Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.United StatesCohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Biological Factors: Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Biological Warfare: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Biological Processes: Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Biological Warfare Agents: Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Biological Psychiatry: An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Biological Phenomena: Biological processes, properties, and characteristics of the whole organism in human, animal, microorganisms, and plants, and of the biosphere.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Biological Specimen Banks: Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Protein Interaction Maps: Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Biological Dressings: Human or animal tissue used as temporary wound coverings.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Cells: The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Synthetic Biology: A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Biomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.

*  Adolescent Anxiety and Biological Factors

Biological risk factors are not incompatible with ... Substance abuse among adolescents. ... to psychological, behavioral and ... Adolescent Anxiety and Biological Factors. Add. Remove. Can you describe the current state of knowledge on the below mentioned ... anxiety and stress ... By studying factors ranging from biological influences to ... Differences in depression in adolescent ... the various categories, such as biological factor, family and ... Gender differences in the development of personality disorde ...
https://brainmass.com/psychology/anxiety-disorders/adolescent-anxiety-and-biological-factors-293797

*  Biological Factors that Influence the Formation of Personality

Describe biological factors that could have a hand in the formation of. ... 2. Describe biological factors that influence the formation ... is because of the biological. factor of neurons ... biological ... Biological Factors that Influence the Formation of Personality. Add. Remove. Describe biological factors that could have a hand ... another biological factor associated with ... There are two primary. biological components that ... Genetic factors are ...
https://brainmass.com/psychology/personality-and-belief-systems/biological-factors-that-influence-the-formation-of-personality-327683

*  What does biological factors mean?

Meaning of biological factors. What does biological factors mean? Information and translations of biological factors in the ... Definition of biological factors in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... Alternative searches for biological factors:. *Search for Synonyms for biological factors. *Search for Anagrams for biological ... What does biological factors mean?. Definitions for biological factors. Here are all the possible meanings and translations of ...
definitions.net/definition/biological factors

*  Physiological and biological factors associated with a 24 h treadmill ultra-marathon performance.

The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological and biological factors associated with ultra-endurance performance. ... The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological and biological factors associated with ultra-endurance performance. ... The ability to maintain a high %VO(2max) over a 24TR is another factor associated with performance and is mainly related to RE ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Physiological-biological-factors-associated-with/19883385.html

*  Modalities of fatigue in multiple sclerosis: correlation with clinical and biological factors

... Iriarte J., Subirá M.L., Castro ... Although different factors are probably involved in the etiology of fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients, no definite ...
cun.es/pt/investigacao/publicacoes-cientificas/modalities-of-fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis-correlation-with-clinical-and-biological-factors

*  British Library EThOS: The physical and biological factors affecting meiofauna in the Jubilee River, U.K

The physical and biological factors affecting meiofauna in the Jubilee River, U.K ...
ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.515297

*  Biological Factors chọn lọc - TaiLieu.VN

This book presents and discusses current research in the field of biology, with a particular emphasis on biological factors and ... The focus was just shifting from solely reproductive issues and biological factors, to an expanded perception that women's ... Critical components include activated transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met ... Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a potent blocker of angiogene-sis in vivo, and of endothelial cell migration and ...
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*  Modern Tribalist: Racial differences in breast cancer may be due more to biological factors rather than health care

Racial differences in breast cancer may be due more to biological factors rather than health care ... A growing body of evidence suggests that biological or genetic factors may explain these racial differences. Few studies, ... provides evidence that racial differences in the clinical presentation of breast cancer may be due more to biological factors ... larger tumor size and fewer cases with estrogen receptors may suggest that true biological differences exist in breast cancer ...
moderntribalist.blogspot.com/2007/04/racial-differences-in-breast-cancer-may.html

*  Relationship Of Biological Factors To Maslow s Theory Of Personality Free Essays

We will describe biological factors that influence the formation of personality, examine the relationship of biological factors ... Biological Factors of Human Relationships Biological factors are something that contributes hugely to the formation and ... also describe biological factors that influence the formation of personality. Examine the relationship of biological factors to ... Biological Theories "Biological theories of crime focus on the physiological, biochemical, neurological, and genetic factors ...
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*  Personality Factors - Biological Psychology AS - Presentation in A Level and IB Psychology

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*  Biological and Inorganic Factors in the Destruction of Limestone Coasts - Schweizerbart science publishers

2.4 The biological factors 48. 2.41 The biological zonation and its causes 48. 2.42 The organism groups 48. 2.43 Destructive ... 3.1 The interaction of biological and inorganic factors 72. 3.2 The morphogenesis 73. 3.3 The rate of destruction 75. 3.4 The ... Biological and Inorganic Factors in the Destruction of Limestone Coasts. Translator: Peter Sadler ... The morphological forms resulting from biological corrosion and biological abrasion may be termed biokarst. ...
schweizerbart.de/publications/detail/isbn/9783510570065/Contributions_6_to_Sedimentology

*  Biological and Behavorial Factors Modify Biomarkers of Arsenic Exposure in a U.S. Population** | Science Inventory | US EPA

Biological and Behavorial Factors Modify Biomarkers of Arsenic Exposure in a U.S. Population**. Contact. National Health and ... Biological and Behavorial Factors Modify Biomarkers of Arsenic Exposure in a U.S. Population**. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH. ... EPA Home » Science Inventory » Biological and Behavorial Factors Modify Biomarkers of Arsenic Exposure in a U.S. Population** ... To gain insight into the effects of biological and behavioral factors on arsenic exposure, we determined arsenic concentrations ...
https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=239595&keyword=food AND consumption&actType=&TIMSType= &TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90707780&CFTOKEN=33021712

*  Neurocognitive, Biological And Genetics Factors And The Risk Of Developing Borderline Intellectual Functioning (BIF) Disease...

Differences in intelligence are the most significant factor in explaining levels of social progress and development. One ... Neurocognitive, biological and genetics factors and the risk of developing borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) disease ... biological and genetics factors among Kurdish populations and then we drew inferences about the state of social progress and ... Differences in intelligence are the most significant factor in explaining levels of social progress and development. One ...
https://omicsonline.org/proceedings/neurocognitive-biological-and-genetics-factors-and-the-risk-of-developing-borderline-intellectual-functioning-bif-diseas-67548.html

*  European Commission : CORDIS : Projects and Results : The aging germ cell - biological pathways, risk factors and mechanisms...

Thus the urgent need to understand the biological basis and to identify risk factors and pathways of the steep age-dependent ... Periodic Reporting for period 1 - GermAge (The aging germ cell - biological pathways, risk factors and mechanisms underlying ... The aging germ cell - biological pathways, risk factors and mechanisms underlying anincreasing medical and socio-economic ... The aging germ cell - biological pathways, risk factors and mechanisms underlying anincreasing medical and socio-economic ...
cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/193271_en.html

*  Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae i infection. A review of pathogenesis, diagnosis, risk factors and biological effects as input for...

A review of pathogenesis, diagnosis, risk factors and biological effects as input for economical modelling. Publication: ...
orbit.dtu.dk/en/publications/mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-i-infection-a-review-of-pathogenesis-diagnosis-risk-factors-and-biological-effects-as-input-for-economical-modelling

*  A Study to Evaluate the Patterns of Use of Biological Agents and Risk Factors for Discontinuation of Agents in Pediatric Crohn...

A Study to Evaluate the Patterns of Use of Biological Agents and Risk Factors for Discontinuation of Agents in Pediatric ... The focus of this study is to retrospectively examine the patterns of use of biological agents and risk factors for ... First dose of a biological agent received after enrollment into ICN. *Treatment with at least one dose of one biological agent ... Documentation of date of initiation of each biological agent and date of discontinuation of each biological agent (if ...
mayo.edu/research/clinical-trials/cls-20307014?p=1

*  Plus it

We treated biological factors as continuous variables here. We used the SAS 8.12 statistical program package to perform all ... Demographic, behavioural, and biological factors. We measured baseline covariates in standard ways: sex, age, occupational ... Job strain and effort-reward imbalance also predicted adverse changes in biological factors such as cholesterol concentration ... Table 1 shows the associations of demographic, behavioural, and biological factors with cardiovascular mortality. As expected, ...
bmj.com/content/325/7369/857

*  RCSB PDB - 1LKI: THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE AND BIOLOGICAL FUNCTION OF LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR: IMPLICATIONS FOR...

The crystal structure and biological function of leukemia inhibitory factor: implications for receptor binding. ... THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE AND BIOLOGICAL FUNCTION OF LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR: IMPLICATIONS FOR RECEPTOR BINDING. *DOI: 10.2210/ ...
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*  Clinical Interviews

Integrating Biological Factors. Case Study on Mary and Integrating Biological Factors, which relates to the 'biological aspects ... Do an analysis of the cultural factors and related social and familial issues that you consider important in making a ... Structured interviews can sometimes be limiting regarding certain factors, such as family history and events that could impact ... Given the significant research into biological aspects of panic disorder, several key insights are germane to Mary's case. ...
https://brainmass.com/psychology/clinical-interviews

*  What is the study of tissues called? | Reference.com

What is the definition of "biological factors"?. * Q: What is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes ...
https://reference.com/science/study-tissues-called-f9c0a6346aaaa40d

*  HER-2 signaling, acquisition of growth factor independence, and regulation of biological networks associated with cell...

HER-2 signaling, acquisition of growth factor independence, and regulation of biological networks associated with cell ... HER-2 signaling, acquisition of growth factor independence, and regulation of biological networks associated with cell ... HER-2 signaling, acquisition of growth factor independence, and regulation of biological networks associated with cell ... HER-2 signaling, acquisition of growth factor independence, and regulation of biological networks associated with cell ...
cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2010/08/21/0008-5472.CAN-10-1529

*  A systematic review and meta-analysis of biological treatments targeting tumour necrosis factorα for sciatica - University of...

Systematic review comparing biological agents, targeting tumour necrosis factor α, for sciatica with placebo and alternative ... A systematic review and meta-analysis of biological treatments targeting tumour necrosis factorα for sciatica ... A systematic review and meta-analysis of biological treatments targeting tumour necrosis factorα for sciatica. European Spine ... Compared with placebo biological agents had: better global effects in the short-term odds ratio (OR) 2.0 (95 % CI 0.7-6.0), ...
eprints.hud.ac.uk/id/eprint/18158/

*  The biological responses of axotomized adult motoneurons to brain- derived neurotrophic factor | Journal of Neuroscience

The biological responses of axotomized adult motoneurons to brain- derived neurotrophic factor. Q Yan, C Matheson, OT Lopez and ... The biological responses of axotomized adult motoneurons to brain- derived neurotrophic factor ... The biological responses of axotomized adult motoneurons to brain- derived neurotrophic factor ... The biological responses of axotomized adult motoneurons to brain- derived neurotrophic factor ...
jneurosci.org/content/14/9/5281

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20020639 - Participation of MAP kinase p38 and IkB kinase in chromium (VI)-induced NF-kB and...

The biological mechanisms responsible for the initiation and progression of diseases resulting from exposure to Cr(VI) are not ... Chromium-compounds; Epidemiology; Occupational-exposure; Diseases; Cancer; Biological-factors; Genes; Carcinogenesis; ... The biological mechanisms responsible for the initiation and progression of diseases resulting from exposure to Cr(VI) are not ... two important transcription factors governing the expression of many early response genes involved in inflammation and ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20020639.html

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20041171 - Luciferase reporter system for studying the effect of nanoparticles on gene...

It follows that nanoparticles may also express distinct bioactivity and unique interactions with biological systems. Therefore ... Nanotechnology; Hazards; Exposure-levels; Exposure-limits; Risk-analysis; Particulates; Biological-factors; Genes; Proteins; ... It follows that nanoparticles may also express distinct bioactivity and unique interactions with biological systems. Therefore ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20041171.html

Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Ki-67 (protein): Antigen KI-67 also known as Ki-67 or MKI67 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MKI67 gene (antigen identified by monoclonal antibody Ki-67).QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Cancer biomarkers: A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer.Breast cancer classification: Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes, each based on different criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes.Progesterone receptor: The progesterone receptor (PR, also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3), is a protein found inside cells. It is activated by the steroid hormone progesterone.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingBiomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Hormone receptor positive breast tumor: A hormone-receptor-positive tumor is a tumor which consists of cells that express receptors for certain hormones. The term most commonly refers to estrogen receptor positive tumors (i.ABCD rating: ABCD rating, also called the Jewett staging system or the Whitmore-Jewett staging system, is a staging system for prostate cancer that uses the letters A, B, C, and D.Gene signature: A gene signature is a group of genes in a cell whose combined expression patternItadani H, Mizuarai S, Kotani H. Can systems biology understand pathway activation?Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.China Biologic Products, Inc.Biological therapy for inflammatory bowel diseaseUnited States Army Biological Warfare Laboratories: The U.S.Coles PhillipsClonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.PSI Protein Classifier: PSI Protein Classifier is a program generalizing the results of both successive and independent iterations of the PSI-BLAST program. PSI Protein Classifier determines belonging of the found by PSI-BLAST proteins to the known families.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Biopesticide: Biopesticides, a contraction of 'biological pesticides', include several types of pest management intervention: through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships. The term has been associated historically with biological control - and by implication - the manipulation of living organisms.Ethyl groupMac OS X Server 1.0Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Cellular microarray: A cellular microarray is a laboratory tool that allows for the multiplex interrogation of living cells on the surface of a solid support. The support, sometimes called a "chip", is spotted with varying materials, such as antibodies, proteins, or lipids, which can interact with the cells, leading to their capture on specific spots.Lattice protein: Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding.List of systems biology conferences: Systems biology is a biological study field that focuses on the systematic study of complex interactions in biological systems, thus using a new perspective (integration instead of reduction) to study them. Particularly from year 2000 onwards, the term is used widely in the biosciences.Reaction coordinateSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Electronic oscillator: An electronic oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces a periodic, oscillating electronic signal, often a sine wave or a square wave. Oscillators convert direct current (DC) from a power supply to an alternating current signal.Biological network: A biological network is any network that applies to biological systems. A network is any system with sub-units that are linked into a whole, such as species units linked into a whole food web.Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology: The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology is a Polish scientific research organization and a part of Polish Academy of Sciences headquartered in Warsaw, Poland. Founded in 1918, it is a leading institution in the country in the field of neurobiology, molecular biology and biochemistry.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Extracellular: In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell". This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid.High-performance liquid chromatography: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Atomic mass: right |thumb|200px|Stylized [[lithium-7 atom: 3 protons, 4 neutrons, & 3 electrons (total electrons are ~1/4300th of the mass of the nucleus). It has a mass of 7.Protein–protein interactionOntario Genomics Institute: The Ontario Genomics Institute (OGI) is a not-for-profit organization that manages cutting-edge genomics research projects and platforms.The Ontario Genomics Institute OGI also helps scientists find paths to the marketplace for their discoveries and the products to which they lead, and it works through diverse outreach and educational activities to raise awareness and facilitate informed public dialogue about genomics and its social impacts.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Mediated transportGeneralizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.SEA Native Peptide LigationFERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Christian Zheng Sheng College: Christian Zheng Sheng College () is a private school in Hong Kong established by the Christian Zheng Sheng Association (ZSA). Its founder and principal is Chan Siu Cheuk (Alman Chan).Proteomics Standards Initiative: The Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) is a working group of Human Proteome Organization. It aims to define data standards for proteomics in order to facilitate data comparison, exchange and verification.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Immersive technologyCS-BLASTMBF BiosciencePlant Proteome Database: The Plant Proteome Database is a National Science Foundation-funded project to determine the biological function of each protein in plants.Sun Q, Zybailov B, Majeran W, Friso G, Olinares PD, van Wijk KJ.Database of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum: The Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum (formerly Cross-Language Evaluation Forum), or CLEF, is an organization promoting research in multilingual information access (currently focusing on European languages). Its specific functions are to maintain an underlying framework for testing information retrieval systems and to create repositories of data for researchers to use in developing comparable standards.Flux (metabolism): Flux, or metabolic flux is the rate of turnover of molecules through a metabolic pathway. Flux is regulated by the enzymes involved in a pathway.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.

(1/1056) Charybdotoxin and apamin block EDHF in rat mesenteric artery if selectively applied to the endothelium.

In rat mesenteric artery, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) is blocked by a combination of apamin and charybdotoxin (ChTX). The site of action of these toxins has not been established. We compared the effects of ChTX and apamin applied selectively to the endothelium and to the smooth muscle. In isometrically mounted arteries, ACh (0.01-10 micrometers), in the presence of indomethacin (2.8 microM) and Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (100 microM), concentration dependently relaxed phenylephrine (PE)-stimulated tone (EC50 50 nM; n = 10). Apamin (50 nM) and ChTX (50 nM) abolished this relaxation (n = 5). In pressurized arteries, ACh (10 microM), applied intraluminally in the presence of indomethacin (2.8 microM) and L-NAME (100 microM), dilated both PE-stimulated (0.3-0.5 microM; n = 5) and myogenic tone (n = 3). Apamin (50 nM ) and ChTX (50 nM) applied intraluminally abolished ACh-induced dilatations. Bath superperfusion of apamin and ChTX did not affect ACh-induced dilatations of either PE-stimulated (n = 5) or myogenic tone (n = 3). This is the first demonstration that ChTX and apamin act selectively on the endothelium to block EDHF-mediated relaxation.  (+info)

(2/1056) Endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization in resting and depolarized mammary and coronary arteries of guinea-pigs.

1. The membrane potential responses in guinea-pig coronary and mammary arteries attributable to endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) and hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), and to exogenous NO and the prostacyclin analogue, iloprost, were compared at rest and when depolarized with the thromboxane analogue, U46619. 2. In the coronary artery, stimulation of the endothelium with acetylcholine (ACh) evoked hyperpolarization attributable to NO and a PG with similar pD2s at rest and in the presence of U46619. However, in depolarized tissues, the pD2 of the response attributed to EDHF required a 10 fold lower concentration of ACh compared with at rest. 3. In the mammary artery, lower concentrations of ACh were required to evoke NO- and EDHF-dependent hyperpolarizations in depolarized mammary artery compared with at rest, while PG-dependent hyperpolarization did not occur until the concentration of ACh was increased some 10 fold both at rest and in U46619. 4. The smooth muscle of the coronary artery of guinea-pigs was some 4 fold more sensitive to exogenous NO and iloprost than was the mammary artery. 5. In conclusion, the membrane potential response in arteries at rest, that is, in the absence of constrictor, may be extrapolated to events in the presence of constrictor when NO and PG are under study. However, the sensitivity to ACh and the magnitude of the hyperpolarization attributed to EDHF obtained in tissues at rest may underestimate these parameters in depolarized tissues.  (+info)

(3/1056) Effects of Aspergillus fumigatus culture filtrate on antifungal activity of human phagocytes in vitro.

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus can colonise the airways and the lungs with localised underlying conditions and occasionally invade the surrounding lung tissues even in subjects without systemic predisposing factors, presumably by escaping the local host defences. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of A fumigatus culture filtrate (ACF) on the activities of human phagocytes--inhibition of germination of A fumigatus spores by alveolar macrophages (AMs) and hyphal damage by polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs)--which are the critical host defences against A fumigatus. METHODS: Spores were incubated with AMs at a ratio of 1:1 in a medium containing different concentrations of ACF for 10 hours at 37 degrees C. Spore germination was visualised with light microscopy and the inhibition rate was calculated. The percentage of hyphal damage caused by PMNs pretreated with various concentrations of ACF was measured by a colorimetric tetrazolium metabolic assay. RESULTS: The inhibition rate of spore germination by AMs cultured with medium alone (control) was 90 (0.8)% whereas that by AMs cultured with the medium containing 10% ACF was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced to 41.7 (4.6)%. ACF suppressed the inhibition of spore germination in a dose dependent manner without altering the phagocytosing activity against the spores. The percentage of hyphal damage caused by PMNs pretreated with medium-199 (control) was 78.1 (2.3)% compared with 65.3 (2.8)% when PMNs were pretreated with 50% ACF (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A fumigatus releases biologically active substance(s) which suppress the inhibition of spore germination by AMs and also suppress PMN mediated hyphal damage, and thus may contribute to the pathogenicity of this fungus.  (+info)

(4/1056) Inhibition of the production of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor by cannabinoid receptor agonists.

1. The endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, has been reported to induce an 'endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-like' relaxation in vitro. We therefore investigated the effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists; HU 210, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and anandamide, and a CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist, SR 141716A, on nitric oxide (NO) and EDHF-mediated relaxation in precontracted rings of porcine coronary, rabbit carotid and mesenteric arteries. 2. In rings of mesenteric artery HU 210 and delta9-THC induced endothelium- and cyclo-oxygenase-independent relaxations which were sensitive to SR 141716A. Anandamide (0.03-30 microM) induced a slowly developing, endothelium-independent relaxation which was abolished by diclofenac and was therefore mediated by cyclo-oxygenase product(s). None of the CB1 agonists tested affected the tone of precontracted rings of rabbit carotid or porcine coronary artery. 3. In endothelium-intact segments, HU 210, delta9-THC and anandamide did not affect NO-mediated responses but under conditions of continuous NO synthase/cyclo-oxygenase blockade, significantly inhibited acetylcholine and bradykinin-induced relaxations which are attributed to the production of EDHF. The effects of HU 210 and delta9-THC were not observed when experiments were performed in the presence of SR 141716A suggesting the involvement of the CB1 receptor. 4. In a patch clamp bioassay of EDHF production, HU 210 decreased the EDHF-mediated hyperpolarization of detector smooth muscle cells when applied to the donor segment but was without effect on the membrane potential of detector cells. The inhibition of EDHF production was unrelated to alterations in Ca2+ -signalling or cytochrome P450 activity. 5. These results suggest that the activation of endothelial CB1 receptors appears to be negatively coupled to the production of EDHF.  (+info)

(5/1056) Proinflammatory mediators chronically downregulate the formation of the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in arteries via a nitric oxide/cyclic GMP-dependent mechanism.

BACKGROUND: Endothelium-dependent dilator responses mediated by NO and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) are altered in arteriosclerosis and sepsis. The possibility that proinflammatory mediators that stimulate the expression of inducible NO synthase (NOS II) affect the generation of EDHF was examined in isolated arteries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Under combined blockade of NOS and cyclooxygenase, EDHF-mediated relaxation elicited by several agonists was significantly attenuated in rabbit carotid and porcine coronary arteries exposed to cytokines and lipopolysaccharide. The blunted relaxation was coincident with NOS II expression and was prevented by inhibition of NOS II as well as of global protein synthesis. The NO donor CAS 1609 and 8-bromo-cGMP mimicked the proinflammatory mediator effect. In contrast, long-term blockade of endothelial NO generation increased the relaxation in carotid but not in coronary arteries. Proinflammatory mediators reduced the synthesis of EDHF assessed as hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle cells elicited by the effluent from bradykinin-stimulated coronary arteries. Proinflammatory mediators induced NOS II expression in cultured endothelial cells and decreased the expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are the most probable candidates for the synthesis of EDHF. CONCLUSIONS: Proinflammatory mediators inhibit the formation of EDHF in isolated arteries. This impairment is coincident with NOS II expression in the arterial wall and seems to be mediated through the induced generation of NO, which downregulates the putative EDHF-forming enzyme. Thus, a decreased formation of EDHF may contribute to the endothelial dysfunction in arteriosclerosis and sepsis.  (+info)

(6/1056) A cytosolic factor is required for mitochondrial cytochrome c efflux during apoptosis.

Treatment of HL-60 cells with staurosporine (STS) induced mitochondrial cytochrome c efflux into the cytosol, which was followed by caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. Consistent with these observations, in vitro experiments demonstrated that, except for cytochrome c, the cytosol of HL-60 cells contained sufficient amounts of all factors required for caspase-3 activation. In contrast, treatment of HCW-2 cells (an apoptotic-resistant HL-60 subclone) with STS failed to induce significant amounts of mitochondrial cytochrome c efflux, caspase-3 activation, and apoptosis. In vitro assays strongly suggested that a lack of cytochrome c in the cytosol was the primary limiting factor for caspase-3 activation in HCW-2 cells. To explore the mechanism which regulates mitochondrial cytochrome c efflux, we developed an in vitro assay which showed that cytosolic extracts from STS-treated, but not untreated, HL-60 cells contained an activity, which we designated 'CIF' (cytochrome c-efflux inducing factor), which rapidly induced cytochrome c efflux from HL-60 mitochondria. In contrast, there was no detectable CIF activity in STS-treated HCW-2 cells although the mitochondria from HCW-2 cells were responsive to the CIF activity from STS-treated HL-60 cells. These experiments have identified a novel activity, CIF, which is required for cytochrome c efflux and they indicate that the absence of CIF is the biochemical explanation for the impaired ability of HCW-2 cells to activate caspase-3 and undergo apoptosis.  (+info)

(7/1056) Involvement of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the EDHF-dependent vasorelaxation in rabbits.

1. It was recently suggested that an endogenous cannabinoid could represent an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). The aim of the present study was to clarify whether CB1 cannabinoid receptors are involved in the nitric oxide (NO)- and prostanoid-independent vasodilation produced by acetylcholine in rabbits. 2. Pithed rabbits received indomethacin. Noradrenaline was infused to raise blood pressure, and vasodilation was elicited by bolus injections of acetylcholine. The NO-synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methylester inhibited the acetylcholine-evoked vasodilation by about 40%. The remaining vasodilation was unaffected by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716A, but was inhibited by the potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium. In addition, the mixed CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 did not elicit vasodilation. 3. No CB1 cannabinoid receptors were involved in the prostanoid- and NO-independent vasodilation produced by acetylcholine. An exogenous cannabinoid also did not cause vasodilation. Therefore, it is unlikely that an endogenous cannabinoid serves as an EDHF acting at smooth muscle CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the rabbit.  (+info)

(8/1056) Relationship between NaF- and thapsigargin-induced endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization in rat mesenteric artery.

1. In isolated rat mesenteric artery with endothelium, NaF caused slowly developing hyperpolarization. The hyperpolarizing effect was unchanged in the presence of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) and indomethacin, but was markedly reduced by high K+. In Ca2+ -free medium or in the presence of Ni2+, NaF failed to produce hyperpolarization. 2. NaF-induced hyperpolarization was substantially unaffected by deferoxamine, an Al3+ chelator, okadaic acid and calyculin A, phosphatase inhibitors, and preincubation with pertussis toxin, suggesting that neither the action of fluoroaluminates as a G protein activator nor inhibition of phosphatase activity contributes to the hyperpolarizing effect. 3. The selective inhibitors of the Ca2+ -pump ATPase of endoplasmic reticulum, thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid, elicited hyperpolarization, whose properties were very similar to those of NaF. When intracellular Ca2+ stores had been depleted with these inhibitors, NaF no longer generated hyperpolarization. 4. In Ca2+ -free medium, NaF (or thapsigargin) caused a transient increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells, and subsequent application of thapsigargin (or NaF) failed to increase [Ca2+]i. 5. In arterial rings precontracted with phenylephrine, NaF produced endothelium-dependent relaxation followed by sustained contraction even in the presence of L-NOARG and indomethacin. The relaxant response was abolished by high K+ or cyclopiazonic acid. 6. These results indicate that NaF causes endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization, thereby leading to smooth muscle relaxation of rat mesenteric artery. This action appears to be mediated by the promotion of Ca2+ influx into endothelial cells that can be triggered by the emptying of intracellular Ca2+ stores, as proposed for those of thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid.  (+info)



Humanistic Approaches to Personality


  • Biological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality Biological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality There are two approaches to the study of personality which are the biological and humanistic approaches. (studymode.com)
  • Biological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality Valerye Rogers PSY/250- Psychology of Personality Michael Moore, Instructor February 21, 2011 Biological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality In the following, the author will discuss and analyze the biological and humanistic approaches to personality . (studymode.com)
  • Biological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality The stages of human development are influenced by biological and humanistic theories . (studymode.com)
  • Biological and Humanistic Approaches To Personality Luthan Taylor PSY/250 May 20, 2014 Mr. Murray Johnson Biological and Humanistic Approaches To Personality This paper is written concerning the biological and humanistic approaches to personality . (studymode.com)
  • Biological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality PSY/250 University of Phoenix Theories in the field of psychology, more specifically personality , strongly rely on the collection of observational data. (studymode.com)

behavioral


  • The focus was just shifting from solely reproductive issues and biological factors, to an expanded perception that women's health encompasses biological, familial, cultural, economic, emotional, psychological, and behavioral elements of each woman and her sociopolitical environment, beyond just the reproductive organs and across her entire lifespan. (tailieu.vn)
  • Biological and Humanistic Personality PSY/250 October 7, 2014 Mark Peterson Biological and Humanistic Personality Personality is a complex of all the attributes which are possessed by individuals and which uniquely defines their temperamental, behavioral, mental and emotional characteristics from the other people (Friedman & Schustack 2012). (studymode.com)
  • To gain insight into the effects of biological and behavioral factors on arsenic exposure, we determined arsenic concentrations in urine and toenails in a U.S. population that uses public or private water supplies containing inorganic arsenic. (epa.gov)
  • In sum, these results indicate the primacy of home tap water as a determinant of arsenic concentration in urine and toenails and show that behavioral factors can modify exposure-response relations for these biomarkers. (epa.gov)

biomarkers


  • Endogenously-synthesized compounds that may influence biological phenomena or represent quantifiable biomarkers. (definitions.net)

psychological


  • socio-psychological term determined by socialization (nurture), biological and psychological factors . (brainmass.com)

genetic factors


  • The biological theory supports the view that anxiety disorders are caused by chemical imbalances and/or genetic factors (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 2005, 2009). (brainmass.com)
  • In terms of Genetic Factors, for example, research shows that genetic factors play a role in the development of anxiety disorders i.e. people are more likely to have an anxiety disorder if they have a relative who also has an anxiety disorder. (brainmass.com)
  • A growing body of evidence suggests that biological or genetic factors may explain these racial differences. (blogspot.com)

personality


  • Describe biological factors that could have a hand in the formation of personality . (brainmass.com)
  • This solution examines biological factors that could influence the formation of personality and explains how they might do so with the aid of an exhaustive reference. (brainmass.com)
  • hierarchy of needs to discuss the extent to which growth needs influence personality formation, also describe biological factors that influence the formation of personality . (studymode.com)
  • Examine the relationship of biological factors to Maslow's theory of personality , explained the basic aspect of humanistic theory that are incompatible with biological explanations of personality . (studymode.com)
  • The biological approach focuses on the idea that a person is born with traits that will help formulate an individual's personality . (studymode.com)

Differences


  • A new study provides evidence that racial differences in the clinical presentation of breast cancer may be due more to biological factors rather than differences in access to healthcare alone. (blogspot.com)
  • Differences in intelligence are the most significant factor in explaining levels of social progress and development. (omicsonline.org)

genetics


  • According to the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (2005, 2009), there are known biological causes and effects of anxiety disorders, including genetics, brain chemistry, brain activity and substance use issues. (brainmass.com)
  • In this study, we aimed to assess the association between IQ (intelligence quotient) and neurocognitive, biological and genetics factors among Kurdish populations and then we drew inferences about the state of social progress and development of Kurdish societies and genetic characteristics based on a statistical pattern. (omicsonline.org)

examine


  • The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological and biological factors associated with ultra-endurance performance. (biomedsearch.com)

initiation


  • Documentation of date of initiation of each biological agent and date of discontinuation of each biological agent (if applicable). (mayo.edu)

risk


  • The main objective of GermAge is to understand the devastating decline in germ cell quality during aging, and thus to define the determinants, pathways and risk factors for age-dependent infertility, aneuploidy and inherited diseases. (europa.eu)
  • Thus the urgent need to understand the biological basis and to identify risk factors and pathways of the steep age-dependent decline in female and male germ cell quality. (europa.eu)

adolescents


  • 1. What do we know about the biological factors (contributors & outcomes) of anxiety disorders in adolescents? (brainmass.com)
  • Specifically, what are the developmental and environmental factors in nature that contribute to Anxiety Disorders in adolescents. (brainmass.com)
  • Also consider the biological outcomes of anxiety disorders in adolescents. (brainmass.com)
  • This highlights that biological factors such as natural delay in body clock, and having to get up early for school, have much stronger effects on adolescents' sleep than technology itself. (definitions.net)

characteristics


  • Baseline examination in 1973 determined cases of cardiovascular disease, behavioural and biological risks, and stressful characteristics of work. (bmj.com)

Definition


  • Are we missing a good definition for biological factors ? (definitions.net)

another


  • The ability to maintain a high %VO(2max) over a 24TR is another factor associated with performance and is mainly related to RE and high mitochondrial oxidative capacity in the vastus lateralis. (biomedsearch.com)

significant


  • These ratios remained significant after additional adjustment for occupational group and biological and behavioural risks at baseline. (bmj.com)
  • Given the significant research into biological aspects of panic disorder, several key insights are germane to Mary's case. (brainmass.com)

health


  • This book presents and discusses current research in the field of biology, with a particular emphasis on biological factors and their role in health and well-being. (tailieu.vn)
  • Structured interviews can sometimes be limiting regarding certain factors, such as family history and events that could impact the individual's mental health. (brainmass.com)

high


  • It is therefore not necessarily valid to use variations in alkalinity to calculate CaCO3 dissolution or precipitation in milieus with a high biological productivity. (schweizerbart.de)

terms


  • displaying little differentiation in terms of an etiologic factor . (brainmass.com)
  • The process of destruction of a limestone coast is explained in terms of a complex interrelationship of biological and inorganic factors. (schweizerbart.de)

different


  • Although different factors are probably involved in the etiology of fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients, no definite mechanism has been proposed. (cun.es)

years


  • The researchers could not have possibly control all aspects of the behaviours of that many men at once over 8 years, so other factors could have contributed in the factors of CHD. (getrevising.co.uk)

study


  • Case Study on Mary and Integrating Biological Factors, which relates to the 'biological aspects of panic disorder. (brainmass.com)