Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Reduviidae: A family of winged insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, called assassin bugs, because most prey on other insects. However one subfamily, TRIATOMINAE, attacks humans and other vertebrates and transmits Chagas disease.Phyllachorales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA characterized by stromatic perithecial forms in most species. Notable genera are Magnaporthe and Glomerella, the latter having the anamorph (mitosporic form) COLLETOTRICHUM.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Lysobacter: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, gliding bacteria in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE. Strongly proteolytic, it is involved in lysing a variety of microorganisms.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Beauveria: A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Riot Control Agents, Chemical: Chemical substances which are employed during a riot in order to control or disperse the rioting parties.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Tetranychidae: Family of spider MITES, in the superfamily Tetranychoidea, suborder Trombidiformes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Pythium: A genus of destructive root-parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Pythiaceae, order Peronosporales, commonly found in cultivated soils all over the world. Differentiation of zoospores takes place in a vesicle.Reproductive Control Agents: Substances used either in the prevention or facilitation of pregnancy.Duddingtonia: A genus of ascomycetous mitosporic fungi in the family Orbiliaceae. It is used for the biological control of nematodes in livestock.Rhizoctonia: A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.Pyrus: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Pantoea: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, straight rods which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Most strains produce a yellow pigment. This organism is isolated from plant surfaces, seeds, soil, and water, as well as from animals and human wounds, blood, and urine. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Phloroglucinol: A trinitrobenzene derivative with antispasmodic properties that is used primarily as a laboratory reagent.Erwinia amylovora: A species of gram-negative bacteria, in the genus ERWINIA, causing a necrotic disease of plants.PhenazinesAedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Melastomataceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida composed of tropical plants with parallel-nerved leaves.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Heteroptera: A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Weed Control: The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.Rahnella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, small, rod-shaped bacteria occurring in fresh water.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Rhabditoidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the order RHABDITIDA. Characteristics include an open tube stoma and an excretory system with lateral canals.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Biomphalaria: A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Xylariales: An order of ascomycetous FUNGI which includes many economically important plant parasites as well as saprophytes.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Entomophthorales: An order of fungi comprising mostly insect pathogens, though some infect mammals including humans. Strict host specificity make these fungi a focus of many biological control studies.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Rhabditida: An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Its organisms are characterized by an annulated or smooth cuticle and the absence of caudal glands.Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Rhabditida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order RHABDITIDA.

*  Entomologists describe plant effects on foraging by a biological control agent

Entomologists describe plant effects on foraging by a biological control agent. Human resources, benefits and training. *iSIS ... Entomologists describe plant effects on foraging by a biological control agent. By David Margolies ... that both plant architecture and pattern of prey distribution need to be considered in augmentative biological control programs ... Today Archive

*  Thermal activity thresholds of the predatory miridNesidiocoris tenuis: implications for its efficacy as a biological control...

Jolly RJ (2000) The predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus: its potential ac a biological control agent for the fruit tree red ... Van Lenteren JC, Bale J, Bigler F, Hokkanen HMT, Loomans AJM (2006) Assessing risks of releasing biological control agents of ... Use of thermal data as a screen for the establishment potential of non-native biological control agents in the UK. BioControl ... Assessing the effects of low temperature on the establishment potential in Britain of the non-native biological control agent ...

*  allium | Central Oregon Agricultural Research Center

Evaluation of Biological Control Agents for Verticillium Wilt in Peppermint. Download report: 10_mint_verticillium_wilt.pdf ... Advising on Biology and Control of Allium White Rot in Egypt. Central Oregon Agricultural Research Center 2005 Annual Report ... Continued Investigation of Flooding as a Means of Allium White Rot Control. Central Oregon Agricultural Research Center 1995 ... Continued Investigation of Flooding as a Means of Allium White Rot Control. Central Oregon Agricultural Research Center 1994 ...

*  Nontarget Effects of Biological Control: Follett, Peter A.: Hardcover: 9780792377252: Powell's Books

Nontarget Effects of Biological Control is the first book of its kind. The environmental safety of... ... Nontarget Effects of Biological Control by Follett, Peter A. available in Hardcover on, also read synopsis and ... Biological pest control agents. Subject:. Agricultural pests -- Biological control.. Subject:. Environmental management. ... Nontarget Effects of Biological Control is the first book of its kind. The environmental safety of biological control has come ...

*  Patent US6093236 - Porous pellet adsorbents fabricated from nanocrystals - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for control of chemical or biological warfare agents. US20050205469 *. 26 Apr 2005. 22 Sep 2005. Kenneth ... Method and apparatus for control of chemical or biological warfare agents. US7323042. 16 Dec 2004. 29 Jan 2008. Applied ... Photoreactive noxious substance purging agent and photoreactive noxious substance purging material using the agent. ... Method for biological and chemical contamination. US7341618. 24 Oct 2003. 11 Mar 2008. Georgia Tech Research Corporation. ...

*  Biological Control And Impacts Of Garlic Mustard (<em>Alliaria petiolata</em>): Prospective Modeling, Invasion Facilitation,...

A search for suitable biological control agents was initiated in 1998. Native plant abundance is often negatively correlated ... biological control agent, habitat disturbance, invasive plant species, garlic mustard, ecological consequences, invasive ... Title: Biological Control And Impacts Of Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata): Prospective Modeling, Invasion Facilitation, And ... These data will be used to parameterize a matrix population model of A. petiolata biological control. Elasticity analysis of ...

*  Trichoderma virens (Miller et al.) von Arx, anamorph ATCC ® 58678&

component of a biological control agent. Biosafety Level 1 Biosafety classification is based on U.S. Public Health Service ...

*  Project : USDA ARS

1. Discover and evaluate new toxicants and biological control agents for control of biting Nematocera. 2. Develop new ... Mosquito vector biology and control in Latin America - a 20TH symposium. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. ... Control of mosquitoes and flies that bite our deployed personnel is a critical component to the success of the U.S military ... One way to control these pests is by using chemical insecticides to kill the adults that carry disease pathogens. Thermal fog ...

*  Fundamentals of Turfgrass Management - Books on Google Play

... and control insect, disease, and weed pests Examine the professional management of sports turf, golf courses, lawns, and sod ... The book reviews several methods of pest control using herbicides, as well as biological, and microbial control agents. It ... Identify, manage, and control insect, disease, and weed pests. *Examine the professional management of sports turf, golf ... and control insect, disease, and weed pests Examine the professional management of sports turf, golf courses, lawns, and sod ...

*  Bacterial Wilt - Ralstonia solanacearum

There are no chemicals or biological agents that adequately control these bacteria. Infected plants must be discarded as soon ... Ralstonia solanacearum race 3, biovar 2, the causal agent of brown rot of potato, identified in geraniums in Pennsylvania, ...

*  Xin De Sheng -

Xin De Sheng is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Xin De Sheng is available on the website.

*  Evaluation of the potential use of antagonistic microbes on grass species, turf and pasture, for disease control and growth...

Public tendency, of late, is to reduce liberal use of harmful synthesized chemicals for promoting plant health. Today, biological control is becoming a commonly cited disease control option. Biological control agents (BCAs) not only control disease , but also promote plant growth. Application of biological control is based largely on knowledge of control mechanisms employed by antagonists, as well as the means of application that will ensure that an antagonistic population is established. Knowing the advantages is not the only factor that should be considered before application commences as, the disadvantages must be clearly outlined and explored further before a constructive decision as on implementation of biological control. A literature review was undertaken to provide the necessary technical information ...

*  New grass safer for animals, deadly for insects | southeast FarmPress

The right combination of compounds produced by a beneficial fungus could lead to grasses that require fewer pesticides and are safer for wildlife and grazing animals.

*  Dr. Michal Segoli

I'm an evolutionary and behavioral ecologist with broad interests. I focus on life history trade-offs and on factors that limit the reproductive success of insects in natural, agricultural and urban habitats. My work integrates field observations, traditional ecological experiments, and molecular genetic techniques. My approach is to address general ecological and evolutionary problems, while contributing to applied science. In particular I am interested in understanding the ecological processes that underlie host-parasite interactions, while promoting the efficient use of parasitoids as biological control agents in agricultural systems. Another field of interest is the effect of bacterial endosymbionts on the reproductive success of insects, and their use for biological control of pests and diseases. ...

*  Volume 4 Issue 4 - Contents

Timothy F. Herpin, George C. Morton, Allison K. Dunn, Cedric Fillon, Paul R. Menard, Sheng Yu Tang, Joseph M. Salvino, Richard F. Labaudini re ...

Christian Zheng Sheng College: Christian Zheng Sheng College () is a private school in Hong Kong established by the Christian Zheng Sheng Association (ZSA). Its founder and principal is Chan Siu Cheuk (Alman Chan).Biopesticide: Biopesticides, a contraction of 'biological pesticides', include several types of pest management intervention: through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships. The term has been associated historically with biological control - and by implication - the manipulation of living organisms.Assassin (horse): Assassin (1779 – c. 1794) was a Thoroughbred racehorse that won the 1782 Epsom Derby.Glomerella cingulata: Glomerella cingulata is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes disease on many different hosts including quince and apple bitter rot and anthracnose on many fruit and vegetable species such as mangoNutritional Studies of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz.Fungicide use in the United States: A more accurate title for this page would be "Common plant pathogens to food crops in the United States".Adalia bipunctata: Adalia bipunctata, commonly known as the two-spot ladybird, two-spotted ladybug or two-spotted lady beetle, is a carnivorous beetle of the family Coccinellidae that is found throughout the holarctic region. It is very common in western and central Europe.Frank ChristensenLasiodiplodia: Lasiodiplodia is a genus of fungi in the family Botryosphaeriaceae. There are 21 species.Beauveria bassiana: Beauveria bassiana is a fungus that grows naturally in soils throughout the world and acts as a parasite on various arthropod species, causing white muscardine disease; it thus belongs to the entomopathogenic fungi. It is being used as a biological insecticide to control a number of pests such as termites, thrips, whiteflies, aphids and different beetles.Silverleaf whiteflyPolistes dominula: The European paper wasp (Polistes dominula, often misspelled as dominulus) is one of the more common and well-known species of social wasps in the genus Polistes. Its diet is more diverse than that of most Polistes species (many genera of insects versus mainly caterpillars in other Polistes), making it superior over many others during the shortage of resources.Heterodera schachtii: Heterodera schachtii Heterodera schactii at Nemaplex, University of CaliforniaHeterodera schactii at Knowledge Master (Beet cyst eelworm, Sugarbeet nematode) is a plant pathogenic nematode. It infects more than 200 different plants including economically important crops such as sugar beets, cabbage, broccoli, and radish.Trichoderma harzianum: Trichoderma harzianum is a fungus that is also used as a fungicide. It is used for foliar application, seed treatment and soil treatment for suppression of various disease causing fungal pathogens.Ascospore: An ascospore is a spore contained in an ascus or that was produced inside an ascus. This kind of spore is specific to fungi classified as ascomycetes (Ascomycota).Andesobia jelskiiAntheraea pernyi: Antheraea pernyi, the Chinese (Oak) tussah moth (or "Chinese tasar moth"), also known as temperate tussah moth, is a large moth in the family Saturniidae. Antheraea roylei is an extremely close relative, and the present species might actually have evolved from ancestral A.Phenacyl chlorideMarine fungi: Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments. They are not a taxonomic group but share a common habitat.Pseudomonas alkanolytica: Pseudomonas alkanolytica is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that produces Coenzyme A. Because this organism is patented,Nakao Y, Kuno M.Gemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.Canna Leaf Roller: Cannas are largely free of pests, but in the USA plants sometimes fall victim the Canna Leaf Roller, which can actually be two different insects. Larva of the Brazilian skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlius), also known as the Larger Canna Leaf Roller, cut the leaves and roll them over to live inside while pupating and eating the leaf.Chelicerata: Late Ordovician (but see text) – RecentIntraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Paul Pritchard: Paul Pritchard (born 1967 in Bolton, Lancashire) was one of the leading British climbers of the 1980s and 1990s. He started climbing at 16 in his native Lancashire, and within a year had started to repeat some of the hardest routes in the county, as well as beginning his own additions.Coles PhillipsPythium oligandrum: Pythium oligandrum is an Oomycete. It is a parasite of many fungi and other oomycetes including Botrytis, Fusarium and Phytophthora.Rhizoctonia leguminicola: Rhizoctonia leguminicola is a fungus that is a plant pathogen that most often attaches itself to the Trifolium pratense or red clover. It is also called Black Patch Disease.Pyrus cordataSun-dried tomato: Sun-dried tomatoes are ripe tomatoes that lose most of their water content after spending a majority of their drying time in the sun. These tomatoes are usually pre-treated with sulfur dioxide or salt before being placed in the sun in order to improve quality.Insecticide: An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively.Pantoea agglomerans: Pantoea agglomerans is a Gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae.PhloroglucinolMethanophenazineAedes aegyptiLarch sawfly: The larch sawfly (Pristiphora erichsonii) is a species of sawfly. The adult sawfly resembles a black wasp, is about ½ inch in length with a thick waist and has brown to orangish markings on the abdomen.Tibouchina semidecandra: Tibouchina semidecandra, the princess flower, glory bush, or lasiandra, is a sprawling, evergreen shrub or small ornamental tree native to Brazil and ranges from 10 to 15 feet (20 feet with proper training) in height. It can be trimmed to any size and still put on a vivid, year-long flower display.Sooty blotch and flyspeck: Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) or 'apple summer disease' is a plant disease caused by a complex of saprophytic fungi which colonize the epicuticular wax layer of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).Parasporal bodyStrider Knives: Strider Knives, Inc. is a custom and production knifemaking facility headed by Mick Strider and Duane Dwyer based in San Marcos, California.Endophyte: An endophyte is an endosymbiont, often a bacterium or fungus, that lives within a plant for at least part of its life cycle without causing apparent disease. Endophytes are ubiquitous and have been found in all species of plants studied to date; however, most of the endophyte/plant relationships are not well understood.Weed control: Weed control is the botanical component of pest control, which attempts to stop weeds, especially noxious or injurious weeds, from competing with domesticated plants and livestock. Many strategies have been developed in order to contain these plants.Rhabdias bufonisOpine: Opine biosynthesis is catalyzed by specific enzymes encoded by genes contained in a small segment of DNA (known as the T-DNA, for 'transfer DNA'), which is part of the Ti plasmid, inserted by the bacterium into the plant genome. The opines are used by the bacterium as an important source of nitrogen and energy.Biomphalaria alexandrina: Biomphalaria alexandrina is a species of air-breathing freshwater snail, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Planorbidae, the ram's horn snails and their allies.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Xylaria hypoxylon: Xylaria hypoxylon is a species of fungus in the genus Xylaria. It is known by a variety of common names, such as the candlestick fungus, the candlesnuff fungus, carbon antlers, or the stag's horn fungus.Microbial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Acyrthosiphon pisum: Acyrthosiphon pisum, commonly known as the pea aphid (and colloquially known as the green dolphin, pea louse, and clover louse ), is a sap-sucking insect in the Aphididae family. It feeds on several species of legumes (plant family Fabaceae) worldwide, including forage crops, such as pea, clover, alfalfa, and broad bean, and ranks among the aphid species of major agronomical importance.Mechanical pest control: Mechanical pest control is the management and control of pests using physical means such as fences, barriers or electronic wires. It includes also weeding and change of temperature to control pests.Fusarium ear blight: 180px|thumb|right|Symptom on wheat caused by F. graminearum (right:inoculated, left:non-inoculated)Basidiobolus ranarum: Basidiobolus ranarum is a microscopic fungus in the order Entomophthorales.Endodermis: The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants. It is made of compact living cells surrounded by an outer ring of endodermal cells that are impregnated with hydrophobic substances (Casparian Strip) to restrict apoplastic flow of water to the inside.Plant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.Cryozoa: Cryozoa are organisms capable of surviving temperatures below 0°C for extended periods. Sperm and bacterial cultures are routinely preserved in liquid nitrogen at -196°C, while the nematode Panagrolaimus davidi can survive freezing of all of its body water.Nematode infectionMetarhizium acridum: Metarhizium acridumSiamenoside IRingbone: Ringbone is exostosis (bone growth) in the pastern or coffin joint of a horse. In severe cases, the growth can encircle the bones, giving ringbone its name.

(1/81) Root hairs play a key role in the endophytic colonization of olive roots by Pseudomonas spp. with biocontrol activity.


(2/81) Marine isolates of Trichoderma spp. as potential halotolerant agents of biological control for arid-zone agriculture.


(3/81) Effects of orally administered Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus on the well-being and Salmonella colonization of young chicks.


(4/81) Repression of the antifungal activity of Pseudomonas sp. strain DF41 by the stringent response.


(5/81) The biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp strain affects the pathogenesis-related gene expression of the take-all fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici on wheat roots.


(6/81) Transmission of Fusarium boothii mycovirus via protoplast fusion causes hypovirulence in other phytopathogenic fungi.


(7/81) Biotechnological applications of the gene transfer from the beneficial fungus Trichoderma harzianum spp. to plants.


(8/81) Comparative efficacy of two poeciliid fish in indoor cement tanks against chikungunya vector Aedes aegypti in villages in Karnataka, India.



  • These data are discussed in relation to the climatic conditions under which N. tenuis would be an effective biocontrol agent. (
  • The environmental safety of biological control has come under scrutiny due to several areas of concerns: the irreversibility of alien introductions, the prevalence of host switching to innocuous native or beneficial species, dispersal of the biocontrol agent to new habitats away from croplands, and the lack of research on the efficacy and impact of biocontrol attempts. (
  • This project will support selection of efficacious natural enemies for use against A. petiolata and will improve the overall safety of weed biocontrol by developing new agent selection methods that will help to decrease non-target impacts on other species. (
  • 1987) Trichoderma application, mode of action and potentials as biocontrol agent of soil borne plant pathogenic fungi. (


  • a natural bacteria prevalent in soil that have long been recognized as promising biological control agents for plant-parasitic nematodes. (


  • Agricultural pests -- Biological control. (

pest control

  • The Society of Nematology and other organizations estimate global crop losses due to nematodes at $100 billion annually making it agriculture's largest unmet pest control need. (


  • 5. Determine chemical and other cues associated with regulation and orientation of specific behaviors by Aedes albopictus, Culex pipiens group species/hybrids, and other biting arthropods that can be applied to the solution of operational surveillance and control problems. (
  • Howell CR (2003 ) Mechanisms employed by Trichoderma species in the biological control of plant diseases: the history and evolution of current concepts. (
  • Pomacea glauca , Pomacea Haustrum and Pomacea canaliculata are other apple snail species that have been successfully used as biological control agents. (


  • To combat the mealybugs and scale insects, banana producers in Costa Rica will be allowed to use pesticides and biological control agents on their crops. (
  • We're confident about the future of this technology as an important tool to help growers control nematodes in a variety of crops and regions of world," said Duncan. (


  • Ultimately this type of information will help us understand what control measures work best and predict the potential resistance an insect might develop to these control measures. (


  • Hatherly IS, Hart AJ, Tullett AG, Bale JS (2005) Use of thermal data as a screen for the establishment potential of non-native biological control agents in the UK. (


  • Molecular methods (RNAi and dsRNA) will be used to identify targets for control and resistance management. (


  • Elasticity analysis of the matrix will be used to identify vulnerable transitions in A. petiolata's life cycle and determine which of the potential agents, if any, are predicted to be most effective against Michigan populations. (


  • A search for suitable biological control agents was initiated in 1998. (


  • The finding of this study suggested that both plant architecture and pattern of prey distribution need to be considered in augmentative biological control programs. (
  • However, the main effect of T. harzianum on early yield was the highest at 4 g/m 2 , producing 527 g/plant in comparison to the control with 374 g/plant. (
  • Cook JR (1988 ) Biological control and holistic plant-health care in agriculture. (
  • Inbar J, Abramsky M, Cohen D, Chet I (1994 ) Plant growth enhancement and disease control by Trichoderma harzianum in vegetable seedlings grown under commercial conditions. (
  • Scientists have considered Pasteuria to be among the most promising biological agents for control of plant-parasitic nematodes, but until recently, no one was able to grow Pasteuria outside of the body of a nematode. (


  • Factors needed to achieve optimal control will be identified. (
  • The main factors discussed were gases, dust and biological agents and consideration was given to prevention and control techniques. (


  • The first time apple snails are used as biological control agent was in the early 1950's. (


  • Nontarget Effects of Biological Control proposes that retrospective analyses of systems in place in which nontarget effects are now documented or suspected provide the necessary information for planning and evaluating future releases to reduce risk. (


  • The first objective of this research is to use novel demographic population models to guide the selection of the most effective biological control agent(s) of North American A. petiolata populations across a range of habitat types. (
  • It confirms Pasteuria usgae as a safe, effective and an environmentally-friendly agent for sting nematode control. (
  • was first discovered over 50 years ago and identified as an effective agent for nematode control. (
  • is important in offering environmentally safe, cost-effective and reliable nematode control products helping to fill the niches that will be vacated by current nematicides. (


  • These data will be used to parameterize a matrix population model of A. petiolata biological control. (
  • Marisa cornuarietis was introduced in Puerto Rico in an experiment to control the Biomphalaria glabrata population. (


  • Though universities may be able to use a "publicly available" exclusion or exemption from U.S. export control requirements, the use of such exemption may be unavailable where the research is subject to publication or other restrictions. (
  • Technology or software that is "publicly available" is typically not subject to U.S. export controls. (
  • Technology and software information that is already published or publically available is not subject to export controls. (


  • Nontarget Effects of Biological Control is the first book of its kind. (
  • 2. Nontarget Effects of Biological Control: What Are We Trying to Miss? (


  • Cornell community conference on biological control April, 11-13, 1996. (


  • P. usgae is a highly efficacious biological nematicide and will be targeted for control of sting nematode in the golf, sports turf and landscape markets. (


  • This website is designed to provide an overview of export controls that are relevant to a university setting and to help you obtain assistance with questions related to export controls. (


  • The company was developed out of Entomos, Inc., to commercialize its revolutionary technology for production of nematode control products based on Pasteuria technology. (


  • An improved surface erodible controlled release composition and the manufacturing thereof, for the continuous administration of biologically active proteins or peptide fragments, is described. (
  • Examples using growth hormone and bovine serum albumin demonstrate enhanced release, stability and controlled release properties for the fatty acid anhydride microparticular system. (
  • This commitment includes compliance with export control laws, which may impose restrictions on the release or transfer of certain kinds of information, technology and physical items. (
  • Under U.S. export control laws and regulations, the release of technology or technical data to a foreign national is deemed to be an export to the individual's home country, even when the release occurs entirely within the United States. (


  • Its first product will provide sting nematode control for the golf and sports turf markets. (


  • Further, enforcement of U.S. export control regulations includes fines up to $1,000,000 and 20 years imprisonment in the most egregious cases. (


  • I would think that this book is a `must read' for anyone directly or indirectly associated with the practice of biological control. (
  • Under export controls, a "foreign national" is anyone who is not a U.S. citizen or lawful permanent resident (i.e., aliens possessing a valid Form I-551 or "green card"), or persons granted asylee or refugee status. (