Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Directed Molecular Evolution: The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.

*  Biological evolution - The Full Wiki

The origin of life is a necessary precursor for biological evolution, but understanding that evolution occurred once organisms ... Understanding Evolution from University of California, Berkeley. *Evolution of Evolution - 150 Years of Darwin's "On the Origin ... a b c d e Kutschera U, Niklas K (2004). "The modern theory of biological evolution: an expanded synthesis". Naturwissenschaften ... Redirected to Evolution article). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about evolution in biology. For other ...
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*  Evolutionary constraints on adaptive evolution during range expansion in an invasive plant | Proceedings of the Royal Society...

Biological invasions provide opportunities for investigating limits to contemporary evolution (Lankau et al. 2009), because ... 1979 Quantitative genetic analysis of multivariate evolution, applied to brain:body size allometry. Evolution 33, 402-416. (doi ... 2007 Rapid evolution of flowering time by an annual plant in response to climate fluctuation. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104, ... 2004 Rapid evolution of an invasive plant. Ecol. Monogr. 74, 261-280. (doi:10.1890/03-4027). ...
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*  The evolution of the Ecdysozoa | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

The evolution of the Ecdysozoa. Maximilian J Telford, Sarah J Bourlat, Andrew Economou, Daniel Papillon, Omar Rota-Stabelli ... The evolution of the Ecdysozoa Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal ... 2005 Evolution of early development of the nervous system: a comparison between arthropods. BioEssays. 27, 874-883. doi:10.1002 ... Animal evolution. Interrelationships of the living phyla. In Oxford University Press 1st edn. 1995 Oxford, UK:Oxford University ...
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*  Evolution of the chloroplast genome | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

Evolution of the chloroplast genome. Christopher J. Howe, Adrian C. Barbrook, V. Lila Koumandou, R. Ellen R. Nisbet, Hamish A. ... Evolution of the chloroplast genome. Christopher J. Howe, Adrian C. Barbrook, V. Lila Koumandou, R. Ellen R. Nisbet, Hamish A. ... Evolution of the chloroplast genome Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Philosophical Transactions of the ... Your Name) thought you would like to see the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences web site. ...
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*  The evolution of animal 'cultures' and social intelligence | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological...

Introduction: the evolution of culture in a microcosm. In Evolution and culture Levinson S.C, Jaisson P 2006pp. 1-41. Eds. ... The active role of behaviour in evolution. In Process and metaphors in evolution Ho M.-W, Fox S 1988pp. 191-207. Eds. ... 2000 Niche construction, biological evolution and cultural change. Behav. Brain Sci. 23, 131-175. doi:10.1017/S0140525X00002417 ... The evolution of deep social mind in humans. In The descent of mind: psychological perspectives on hominid evolution Corballis ...
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*  Rapid evolution of reproductive proteins in abalone and Drosophila | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B:...

Your Name) thought you would like to see the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences web site. ... Patterns of protein evolution from both abalone and Drosophila support the predicted patterns of rapid protein evolution driven ... Rapid evolution of reproductive proteins in abalone and Drosophila. Tami M Panhuis, Nathaniel L Clark, Willie J Swanson ... Rapid evolution of reproductive proteins in abalone and Drosophila Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
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*  The evolution of HIV-1 and the origin of AIDS | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

The evolution of HIV-1 and the origin of AIDS Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Philosophical ... 2002 The evolution of primate lentiviruses and the origins of AIDS. In The Molecular epidemiology of human viruses (ed. Leitner ... The evolution of HIV-1 and the origin of AIDS. Paul M. Sharp, Beatrice H. Hahn ... 2009 Tetherin-driven adaptation of Vpu and Nef function and the evolution of pandemic and non-pandemic HIV-1 strains. Cell Host ...
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*  Towards a conceptual and operational union of bacterial systematics, ecology, and evolution | Philosophical Transactions of the...

Your Name) thought you would like to see the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences web site. ... 6. Systematics and the diversity of models of bacterial evolution. *7. A paradigm for incorporating evolution and ecology into ... Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. ... Towards a conceptual and operational union of bacterial systematics, ecology, and evolution. Frederick M Cohan ...
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*  The evolution of payoff matrices: providing incentives to cooperate | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological...

Our results highlight the importance of considering the evolution of payoff matrices to understand the evolution of animal ... 1998 The evolution of interspecific mutualisms. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 95, 8676-8680. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.15.8676 (doi: ... 2010 Adaptive evolution of pelvic reduction in sticklebacks by recurrent deletion of a Pitx1 enhancer. Science 327, 302-305. ... 1981 The evolution of cooperation. Science 211, 1390-1396. doi:10.1126/science.7466396 (doi:10.1126/science.7466396). ...
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*  A news and discussion forum for members and friends of the Society for Anthropology in Community Colleges.

evolution couldn't make adjustments part by part. IDologues also claim that these biological entities are so complex that. they ... evolution couldn't make adjustments part by part.. ,. , IDologues also claim that these biological entities are so complex that ... Obfuscating biological evolution. Skeptical Inquirer. 29(November/December):54. Sources:. Mark Perakh. California State ... evolution. And perhaps nonessential biological facts of life, such as. irritable bowel syndrome and male-pattern baldness, ...
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*  Killing by Type VI secretion drives genetic phase separation and correlates with increased cooperation | Nature Communications

Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FL, UK. * ... Theory for the evolution of diffusible external goods. . Evolution 64, 2682-2687 (2010). ... Evolution 70, 848-859 (2016).. **PubMed*Article*15.. Van Dyken, J. D., Müller, M. J., Mack, K. M. & Desai, M. M. Spatial ... Evolution 43, 258-275 (1989).. **PubMed*Article*42.. Buttery, N. J. et al. Structured growth and genetic drift raise ...
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*  Bibliografia de Ronald Fisher - Wikipedia

1930 Fisher, R. A. (1931). «The Evolution of Dominance». Biological Reviews. 6 (4): 345-368. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.1931. ... 1922 «Statistical Appendix to a Paper by J. Davidson on Biological Studies of Aphis rumicis». Annals of Applied Biology. 9: 142 ... 1954). «Retrospect of criticisms of the theory of natural selection». Evolution as a process. London: Allen & Unwin. pp. 84-98 ... doi:10.1093/biomet/10.4.507 Fisher, R. A. (1915). «The evolution of sexual preference». Eugenics Review. 7 (3): 184-192. PMC ...
https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bibliografia_de_Ronald_Fisher

*  Roger Patterson | Answers in Genesis | Answers in Genesis

Biological Evolution. Feb. 3, 2011 from Evolution Exposed: Earth Science. The evolution of life on earth from simple matter is ... 17, 2011 from Evolution Exposed: Earth Science. When we start our reasoning from the truth of Scripture, we can develop a model ... 30, 2010 from Evolution Exposed: Earth Science. There are many problems with the models and hypotheses that are used to support ... 13, 2011 from Evolution Exposed: Earth Science. Many dating methods establish a maximum age for many earth and space systems ...
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*  Media coverage - Biosciences - University of Exeter

Human Biological and Cultural Evolution Group. Media coverage. Research by Shakti Lamba and Vivek Nityananda on the evolution ... Human Biological and Cultural Evolution Group > Media coverage ... Tom Currie's work on the evolution of empires was covered by ... Research by Andy Russell on the evolution of human menopause published recently in Ecology Letters was featured in a number of ...
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*  Bibliografía de Ronald Fisher - Wikipedia

Fisher, R. A. (1931). «The Evolution of Dominance». Biological Reviews 6 (4): 345-368. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.1931.tb01030.x ... Statistical Tables for Biological Agricultural and Medical Research. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. 1938. Theory of Inbreeding. ... Statistical Appendix to a Paper by J. Davidson on Biological Studies of Aphis rumicis». Annals of Applied Biology 9: 142-145. ... The Bearing of Genetics on Theories of Evolution». Science Progress 27: 273-287. 1932. (with FR Immer and O Tedlin) «The ...
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bibliografía_de_Ronald_Fisher

*  Implementation of CCSS Literacy Standards for Science by Jennifer Janzen on Prezi

Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity. Life Sciences. Matter and Its Interactions. Motion and Stability. Energy Waves and ...
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*  Political demography - Wikipedia

The Reproductive Benefits of Religious Affiliation'." In The Biological Evolution of Religious Mind and Behavior, ed. E. Voland ... Political demography and evolution[edit]. Differential reproductive success is the mechanism through which evolution takes ... 1 Political demography and evolution. *2 Uneven transition, democratization and globalization *2.1 Ethnic, national and ... which can redraw the boundaries of populations in a way that is not possible with biological populations.[2] Typically, ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_demography

*  Department of Biological Sciences - College of Science - University of Idaho

Department of Biological Sciences offers degrees in undergraduate and graduate levels with modern teaching, library and ... Evolution Through Gaming Polymorphic Gaming Studio creates video game to aid in teaching genetics. ... Department of Biological Sciences. The Department of Biological Sciences offers undergraduate (Biochemistry, Biology, ... The Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program in Molecular and Organismal Evolution is a 10-week summer program ...
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*  Course Descriptions | Biological Sciences

Biology 730-731 - Special Topics in Evolution. (3, 3) Intensive lectures and/or lab work on special topics in evolution. Prereq ... HOME / ACADEMICS / ENGINEERING & NATURAL SCIENCES / BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Course Descriptions. Biology 110 - Introductory Cell ... Application information is available in the Department of Biological Sciences office. Only grades of D or F are counted as one ... 3) The history of evolutionary thought, the evidence for evolution and the nature of evolutionary processes. Students will be ...
utm.edu/departments/biology/courses.php

*  Degree and course requirements for Environmental Science at ODU | Ohio Dominican University

BIO 274 Biological Evolution. 4*. BIO 366 Genetics. 4*. CHM 229 Organic Chemistry I. 4*. ...
ohiodominican.edu/academics/undergraduate/bachelor-degrees/environmental-science/course-requirements

*  Evolution as Science vs the Intellectual Hypocrisy of Creation Theory - Faithfreedom.org

Biological Evolution in brief:. The basic idea of biological evolution is that all life on Earth shares a common ancestor of ... Darwin's theory of evolution is standing tall today! Evolution theory is the basis of all biological science and widely ... Biological science is totally dependent on evolutionary phenomena. Darwin's theory of Biological Evolution is one of the most ... Entire biological science is firmly standing on the shoulder of evolution theory today. In brief: Evolution theory believes ...
faithfreedom.org/evolution-as-science-vs-the-intellectual-hypocrisy-of-creation-theory/

*  Bioinformatics biologists | Genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology | Cambridge University Press

Biological networks uncover evolution, disease, and gene functions Nataša Pržulj. 16. Regulatory network inference Russell ... Evolution:. 9. Genome rearrangements Steffen Heber and Brian Howard. 10. The crisis of the tree of life concept and the search ... Biological naïveté in thinking and writing plagues bioinformatics, and Pevzner and Shamir's Bioinformatics for Biologists ... Covers a wide range of highly relevant bioinformatic issues, including the genetic basis of disease, genome evolution and the ...
cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/life-sciences/genomics-bioinformatics-and-systems-biology/bioinformatics-biologists?format=PB&isbn=9781107648876

*  See Behe Flail - EvolutionBlog

Biological amateur here, but didn't he just outline the process of evolution? Parts have functions, and become modified to have ... paper, "Structural Insights into the Evolution of a Non-Biological Protein: Importance of Surface Residues in Protein Fold ... and concludes that evolution well could have taken that path. These findings do not call evolution into question, but rather ... If evolution were guided or designed to unfold in a particular way, then very improbable events would be expected to be packed ...
scienceblogs.com/evolutionblog/2007/08/27/see-behe-flail/

*  dblp: Abir U. Igamberdiev

Anticipatory dynamics of biological systems: from molecular quantum states to evolution. Int. J. General Systems 44(6): 631-641 ... Time rescaling and pattern formation in biological evolution. Biosystems 123: 19-26 (2014) ... Inferring directions of evolution from patterns of variation: The legacy of Sergei Meyen. Biosystems 123: 67-73 (2014) ...
dblp.uni-trier.de/pers/hd/i/Igamberdiev:Abir_U=

*  Allomaternal care and relatedness | Biology Letters

1999 Inferring the historical patterns of biological evolution. Nature 401, 877-884. doi:10.1038/44766 (doi:10.1038/44766). ... 1964 Genetical evolution of social behaviour I. J. Theor. Biol. 7, 1-16. doi:10.1016/0022-5193(64)90038-4 (doi:10.1016/0022- ... Evolution 57, 717-745. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2003.tb00285.x (doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2003.tb00285.x). ... This may be because the evolution of social monogamy and cooperative breeding are linked [9], or because cooperative breeding ...
rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/8/4/533

*  Coadaptación: lecciones desde el camarón de salmuera Artemia, "la Drosophila acuática" (Crustacea; Anostraca)

MAYR E (1982) The growth of biological thought. Diversity, evolution and inheritance. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, ... Evolution 8: 241-251. [ Links ]. VETUKHIV M (1956) Fecundity of hybrids between geographic populations of Drosophila ... Evolution 10: 139-146. [ Links ]. VETUKHIV M (1957) Longevity of hybrids between geographic populations of Drosophila ... Evolution 33 172-181. [ Links ]. ZAPATA C, G GAJARDO & JA BEARDMORE (1990) Multilocus heterozygosity and sexual selection in ...
scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2001000000012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Proto-Greek language: The Proto-Greek language is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean, the classical Greek dialects (Attic-Ionic, Aeolic, Doric and Arcado-Cypriot), and ultimately Koine, Byzantine and modern Greek. The unity of Proto-Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants, speaking the predecessor of the Mycenaean language, entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Neolithic era or the Bronze Age.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Coles PhillipsSelection (relational algebra): In relational algebra, a selection (sometimes called a restriction to avoid confusion with SQL's use of SELECT) is a unary operation written asProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Genetic variation: right|thumbDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).CS-BLASTChina Biologic Products, Inc.

(1/15569) The developmental basis for allometry in insects.

Within all species of animals, the size of each organ bears a specific relationship to overall body size. These patterns of organ size relative to total body size are called static allometry and have enchanted biologists for centuries, yet the mechanisms generating these patterns have attracted little experimental study. We review recent and older work on holometabolous insect development that sheds light on these mechanisms. In insects, static allometry can be divided into at least two processes: (1) the autonomous specification of organ identity, perhaps including the approximate size of the organ, and (2) the determination of the final size of organs based on total body size. We present three models to explain the second process: (1) all organs autonomously absorb nutrients and grow at organ-specific rates, (2) a centralized system measures a close correlate of total body size and distributes this information to all organs, and (3) autonomous organ growth is combined with feedback between growing organs to modulate final sizes. We provide evidence supporting models 2 and 3 and also suggest that hormones are the messengers of size information. Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of allometry will come through the integrated study of whole tissues using techniques from development, genetics, endocrinology and population biology.  (+info)

(2/15569) Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation.

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

(3/15569) An overview of the evolution of overproduced esterases in the mosquito Culex pipiens.

Insecticide resistance genes have developed in a wide variety of insects in response to heavy chemical application. Few of these examples of adaptation in response to rapid environmental change have been studied both at the population level and at the gene level. One of these is the evolution of the overproduced esterases that are involved in resistance to organophosphate insecticides in the mosquito Culex pipiens. At the gene level, two genetic mechanisms are involved in esterase overproduction, namely gene amplification and gene regulation. At the population level, the co-occurrence of the same amplified allele in distinct geographic areas is best explained by the importance of passive transportation at the worldwide scale. The long-term monitoring of a population of mosquitoes in southern France has enabled a detailed study to be made of the evolution of resistance genes on a local scale, and has shown that a resistance gene with a lower cost has replaced a former resistance allele with a higher cost.  (+info)

(4/15569) The expiry date of man: a synthesis of evolutionary biology and public health.

In industrialised countries, mortality and morbidity are dominated by age related chronic degenerative diseases. The health and health care needs of future populations will be heavily determined by these conditions of old age. Two opposite scenarios of future morbidity exist: morbidity might decrease ("compress"), because life span is limited, and the incidence of disease is postponed. Or morbidity might increase ("expand"), because death is delayed more than disease incidence. Optimality theory in evolutionary biology explains senescence as a by product of an optimised life history. The theory clarifies how senescence is timed by the competing needs for reproduction and survival, and why this leads to a generalised deterioration of many functions at many levels. As death and disease are not independent, future morbidity will depend on duration and severity of the process of senescence, partly determined by health care, palliating the disease severity but increasing the disease duration by postponing death. Even if morbidity might be compressed, health care needs will surely expand.  (+info)

(5/15569) Molecular and evolutionary analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi 297 circular plasmid-encoded lipoproteins with OspE- and OspF-like leader peptides.

We previously described two OspE and three OspF homologs in Borrelia burgdorferi 297 (D. R. Akins, S. F. Porcella, T. G. Popova, D. Shevchenko, S. I. Baker, M. Li, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, Mol. Microbiol. 18:507-520, 1995; D. R. Akins, K. W. Bourell, M. J. Caimano, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, J. Clin. Investig. 101:2240-2250, 1998). In this study, we characterized four additional lipoproteins with OspE/F-like leader peptides (Elps) and demonstrated that all are encoded on plasmids homologous to cp32 and cp18 from the B31 and N40 strains, respectively. Statistical analysis of sequence similarities using the binary comparison algorithm revealed that the nine lipoproteins from strain 297, as well as the OspE, OspF, and Erp proteins from the N40 and B31 strains, fall into three distinct families. Based upon the observation that these lipoproteins all contain highly conserved leader peptides, we now propose that the ancestors of each of the three families arose from gene fusion events which joined a common N terminus to unrelated proteins. Additionally, further sequence analysis of the strain 297 circular plasmids revealed that rearrangements appear to have played an important role in generating sequence diversity among the members of these three families and that recombinational events in the downstream flanking regions appear to have occurred independently of those within the lipoprotein-encoding genes. The association of hypervariable regions with genes which are differentially expressed and/or subject to immunological pressures suggests that the Lyme disease spirochete has exploited recombinatorial processes to foster its parasitic strategy and enhance its immunoevasiveness.  (+info)

(6/15569) A family of S-methylmethionine-dependent thiol/selenol methyltransferases. Role in selenium tolerance and evolutionary relation.

Several plant species can tolerate high concentrations of selenium in the environment, and they accumulate organoselenium compounds. One of these compounds is Se-methylselenocysteine, synthesized by a number of species from the genus Astragalus (Fabaceae), like A. bisulcatus. An enzyme has been previously isolated from this organism that catalyzes methyl transfer from S-adenosylmethionine to selenocysteine. To elucidate the role of the enzyme in selenium tolerance, the cDNA coding for selenocysteine methyltransferase from A. bisulcatus was cloned and sequenced. Data base searches revealed the existence of several apparent homologs of hitherto unassigned function. The gene for one of them, yagD from Escherichia coli, was cloned, and the protein was overproduced and purified. A functional analysis showed that the YagD protein catalyzes methylation of homocysteine, selenohomocysteine, and selenocysteine with S-adenosylmethionine and S-methylmethionine as methyl group donors. S-Methylmethionine was now shown to be also the physiological methyl group donor for the A. bisulcatus selenocysteine methyltransferase. A model system was set up in E. coli which demonstrated that expression of the plant and, although to a much lesser degree, of the bacterial methyltransferase gene increases selenium tolerance and strongly reduces unspecific selenium incorporation into proteins, provided that S-methylmethionine is present in the medium. It is postulated that the selenocysteine methyltransferase under selective pressure developed from an S-methylmethionine-dependent thiol/selenol methyltransferase.  (+info)

(7/15569) Kodamaea nitidulidarum, Candida restingae and Kodamaea anthophila, three new related yeast species from ephemeral flowers.

Three new yeast species were discovered during studies of yeasts associated with ephemeral flowers in Brazil, Australia and Hawaii. Their physiological and morphological similarity to Kodamaea (Pichia) ohmeri suggested a possible relationship to that species, which was confirmed by rDNA sequencing. Kodamaea nitidulidarum and Candida restingae were found in cactus flowers and associated nitidulid beetles in sand dune ecosystems (restinga) of South-eastern Brazil. Over 350 strains of Kodamaea anthophila were isolated from Hibiscus and morning glory flowers (Ipomoea spp.) in Australia, and from associated nitidulid beetles and Drosophila hibisci. A single isolate came from a beach morning glory in Hawaii. Expansion of the genus Kodamaea to three species modified the existing definition of the genus only slightly. The type and isotype strains are as follows: K. nitidulidarum strains UFMG96-272T (h+; CBS 8491T) and UFMG96-394I (h-; CBS 8492I); Candida restingae UFMG96-276T (CBS 8493T); K. anthophila strains UWO(PS)95-602.1T (h+; CBS 8494T), UWO(PS)91-893.2I (h-; CBS 8495I) and UWO(PS)95-725.1I (h-; CBS 8496I).  (+info)

(8/15569) Reticulate evolution and the origins of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer diversity in apomictic Meloidogyne.

Among root knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne, the polyploid obligate mitotic parthenogens M. arenaria, M. javanica, and M. incognita are widespread and common agricultural pests. Although these named forms are distinguishable by closely related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes, detailed sequence analyses of internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) of nuclear ribosomal genes reveal extremely high diversity, even within individual nematodes. This ITS diversity is broadly structured into two very different groups that are 12%-18% divergent: one with low diversity (< 1.0%) and one with high diversity (6%-7%). In both of these groups, identical sequences can be found within individual nematodes of different mtDNA haplotypes (i.e., among species). Analysis of genetic variance indicates that more than 90% of ITS diversity can be found within an individual nematode, with small but statistically significant (5%-10%; P < 0.05) variance distributed among mtDNA lineages. The evolutionarily distinct parthenogen M. hapla shows a similar pattern of ITS diversity, with two divergent groups of ITSs within each individual. In contrast, two diploid amphimictic species have only one lineage of ITSs with low diversity (< 0.2%). The presence of divergent lineages of rDNA in the apomictic taxa is unlikely to be due to differences among pseudogenes. Instead, we suggest that the diversity of ITSs in M. arenaria, M. javanica, and M. incognita is due to hybrid origins from closely related females (as inferred from mtDNA) and combinations of more diverse paternal lineages.  (+info)



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biology


  • This article is about evolution in biology. (thefullwiki.org)
  • In biology , evolution is the change in the inherited traits of a population of organisms through successive generations. (thefullwiki.org)
  • We offer graduate and undergraduate research opportunities in biomedicine, cellular and molecular biology, ecology and evolution, and neuroscience. (uidaho.edu)
  • 4) (TBR: BIOL 1020) A course in organismal biology with emphasis on the structure and function of plants and animals, including an introduction to the principles of ecology and evolution. (utm.edu)

diversity


  • While HIV-1 has an extremely fast rate of evolution, the virus must have circulated within human populations for many years before it was first recognized for this extent of diversity to have accumulated. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This biological unity and diversity go together like The Captain and Tennille, like marble-fudge ice cream and cellulite, like a Quentin Tarantino movie and the sensation of popcorn chunks rising in your throat. (yahoo.com)
  • An introductory course designed for science majors that investigates the ecology, evolution and diversity of form and function of the organisms primarily in the Kingdoms Animalia and Plantae. (utm.edu)

ecology


  • Bacterial ecotypes that are demonstrated to have a history of coexistence as ecologically distinct lineages (based on sequence analysis) and as a prognosis of future coexistence (based on ecological differences), are the fundamental units of bacterial ecology and evolution, and should be recognized by bacterial systematics. (royalsocietypublishing.org)

Mechanisms


  • We conclude that the key to distinguishing between sexual conflict and other mechanisms of protein evolution will be an integration of genetic, experimental and theoretical data. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • A two-tiered conception of behavioural evolution calls for more explicit models of proximate mechanisms of behaviour, instead of relying on implicit assumptions and ad hoc interpretations of ESS outcomes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)

populations


  • However, in political demography, there is always scope for assimilation as well as boundary and identity change, which can redraw the boundaries of populations in a way that is not possible with biological populations. (wikipedia.org)

genes


  • Here we discuss the potential role of sexual conflict in the rapid evolution of reproductive genes in two different animal systems, abalone ( Haliotis ) and Drosophila . (royalsocietypublishing.org)

Evolutionary


  • Evolutionary biologists document the fact that evolution occurs, and also develop and test theories that explain its causes. (thefullwiki.org)

reproductive


  • Differential reproductive success is the mechanism through which evolution takes place. (wikipedia.org)

genetic


  • Another cause of evolution is genetic drift , an independent process that produces entirely random changes in how common traits are in a population. (thefullwiki.org)

occurs


  • Old-school evolution often occurs too slowly for an observer to see. (yahoo.com)

acceptance of evolution among


  • In 1859, Darwin's seminal work On the Origin of Species brought the new theories of evolution by natural selection to a wide audience, [ 7 ] leading to the overwhelming acceptance of evolution among scientists. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Darrel Falk of BioLogos recently presented an article proclaiming the coming acceptance of evolution among evangelical Christians. (answersingenesis.org)

fundamental


  • Many questions remain about the ways in which fundamental shape changes arise and foster the evolution of new types of animals. (yahoo.com)

Introduction


  • For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to evolution . (thefullwiki.org)

animal


  • Our results highlight the importance of considering the evolution of payoff matrices to understand the evolution of animal social systems. (royalsocietypublishing.org)

topic


  • There have been many highly controversial instances involving school boards discussing the topic of creation/evolution in the government-run school classroom. (answersingenesis.org)

Research


  • 1935 Statistical Tables for Biological Agricultural and Medical Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program in Molecular and Organismal Evolution is a 10-week summer program sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF). (uidaho.edu)

Science


  • The evolution of life on earth from simple matter is accepted as a fact by secular science. (answersingenesis.org)

models


  • Several models of adaptive evolution have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, such as sexual conflict, sexual selection, self versus non-self recognition and pathogen resistance. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In abalone, we reveal how specific interacting sperm-egg proteins were identified and discuss this identification in the light of models for rapid protein evolution and speciation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)

sexual


  • Patterns of protein evolution from both abalone and Drosophila support the predicted patterns of rapid protein evolution driven by sexual conflict. (royalsocietypublishing.org)

process


support


  • We mathematically demonstrate that T6SS-mediated killing should favour the evolution of public goods cooperation, and empirically support this prediction using a phylogenetic comparative analysis. (nature.com)

however


  • We stress however that other selective pressures may contribute to the rapid evolution that is observed. (royalsocietypublishing.org)