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCC reductase) proteins. Red chlorophyll catabolite (RCC) reductase (RCCR) and pheophorbide (Pheide) a oxygenase (PaO) catalyse the key reaction of chlorophyll catabolism, porphyrin macrocycle cleavage of Pheide a to a primary fluorescent catabolite (pFCC).Chance seedling: A chance seedling is a plant that is the product of unintentional breeding. It may be a genetically unique individual with desirable characteristics that is then intentionally bred.Alnus sieboldiana: Alnus sieboldiana (オオバヤシャブシ in Japanese) is an alder species found on the islands of Honshū, Shikoku, and Suwanose-jima in Japan.Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant FamiliesBaltic sculpin: The Baltic sculpinBaltic sculpin (Cottus microstomus) at EOL (Cottus microstomus) is a species of sculpin, a European freshwater fish in the Cottidae family. It is widespread in the Dniester drainage (Black Sea basin), Odra and Vistula drainages (southern Baltic basin), most likely extending further east to Gulf of Finland.Mycena domingensis: Mycena domingensis is a mushroom in the Mycenaceae family. Found in Venezuela, it was described in 1961 by English mycologist R.Labyrinthula: Labyrinthula is a genus of heterokont, comprising ten species.Glycoside hydrolase family 48: In molecular biology, glycoside hydrolase family 48 is a family of glycoside hydrolases.Leifsonia xyli xyli: Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli is a small, fastidious, Gram-positive, coryneform bacterium that causes ratoon stunting disease, a major worldwide disease of sugarcane.
(1/2814) Regulation of the start of DNA replication in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.
Cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe were grown in minimal medium with different nitrogen sources under steady-state conditions, with doubling times ranging from 2.5 to 14 hours. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy confirmed earlier findings that at rapid growth rates, the G1 phase was short and cell separation occurred at the end of S phase. For some nitrogen sources, the growth rate was greatly decreased, the G1 phase occupied 30-50% of the cell cycle, and cell separation occurred in early G1. In contrast, other nitrogen sources supported low growth rates without any significant increase in G1 duration. The method described allows manipulation of the length of G1 and the relative cell cycle position of S phase in wild-type cells. Cell mass was measured by flow cytometry as scattered light and as protein-associated fluorescence. The extensions of G1 were not related to cell mass at entry into S phase. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the cells must reach a certain fixed, critical mass before entry into S. We suggest that cell mass at the G1/S transition point is variable and determined by a set of molecular parameters. In the present experiments, these parameters were influenced by the different nitrogen sources in a way that was independent of the actual growth rate. (+info)
(2/2814) Temperature and pH conditions that prevail during fermentation of sausages are optimal for production of the antilisterial bacteriocin sakacin K.
Sakacin K is an antilisterial bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake CTC 494, a strain isolated from Spanish dry fermented sausages. The biokinetics of cell growth and bacteriocin production of L. sake CTC 494 in vitro during laboratory fermentations were investigated by making use of MRS broth. The data obtained from the fermentations was used to set up a predictive model to describe the influence of the physical factors temperature and pH on microbial behavior. The model was validated successfully for all components. However, the specific bacteriocin production rate seemed to have an upper limit. Both cell growth and bacteriocin activity were very much influenced by changes in temperature and pH. The production of biomass was closely related to bacteriocin activity, indicating primary metabolite kinetics, but was not the only factor of importance. Acidity dramatically influenced both the production and the inactivation of sakacin K; the optimal pH for cell growth did not correspond to the pH for maximal sakacin K activity. Furthermore, cells grew well at 35 degrees C but no bacteriocin production could be detected at this temperature. L. sake CTC 494 shows special promise for implementation as a novel bacteriocin-producing sausage starter culture with antilisterial properties, considering the fact that the temperature and acidity conditions that prevail during the fermentation process of dry fermented sausages are optimal for the production of sakacin K. (+info)
(3/2814) The role of benzoate in anaerobic degradation of terephthalate.
The effects of acetate, benzoate, and periods without substrate on the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate (1, 4-benzene-dicarboxylate) by a syntrophic methanogenic culture were studied. The culture had been enriched on terephthalate and was capable of benzoate degradation without a lag phase. When incubated with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate, subsequent degradation with preference for benzoate was observed. Both benzoate and acetate inhibited the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. The observed inhibition is partially irreversible, resulting in a decrease (or even a complete loss) of the terephthalate-degrading activity after complete degradation of benzoate or acetate. Irreversible inhibition was characteristic for terephthalate degradation only because the inhibition of benzoate degradation by acetate could well be described by reversible noncompetitive product inhibition. Terephthalate degradation was furthermore irreversibly inhibited by periods without substrate of only a few hours. The inhibition of terephthalate degradation due to periods without substrate could be overcome through incubation of the culture with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate. In this case no influence of a period without substrate was observed. Based on these observations it is postulated that decarboxylation of terephthalate, resulting in the formation of benzoate, is strictly dependent on the concomitant fermentation of benzoate. In the presence of higher concentrations of benzoate, however, benzoate is the favored substrate over terephthalate, and the culture loses its ability to degrade terephthalate. In order to overcome the inhibition of terephthalate degradation by benzoate and acetate, a two-stage reactor system is suggested for the treatment of wastewater generated during terephthalic acid production. (+info)
(4/2814) Citric acid production from xylan and xylan hydrolysate by semi-solid culture of Aspergillus niger.
Citric acid production from xylan and xylan hydrolysate was done by Aspergillus niger Yang no. 2 cultivated in a semi-solid culture using bagasse as a carrier. Yang no. 2 produced 72.4 g/l and 52.6 g/l of citric acid in 5 d from 140 g/l of xylose and arabinose, respectively. Yang no. 2 produced 51.6 g/l of citric acid in 3 d from a concentrated xylan hydrolysate prepared by cellulase treatment, containing 100 g/l of reducing sugars. Moreover, Yang no. 2 directly produced 39.6 g/l of citric acid maximally in 3 d from 140 g/l of xylan. (+info)
(5/2814) High-rate anaerobic treatment of wastewater at low temperatures.
Anaerobic treatment of a volatile fatty acid (VFA) mixture was investigated under psychrophilic (3 to 8 degrees C) conditions in two laboratory-scale expanded granular sludge bed reactor stages in series. The reactor system was seeded with mesophilic methanogenic granular sludge and fed with a mixture of VFAs. Good removal of fatty acids was achieved in the two-stage system. Relative high levels of propionate were present in the effluent of the first stage, but propionate was efficiently removed in the second stage, where a low hydrogen partial pressure and a low acetate concentration were advantageous for propionate oxidation. The specific VFA-degrading activities of the sludge in each of the modules doubled during system operation for 150 days, indicating a good enrichment of methanogens and proton-reducing acetogenic bacteria at such low temperatures. The specific degradation rates of butyrate, propionate, and the VFA mixture amounted to 0.139, 0.110, and 0.214 g of chemical oxygen demand g of volatile suspended solids-1 day-1, respectively. The biomass which was obtained after 1.5 years still had a temperature optimum of between 30 and 40 degrees C. (+info)
(6/2814) Tessaracoccus bendigoensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a gram-positive coccus occurring in regular packages or tetrads, isolated from activated sludge biomass.
An isolate of a Gram-positive bacterium, designated strain Ben 106T, was obtained in pure culture by micromanipulation of a biomass sample obtained from a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor. This isolate grew axenically as cocci or clusters of cocci arranged in regular tetrads and was morphologically similar to the dominant organism observed in the biomass. This morphology resembled that of some Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and the so-called 'G-bacteria' commonly seen in activated sludge samples. Strain Ben 106T is a non-motile, facultative anaerobe. It is oxidase-negative, catalase-positive and is capable of reducing nitrate. This organism can grow between 20 and 37 degrees C, with an optimum temperature of 25 degrees C. The pH range for growth is between 6.0 and 9.0, with an optimum pH of 7.5. The isolate stained positively for intracellular polyphosphate granules. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan is LL-diaminopimelic acid (LL-A2pm) with a glycine moiety at position 1 of the peptide subunit, which characterizes the presence of a rare peptidoglycan (type A3-gamma'). Two menaquinones, MK-9(H4) and MK-7(H4), are present and the main cellular fatty acid is 12-methyltetradecanoic acid. The G + C content is 74 mol%. From phenotypic characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the isolate differed sufficiently from its closest phylogenetic relatives, namely Propionibacterium propionicum, Propioniferax innocua, Friedmanniella antarctica, Luteococcus japonicus and Microlunatus phosphovorus in the A1 subdivision of the Gram-positive bacteria (i.e. Firmicutes with a high G + C content), suborder Propionibacterineae, to be placed in a new genus, Tessaracoccus, as Tessaracoccus bendigoensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is Ben 106T (= ACM 5119T). (+info)
(7/2814) Carbon and electron flow in Clostridium cellulolyticum grown in chemostat culture on synthetic medium.
Previous results indicated poor sugar consumption and early inhibition of metabolism and growth when Clostridium cellulolyticum was cultured on medium containing cellobiose and yeast extract. Changing from complex medium to a synthetic medium had a strong effect on (i) the specific cellobiose consumption, which was increased threefold; and (ii) the electron flow, since the NADH/NAD+ ratios ranged from 0.29 to 2.08 on synthetic medium whereas ratios as high as 42 to 57 on complex medium were observed. These data indicate a better control of the carbon flow on mineral salts medium than on complex medium. By continuous culture, it was shown that the electron flow from glycolysis was balanced by the production of hydrogen gas, ethanol, and lactate. At low levels of carbon flow, pyruvate was preferentially cleaved to acetate and ethanol, enabling the bacteria to maximize ATP formation. A high catabolic rate led to pyruvate overflow and to increased ethanol and lactate production. In vitro, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ethanol dehydrogenase levels were higher under conditions giving higher in vivo specific production rates. Redox balance is essentially maintained by NADH-ferredoxin reductase-hydrogenase at low levels of carbon flow and by ethanol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase at high levels of carbon flow. The same maximum growth rate (0.150 h-1) was found in both mineral salts and complex media, proving that the uptake of nutrients or the generation of biosynthetic precursors occurred faster than their utilization. On synthetic medium, cellobiose carbon was converted into cell mass and catabolized to produce ATP, while on complex medium, it served mainly as an energy supply and, if present in excess, led to an accumulation of intracellular metabolites as demonstrated for NADH. Cells grown on synthetic medium and at high levels of carbon flow were able to induce regulatory responses such as the production of ethanol and lactate dehydrogenase. (+info)
(8/2814) Differentiation of Helicobacter pylori isolates based on lectin binding of cell extracts in an agglutination assay.
Plant and animal lectins with various carbohydrate specificities were used to type 35 Irish clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori and the type strain NCTC 11637 in a microtiter plate assay. Initially, a panel of eight lectins with the indicated primary specificities were used: Anguilla anguilla (AAA), Lotus tetragonolobus (Lotus A), and Ulex europaeus I (UEA I), specific for alpha-L-fucose; Solanum tuberosum (STA) and Triticum vulgaris (WGA), specific for beta-N-acetylglucosamine; Glycine max (SBA), specific for beta-N-acetylgalactosamine; Erythrina cristagali (ECA), specific for beta-galactose and beta-N-acetylgalactosamine; and Lens culinaris (LCA), specific for alpha-mannose and alpha-glucose. Three of the lectins (SBA, STA, and LCA) were not useful in aiding in strain discrimination. An optimized panel of five lectins (AAA, ECA, Lotus A, UEA I, and WGA) grouped all 36 strains tested into eight lectin reaction patterns. For optimal typing, pretreatment by washing bacteria with a low-pH buffer to allow protein release, followed by proteolytic degradation to eliminate autoagglutination, was used. Lectin types of treated samples were stable and reproducible. No strain proved to be untypeable by this system. Electrophoretic and immunoblotting analyses of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) indicated that the lectins interact primarily, but not solely, with the O side chain of H. pylori LPS. (+info)