Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Microalgae: A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Stramenopiles: A common name (but used formally) for a group of organisms that are mostly kinds of algae including BACILLARIOPHYTA; OOMYCETES; PHAEOPHYCEAE; and CHRYSOPHYCEAE. They all contain CHLOROPLASTS that are thought to have been derived from the endosymbiosis of ancient RED ALGAE.Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Photobioreactors: Devices for generating biological products that use light as the energy source. They are used for controlled BIOMASS production such as growing cyanobacteria, mosses, or algae.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Clostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Bioengineering: The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.Butanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Muramic Acids: Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cellulosomes: Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.Synthetic Biology: A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.XyloseAlcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Synechocystis: A form-genus of unicellular CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. None of the strains fix NITROGEN, there are no gas vacuoles, and sheath layers are never produced.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.

*  Bacteriophage-encoded lytic enzymes control growth of contaminating Lactobacillus found in fuel ethanol fermentations |...

The goal of this study was to identify phage exolytic lysins that can be used as antimicrobials toward Gram positive LAB known to contaminate fuel ethanol fermentations. From seven putative lysin genes, we have identified four phage lysins (LysA, Lysa2, LysgaY and λSa2 endolysin), that show high activity against LAB contaminants from fuel ethanol facilities. These enzymes have broad exolytic activity in vitro towards numerous Gram positive LAB including several fermentation isolates of L. fermentum. Although LysA, LysA2 and LysgaY, and λSa2 endolysin all demonstrated exolytic activity against lactobacilli, the lactobacilli lysin LysA and the streptococcal λSa2 phage endolysin showed the greatest efficacies to reduce populations of L. fermentum. Interestingly, λSa2 endolysin also exhibited the broadest lytic activity towards the LAB and other Gram positive bacteria tested here.. It is virtually impossible to avoid LAB contaminations in fuel ethanol fermentations, and therefore, the risk of ...
https://biotechnologyforbiofuels.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1754-6834-6-20

*  Process modeling and integration of fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass based on double acid hydrolysis

Lignocellulosic biomass is considered as one of the most promising feedstocks for producing fuel ethanol because of its global availability and environmental benefits of its use. In this paper, the process of lignocellulosic ethanol production was investigated at its present state of development. The experimental data from the East China University of Science and Technology were used to develop a process model and evaluate the performance of the whole process design. For the process simulation, all relevant information about the process streams, physical properties, and mass and energy balances were also considered. Energy integration is investigated to identify the best ways to supply heat to the process, realizing also combined heat and power production from wastewater and residue treatment. The sensitivity on ethanol yield and the overall system performance are also investigated.. Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass ; fuel ethanol ; energy integration. ...
https://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/133178

*  Biofuels

... are fuels produced from biomass, i.e. organic matter that comes from a biological process, which is usable as an energy source.. According to the raw material and technology used in its production, biofuels can be classified into first, second and third generation. First generation biofuels use food grade raw materials and process technologies such as fermentation and transesterification; it is mainly these that have reached a commercial production stage. Second generation biofuels are derived from raw materials that have no food use, through the aforementioned processes and through thermochemical processes. Finally, third-generation biofuels use similar production methods in specifically designed or adapted bioenergy crops; these are still at an early stage of development and are a long way from being produced on a commercial scale.. Some noteworthy aspects of biofuels are:. ...
ecopetrol.com.co/wps/portal/web_es/ecopetrol-web/environment/eco-efficiency/biofuels/biofuels-information

*  EU Parliament vote on biofuels - Nuffield Bioethics

The Nuffield Council on Bioethics welcomes the outcome of today's vote, which comes more than two years after the Council published its report Biofuels: ethical issues. The report recommended that biofuels policies should take into account the possible greenhouse gas emission savings over the whole production lifecycle of the biofuels, but noted the complexities associated with calculating and determining ILUC factors. It also recommended that policy makers should incentivise research and development of new biofuels technologies that need less land and other resources.. The European Commission previously established voluntary sustainability criteria for biofuels. However the Council would like to see mandatory certification of biofuels that includes social as well as environmental sustainability criteria and greenhouse gas emissions savings. The social criteria that the Council would like to see incorporated ...
https://nuffieldbioethics.org/news/2013/eu-parliament-vote-on-biofuels

*  Getting from here to there: Biofuels may prove more volatile than oil for transportation fuel

This story is the NY Times raises alarms that biofuels are subject to weather risks. As climate change is likely to increase weather swings and cause great damage to crops in the future, it seems that wholly embracing biofuels is not sound policy. Since the country is freaked out by the rising price of oil and there is no reasonable expectation of a major decline anytime soon (I'm doubtful of any type of speculative bubble in the oil market), switching to a fuel source that is more unpredicatable-at the cost of higehr food prices no less- may force uncomfortable and unpleasant choices in the future between mobility and hunger. It seems that biofuels will not solve many of the problems associated with transportation energy and will likely cause more severe and unexpected problems in the coming decades. Perhaps hydrogen is the way to go ...
davidaking.blogspot.com/2008/06/biofuels-may-prove-more-volatile-than.html

*  China 2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) for chemical production use - China HEA, 2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate

China 2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) for chemical production use, Find details about China HEA, 2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate from 2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) for chemical production use - Hongkong Baijin International Trading Co., Ltd.
hkbaijin.en.made-in-china.com/product/nXMQThIKZCcb/China-2-Hydroxyethyl-acrylate-HEA-for-chemical-production-use.html

*  Rural Communities, Our Economy and Our Energy | whitehouse.gov

The President has already made progress on this commitment by making significant investments to develop the biofuels industry. For example, the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act included $800 million in ethanol fueling infrastructure, biorefinery construction, and advanced biofuels research. These investments will help put us on a path to reach the President's ambitious goal of tripling America's biofuel production by 2022. But more work remains to be done.. As Congress examines options for extending the biodiesel and ethanol tax credits, the Obama Administration believes in continued financial support for biofuels that can help us meet our energy security and environmental goals. Stakeholders have put forward reform ideas that would provide continued support for first generation ethanol and biodiesel, while simultaneously accelerating the development of infrastructure and research, development, and rapid deployment of cellulosic ethanol and other ...
https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/blog/2010/10/08/rural-communities-our-economy-and-our-energy

*  Advanced Bio-hydrocarbon Fuels | ClimateTechWiki

Carriquiry, M. A., Du, X. and Timilsina, G. R. (2010). Second Generation Biofuels: Economics and Policies. Policy Research Working Paper, 5406.. Carriquiry, M. A., Du, X., and Timilsina, G. R. Hamelinck, C., and Faaij, A. (2006). Outlook for Advanced Biofuels.Energy Policy.Vol. 34, pp 3268-3283.. Ewing, M. and Msangi, S. (2009). Biofuels Production in Developing Countries: Assessing Tradeoffs in Welfare and Food Security.Environmental Science and Policy. Vol. 12 (4). pp. 520-528.. Hamelinck, C., and A. Faaij,(2006). Outlook for Advanced Biofuels.,Vol. 34, pp. .3268-3283.. Hamelinck, C., Hooijdonk, G. and Faaij, A. (2005). "Ethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Techno-economic Performance in Short-, Middle- and Long-term."Biomass and Bioenergy28: 384-410.. Hileman, J. I., Ortiz, D. S., Bartis, J. T., Wong, H. M., Donohoo, P. E., Weiss, m. A. and Waitz, I. A. (2009). Near Term feasibility of Alternative Jet fuels. Pittsburg. RAND corporation.. ...
climatetechwiki.org/technology/bio-hydrocarbon-fuels

*  Raw starch conversion by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Aspergillus tubingensis amylases | Biotechnology for Biofuels |...

Declining oil reserves, political instability, climate change concerns and rising CO2 emissions have led to new interest in biofuels to supplement the growing demand for alternative and sustainable sources of transport fuels. Biofuels, which includes bio-ethanol, can be produced from renewable biomass resources that include dedicated crops (e.g. corn), by-products from agricultural processing activities (e.g. sugarcane bagasse) or even organic municipal waste. Although the positive environmental impact and sustainable nature of biofuels render it advantageous over fossil fuels [1], the cost-effective production of biofuels remains a challenge.. Starch, one of the most abundant polysaccharides in nature, has been used for commercial bio-ethanol production for a number of years, with a relatively mature technology developed for corn in the USA [2, 3]. The USA produced 52.6 billion litres of ethanol fuel in 2011, an increase from 49.2 billion ...
https://biotechnologyforbiofuels.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1754-6834-6-167

*  Forest Vs. Biofuels - Redorbit

Scientists from seven nations released a new study on Monday that finds clearing tropical forests in order to plant biofuels harms the environment by reducing animal and plant diversity.. Biofuels are considered greener than fossil fuels because plants absorb greenhouse gases from the atmosphere as they grow.. "Keeping tropical rain forests intact is a better way to combat climate change than replacing them with biofuel plantations," the scientists wrote in a report about the study.. In South East Asia, millions of hectares of forest land have been converted to palm oil plantations to produce biofuels. The study, conducted by scientists from the U.S., Netherlands, Malaysia, Germany, Indonesia, Britain and Denmark, was unveiled on the opening day of a meeting in Poland of 187 nations that seek consensus on a new U.N. climate treaty. According to the research, it would take 75 years for carbon emissions saved from the use of biofuels to ...
redorbit.com/news/science/1603502/forest_vs_biofuels/

*  IDEALS @ Illinois: Metabolic engineering of yeast strains for renewable biomass utilization and valuable chemical production

The overall goal of this thesis study is to use metabolic engineering and biotechnology tools for developing optimal yeast strains capable of utilizing various sugars derived from renewable biomass and produce valuable chemicals. Sugars derived from lignocellulosic biomass, mainly cellobiose and xylose, cannot be assimilated by the industrial microorganisms, such as yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To utilize cellobiose or xylose for the fuels and chemicals production by S. cerevisiae strains, heterologous expression of cellobiose or xylose metabolizing genes are required. The first part of this dissertation focuses on developing optimal yeast strains for utilizing renewable sugars, cellobiose, xylose and galactose, and understanding underlying mechanism for improvement on lignocellulosic sugar utilization. Initially, cellobiose fermenting S. cerevisiae was developed by expressing Neurospora crassa cellodextrin transporters (CDT-1 and CDT-2) and β-glucosidase (BGL) or cellobiose phosphorylase ...
https://ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/97608

*  Engineering Yarrowia lipolytica to produce biodiesel from raw starch | Biotechnology for Biofuels | Full Text

The excessive use of petroleum sources cannot cope with the increasing worldwide energy consumption and the environmental requirements to prevent global warming. Bio-lipids produced either by plant or microorganisms are one of the most promising sustainable and renewable alternative sources of energy [1]. Microbial oils present several advantages over plant-based oils: they (1) sometimes can be synthesized from waste products as carbon source (such as glycerol or lignocellulosic materials), (2) they are independent of climate and seasonal conditions, (3) they have short process cycles, (4) industrial-scale fermentations can be rapidly adapted to market needs, (5) the land area needed for microbial cultivation is much smaller than that required for plant growth and importantly (6) microorganisms can be modified by metabolic engineering approaches, which can be utilized to enrich specific desired fatty acids within the microbial oils [2]. However, there are also drawbacks in the use of microbial ...
https://biotechnologyforbiofuels.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13068-015-0335-7

*  Biodiesel - America's first advanced biofuel!

Biodiesel is America’s first Advanced Biofuel. It is a renewable, clean-burning diesel replacement that is reducing U.S. dependence on imported diesel, creating green jobs and improving our environment.
biodiesel.org

*  FeedStock Paraxylene (PX) - FeedStock Paraxylene (PX) Manufacturers, FeedStock Paraxylene (PX) Suppliers & Exporters

Explore FeedStock Paraxylene (PX) manufacturers, FeedStock Paraxylene (PX) suppliers, FeedStock Paraxylene (PX) producers, FeedStock Paraxylene (PX) wholesalers, FeedStock Paraxylene (PX) exporters, FeedStock Paraxylene (PX) companies for FeedStock Paraxylene (PX) sourcing needs.
fibre.fibre2fashion.com/feedstock_paraxylene-px_suppliers_p2107_s100.html

*  Sunlight converts algae fats directly into hydrocarbons for speedy biofuel production : Biofuels Digest

In France, researchers discovered that certain species of algae can convert fats directly to hydrocarbons that can come in handy for biofuel production. Using sunlight as an input and filtering the contents of algae to leave them with protein solutions with some cell contents, they tested them for how well they converted to fats. They found a set of 10 proteins that existed in all three fractions that were able to convert fats, but one of them was a mystery protein. Once they identified that mystery protein's gene, they tweaked it and transferred it to bacteria where it converted fats to hydrocarbons. Interestingly, the reaction needed blue light to work and when they switched it to red light, the conversion process stopped. The discovery can lead to many applications that rely on algae fat conversion to hydrocarbons, like biofuel production. ...
biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/2017/09/02/sunlight-converts-algae-fats-directly-into-hydrocarbons-for-speedy-biofuel-production/

*  Ebook 978-9048136957 Heterogenized Homogeneous Catalysts for Fine Chemicals Production: Materials

This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-9048136957 Heterogenized Homogeneous Catalysts for Fine Chemicals Production: Materials Product Will Be Deliver
ecrater.com/p/27665388/ebook-978-9048136957-heterogenized-homogeneous-catalysts-for-fine

*  Comparative transcriptome analysis to investigate the high starch accumulation of duckweed (Landoltia punctata) under nutrient...

Liquid biofuels, such as bioethanol, converted from biomass are considered as a promising alternative for traditional fossil fuels. Biofuels development can reduce greenhouse gas emission and meet the world's rapidly growing demand for energy. Currently, bioethanol is mainly produced from feedstocks with relatively high starch or sugar percentage, such as corn, sugarcane, sweet potato and cassava [1-3]. However, these bioethanol production modes have some inherent problems, including the adverse impacts on food security, environment and insufficient agricultural land [4, 5]. Although lignocellulosic sources are also considered as a promising feedstock for bioethanol production, there are several obstacles, such as the lack of an efficient, economical and environment friendly pretreatment process, that still needed to be overcome [6]. Therefore, developing sustainable feedstocks and processing protocols for biofuel production is becoming more and more urgent.. One alternative ...
https://biotechnologyforbiofuels.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1754-6834-6-72

*  Scaling Biofuels Technology : Biofuels Digest

Recommendations. First and foremost, for companies actively engaged in developing biofuels or bioenergy technology, it is recommended that they systematically follow the stage gate approach outlined in this article as they scale their process technology in order to minimize risk and maximize the likelihood of success. In planning the timeframe to develop the technology through the pilot and demonstration stages it is important to consider that the time required for start-up and commissioning of the plants will take longer than a traditional gas-liquid plant due mainly to the extra time required to fine tune the solids handling equipment.. Secondly, it is important that technology companies choose to work with partners and suppliers with real experience and a proven track record in the bioenergy and biofuels segment. Ideally, this experience should be drawn from the successful execution of bioenergy projects of similar scale and complexity, or else from projects in related ...
biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/2016/11/09/scaling-biofuels-technology/

*  Court of Appeals punctures a hole in EPA's cellulosic ethanol balloon

Through the Clean Air Act, the EPA can mandate a set volume of cellulosic biofuels that refiners must blend into gasoline based on "the projected volume available." In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) established annual renewable fuel volume targets. The "targets" increase each year to reach 36 billion gallons by 2022. The EISA's original cellulosic biofuel expectation for 2013 was 1 billion gallons.. The targets gave birth to a new cellulosic ethanol industry. Thanks to the government mandates, start-ups such as Range Fuels and Cello Energy were born. They cranked out press releases touting a potential for millions of gallons of the biofuel. Based on optimistic projections aimed at attracting investors, the EPA set its targets.. In 2006, President Bush pledged government funding for the nascent industry-declaring that cellulosic ethanol would be "practical and competitive within six years." Range Fuels received a $76 million grant from the Department of Energy in March ...
cfact.org/2013/02/04/court-of-appeals-punctures-a-hole-in-epas-cellulosic-ethanol-balloon/

*  Ceres Trials Energy Crops at Georgia Biofuel Facility - Redorbit

THOUSAND OAKS, Calif., Sept. 9 /PRNewswire/ -- Energy crop company Ceres, Inc. announced today that it will trial improved switchgrass cultivars and high-biomass sorghum hybrids with Range Fuels, Inc. as part of a cooperative field trialing program at the site of Range Fuels' commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol plant, now under construction near Soperton, Georgia, about 150 miles southeast of Atlanta. While wood residues will be the primary feedstock for this first-of-a-kind biorefinery, Ceres said that Range Fuels is also interested in better understanding the economic, environmental and logistical attributes of non-food, low-carbon grass species in the production of cellulosic biofuels. These grass species have a number of advantages: they have relatively rapid breeding cycles, they are highly efficient at storing sunlight in the form of carbohydrates, and they are widely adapted. Last spring, Ceres provided seed of new, high-yielding varieties that was planted in demonstration plots on ...
redorbit.com/news/business/1548776/ceres_trials_energy_crops_at_georgia_biofuel_facility/

*  Acid-catalyzed algal biomass pretreatment for integrated lipid and carbohydrate-based biofuels production - Green Chemistry ...

TEA results for the base case algal cultivation productivity of 13.2 g m−2 day−1 show promising economic potential for this technology pathway, with an 18% improvement (reduction) in MFSP based on currently observed experimental results relative to the lipid-focused benchmark $($16.31/GGE versus $$19.80/GGE respectively), or a 33% improvement for the theoretical "improved" conversion case $($13.35/GGE) (Fig. 3, scenario A-C). This improvement is driven in large part by the substantial increase in total fuel yield, at 27% increase for the "baseline experimental" case relative to the benchmark (1299 versus 1023 GGE per acre-year respectively), or 54% increase for the "improved" case (1577 GGE per acre-year). Extrapolating further to concomitantly increased algal cultivation productivity combined with the "improved" conversion case, the present technology pathway shows the potential to maintain an approximate 33% improvement in MFSP relative to the harmonization baseline technology at either 30 ...
pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2015/gc/c4gc01612b

*  IEA - Poland

In order to provide additional support for production of biocomponents and liquid biofuels, the Long-Term Programme for the Promotion of Biofuels and Other Renewable Fuels for 2008- 2014 (M.P. of 2007 No 53, item 607) have been drawn up, which ensures the implementation of Article 37 of the Act on biocomponents and liquid biofuels.. The implementation of the arrangements it contains will improve the cost effectiveness of the process as a whole, from the cultivation of the agricultural raw materials through the production of biocomponents and the manufacture of liquid biofuels and liquid fuels blended with biocomponents, and ending with the use of the biofuels. These arrangements should also ensure a stable operating environment for all entities connected with the biocomponents and liquid biofuels market, which is essential for formulating long-term business plans and to the ability of businesses to raise ...
iea.org/policiesandmeasures/pams/poland/name-23914-en.php

*  Iowa: Biofuels Represent 3.5% of the State's Gross Domestic Product - DTN | AgFax

Pruitt's confirmation vote is expected to come sometime likely Thursday or Friday.. Ethanol interest groups continue expressing confidence President Donald Trump will stand behind the RFS. Trump declared his support for biofuels during the presidential campaign and Pruitt has told various Midwestern lawmakers he would continue to implement the law as written.. "As written" is the key phrase. There has been a fair amount of rumbling in Congress about a need for RFS reform. The proposals range from limiting ethanol content in gasoline to 9.7%, to outright repeal.. Considering Trump's penchant for keeping jobs in America and the electoral support he saw from rural America, perhaps the biofuels industry's best tact is to continue to stress the economic importance of the policy.. Long-time ethanol industry consultant John Urbanchuk, managing partner, Agriculture and BioFuels Consulting, LLP, outlined in a recent study how the industry has driven the economy of ...
agfax.com/2017/02/16/iowa-biofuels-represent-3-5-of-the-states-gross-domestic-product-dtn/

*  Scaling Algae Growth for Biofuels

Scaling algae growth for the biofuels industry is in its infancy and poses many engineering and biology challenges. Scaling the complex cultivation and growth processes outdoors is tackled by Solix Biofuels, who is having success with their modular, outdoor photobioreactor systems. Biologists and engineers are working together to create workable solutions toward a new form of sustainable energy.
asme.org/engineering-topics/articles/bioengineering/scaling-algae-growth-for-biofuels

*  PMS-ICBG

The Philippine Mollusk Symbiont ICBG (PMS ICBG) project links a biodiversity survey of marine mollusks in one of the world's hotspots of diversity, with enzyme and drug discovery aimed at bacterial symbionts of mollusks. Mollusks constitute the most diverse marine eukaryotic group, occupying virtually every possible ecological niche. The diversity of microbes associated with mollusks is equally vast.. Within the mollusks, three particular groups exhibit what we believe to be the highest biotechnological and scientific potential: the bivalve family Teredinidae (genus Teredo) and the gastropod superfamilies Conoidea (genus Conus) and Muricoidea (genus Murex). The project directly addresses the goals of the ICBG program and will yield drug leads in central nervous system, cancer and antimicrobial areas, as well as strains and enzymes for cellulosic biofuels production. The project will characterize symbiotic diversity and pharmaceutical and biofuels potential of ...
pmsicbg.org/projects

Canadian Renewable Fuels Association: The Canadian Renewable Fuels Association (CRFA) is a non-profit organization in Canada, created in 1984. Its stated purpose is to "promote renewable fuels for transportation through consumer awareness and government liaison activities", and its membership includes "representatives from all levels of the ethanol and biodiesel industry", including agricultural associations and producers of ethanol and biodiesel.Energy security of the People's Republic of China: Energy security of the People's Republic of China concerns the need for the People's Republic of China to guarantee itself and its industries long- term access to sufficient energy and raw materials. China has been endeavoring to sign international agreements and secure such supplies; its energy security involves the internal and foreign energy policy of China.Microalgal bacterial flocs: == MaB-flocs ==Coniferyl aldehydeNannochloropsis: Nannochloropsis is a genus of alga comprising 6 known species. The genus in the current taxonomic classification was first termed by Hibberd (1981).Forum for Renewable Energy Development in Scotland: The Forum for Renewable Energy Development in Scotland, also known as FREDS is a partnership between industry, academia and Government aimed at enabling Scotland to capitalise on its significant renewable energy resource and thereby secure economic benefits."Forum for Renewable Energy Development" Scottish Government.Panicum coloratum: Panicum coloratum is a species of grass known by the common names kleingrass, blue panicgrassPanicum coloratum. Tropical Forages.Photobioreactor: A photobioreactor is a bioreactor that utilizes a light source to cultivate phototrophic microorganisms. These organisms use photosynthesis to generate biomass from light and carbon dioxide and include plants, mosses, macroalgae, microalgae, cyanobacteria and purple bacteria.Tank chassis: Tank container chassis, also referred to as tank chassis, drop frame chassis or tank trailers, are a form of intermodal transportation for portable bulk liquid containers or ISO tank containers. They are characteristically longer and have lower deck height ideal for transporting constantly shifting payloads.Deconstruction Tour: Deconstruction Tour is a one-day punk music and skate festival that is staged in various countries across Europe. It first took place in 1999, and has occurred annually since.Biotechnology Industry Organization: The Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) is the largest trade organization to serve and represent the biotechnology industry in the United States and around the world.Anna Edney, "Biosciences Defy U.Gasoline gallon equivalent: Gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) or gasoline-equivalent gallon (GEG) is the amount of alternative fuel it takes to equal the energy content of one liquid gallon of gasoline. GGE allows consumers to compare the energy content of competing fuels against a commonly known fuel—gasoline.Clostridium thermocellum: Clostridium thermocellum is an anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium. C.Energy policy of Malaysia: The energy policy of Malaysia is determined by the Malaysian Government, which address issues of energy production, distribution, and consumption. The Department of Electricity and Gas Supply acts as the regulator while other players in the energy sector include energy supply and service companies, research and development institutions and consumers.Bioelectrochemical reactor: Bioelectrochemical reactors are a type of bioreactor where bioelectrochemical processes can take place. They are used in bioelectrochemical syntheses, environmental remediation and electrochemical energy conversion.Cellulose fiber: Cellulose fibers () are fibers made with ether or esters of cellulose, which can be obtained from the bark, wood or leaves of plants, or from a plant-based material. Besides cellulose, these fibers are compound of hemicellulose and lignin, and different percentages of these components are responsible for different mechanical properties observed.Phlogiston theory: The phlogiston theory is an obsolete scientific theory that postulated that a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion. The name comes from the Ancient Greek [phlogistón (burning up), from φλόξ] phlóx (flame).IPCC Second Assessment Report: The Second Assessment Report (SAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 1996, is an assessment of the then available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change. It was superseded by the Third Assessment Report (TAR) in 2001.Plant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.Wood fibre: Wood fibers are usually cellulosic elements that are extracted from trees and used to make materials including paper.Ionic liquidGlycoside hydrolase family 48: In molecular biology, glycoside hydrolase family 48 is a family of glycoside hydrolases.Flux (metabolism): Flux, or metabolic flux is the rate of turnover of molecules through a metabolic pathway. Flux is regulated by the enzymes involved in a pathway.Agricultural engineering: Agricultural engineering in forestryIsobutanolChromosome engineering: Chromosome engineering is "the controlled generation of chromosomal deletions, inversions, or translocations with defined endpoints." For: By combining chromosomal translocation, chromosomal inversion,and chromosomal deletion, chromosome engineering has been shown to identify the underlying genes that cause certain diseases in mice.Muramic acidCellulosic ethanol commercialization: Cellulosic ethanol commercialization is the process of building an industry out of methods of turning cellulose-containing organic matter into fuel. Companies, such as Iogen, POET, DuPont, and Abengoa, are building refineries that can process biomass and turn it into bioethanol.Synthetic genomics: Synthetic genomics is a nascent field of synthetic biology that uses aspects of genetic modification on pre-existing life forms with the intent of producing some product or desired behavior on the part of the life form so created.Rumford furnace: A Rumford furnace is a kiln for the industrial scale production in the 19th century of calcium oxide, popularly known as quicklime or burnt lime. It was named after its inventor, Benjamin Thompson, also known as Count Rumford, and is sometimes called a Rüdersdorf furnace after the location where it was first built and from where the design rapidly spread throughout Europe.Revegetation: Revegetation is the process of replanting and rebuilding the soil of disturbed land. This may be a natural process produced by plant colonization and succession, or an artificial (manmade) wilderness engineering, accelerated process designed to repair damage to a landscape due to wildfire, mining, flood, or other cause.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Ethanol fuel: Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline.Lactic acid fermentationCarbon–carbon bond: A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. The most common form is the single bond: a bond composed of two electrons, one from each of the two atoms.National Offshore Petroleum Safety Authority: The National Offshore Petroleum Safety Authority (NOPSA) was the occupational health and safety (OHS) regulator for the Australian offshore petroleum industry between 2005 and 2011. The role of regulator has been transferred to NOPSEMA - the National Offshore Petroleum Safety and Environmental Management Authority from the first of January 2012.D-xylose reductase: D-xylose reductase (, XylR, XyrA, msXR, dsXR, monospecific xylose reductase, dual specific xylose reductase, NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase, xylose reductase) is an enzyme with system name xylitol:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionPrimary alcoholPeat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Meramec Conservation AreaSynechocystis: Synechocystis is a genus of unicellular, freshwater cyanobacteria primarily represented by the strain Synechocystis sp. PCC6803.Glucuronoxylan: Glucuronoxylans are the primary components of hemicellulose as found in hardwood trees, for example birch.http://www.Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Trichoderma harzianum: Trichoderma harzianum is a fungus that is also used as a fungicide. It is used for foliar application, seed treatment and soil treatment for suppression of various disease causing fungal pathogens.Marine fungi: Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments. They are not a taxonomic group but share a common habitat.

(1/418) Strategy for adapting wine yeasts for bioethanol production.

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(2/418) Airborne fungal and bacterial components in PM1 dust from biofuel plants.

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(3/418) Rate and peak concentrations of off-gas emissions in stored wood pellets--sensitivities to temperature, relative humidity, and headspace volume.

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(4/418) Protein engineering in designing tailored enzymes and microorganisms for biofuels production.

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(5/418) Emission of volatile aldehydes and ketones from wood pellets under controlled conditions.

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(6/418) Digestible and metabolizable energy content of crude glycerin originating from different sources in nursery pigs.

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(7/418) Effects of headspace and oxygen level on off-gas emissions from wood pellets in storage.

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(8/418) Properties of ethanol fermentation by Flammulina velutipes.

Basidiomycetes have the ability to degrade lignocellulosic biomass, and some basidiomycetes produce alcohol dehydrogenase. These characteristics may be useful in the direct production of ethanol from lignocellulose. Ethanol fermentation by basidiomycetes was investigated to examine the possibility of ethanol production by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) using Flammulina velutipes. F. velutipes converted D-glucose to ethanol with a high efficiency (a theoretical ethanol recovery rate of 88%), but ethanol production from pentose was not observed. These properties of F. velutipes are similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but the basidiomycete converted not only sucrose, but also maltose, cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose to ethanol, with almost the same efficiency as that for D-glucose. From these results, we concluded that F. velutipes possesses advantageous characteristics for use in CBP.  (+info)



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