Bioethics: A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.Bioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Ethicists: Persons trained in philosophical or theological ethics who work in clinical, research, public policy, or other settings where they bring their expertise to bear on the analysis of ethical dilemmas in policies or cases. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Ethical Analysis: The use of systematic methods of ethical examination, such as CASUISTRY or ETHICAL THEORY, in reasoning about moral problems.Freedom: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Ethical Theory: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)Ethical Relativism: The philosophical view that conceptions of truth and moral values are not absolute but are relative to the persons or groups holding them. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed)Principle-Based Ethics: An approach to ethics that focuses on theories of the importance of general principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Personhood: The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.Confucianism: A school of thought and set of moral, ethical, and political teachings usually considered to be founded by Confucius in 6th-5th century B.C. China. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995)Ethics, Clinical: The identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Dissent and Disputes: Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Feminism: The theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes and organized activity on behalf of women's rights and interests. (Webster New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Duty to Warn: A health professional's obligation to breach patient CONFIDENTIALITY to warn third parties of the danger of their being assaulted or of contracting a serious infection.Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ethics Committees: Committees established by professional societies, health facilities, or other institutions to consider decisions that have bioethical implications. The role of these committees may include consultation, education, mediation, and/or review of policies and practices. Committees that consider the ethical dimensions of patient care are ETHICS COMMITTEES, CLINICAL; committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects are ETHICS COMMITTEES, RESEARCH.Virtues: Character traits that are considered to be morally praiseworthy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Philosophy, MedicalValue of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Empirical Research: The study, based on direct observation, use of statistical records, interviews, or experimental methods, of actual practices or the actual impact of practices or policies.Beneficence: The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Literature, ModernChristianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Judaism: The religion of the Jews characterized by belief in one God and in the mission of the Jews to teach the Fatherhood of God as revealed in the Hebrew Scriptures. (Webster, 3d ed)Moral Development: The process by which individuals internalize standards of right and wrong conduct.HistorySociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Dehumanization: The process by which a person or group of persons comes to be regarded or treated as lacking in human qualities.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.Whistleblowing: The reporting of observed or suspected PROFESSIONAL MISCONDUCT or incompetence to appropriate authorities or to the public.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Medical Futility: The absence of a useful purpose or useful result in a diagnostic procedure or therapeutic intervention. The situation of a patient whose condition will not be improved by treatment or instances in which treatment preserves permanent unconsciousness or cannot end dependence on intensive medical care. (From Ann Intern Med 1990 Jun 15;112(12):949)Euthanasia, Active: The act or practice of killing for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person or animal from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Casuistry: A method of ETHICAL ANALYSIS that emphasizes practical problem solving through examining individual cases that are considered to be representative; sometimes used to denote specious argument or rationalization. Differentiate from casuistics, which is the recording and study of cases and disease.BooksEthics, Nursing: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of nurses themselves, their patients, and their fellow practitioners, as well as their actions in the care of patients and in relations with their families.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)National Socialism: The doctrines and policies of the Nazis or the National Social German Workers party, which ruled Germany under Adolf Hitler from 1933-1945. These doctrines and policies included racist nationalism, expansionism, and state control of the economy. (from Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. and American Heritage College Dictionary, 3d ed.)Ethics Committees, Clinical: Hospital or other institutional ethics committees established to consider the ethical dimensions of patient care. Distinguish from ETHICS COMMITTEES, RESEARCH, which are established to monitor the welfare of patients or healthy volunteers participating in research studies.Paternalism: Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.Metaphysics: The branch of philosophy that treats of first principles, including ontology (the nature of existence or being) and cosmology (the origin and structure of the universe). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Euthanasia, Passive: Failing to prevent death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy by the withdrawal or withholding of life-prolonging treatment.Euthanasia: The act or practice of killing or allowing death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Postmodernism: A late 20th-century philosophical approach or style of cultural analysis that seeks to reveal the cultural or social construction of concepts conventionally assumed to be natural or universal. (from E.R. DuBose, The Illusion of Trust: Toward a Medical Theological Ethics in the Postmodern Age, Kluwer, 1995)Ethics: The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Infanticide: The killing of infants at birth or soon after.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Sociobiology: The comparative study of social organization in animals including humans, especially with regard to its genetic basis and evolutionary history. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)Ethics Committees, Research: Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.Persistent Vegetative State: Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.Advisory Committees: Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Jehovah's Witnesses: Members of a religious denomination founded in the United States during the late 19th century in which active evangelism is practiced, the imminent approach of the millennium is preached, and war and organized government authority in matters of conscience are strongly opposed (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). Jehovah's Witnesses generally refuse blood transfusions and other blood-based treatments based on religious belief.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Withholding Treatment: Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.

*  9781402035920: Clinical Bioethics: A Search for the Foundations (International Library of Ethics, Law, and the New Medicine) -...

Clinical Bioethics: A Search for the Foundations (International Library of Ethics, Law, and the New Medicine) (9781402035920) ... Clinical Bioethics. A Search for the Foundations compares major theoretical models in the foundation of clinical bioethics and ... Clinical Bioethics. A Search for the Foundations compares major theoretical models in the foundation of clinical bioethics and ... Clinical Bioethics. A Search for the Foundations compares major theoretical models in the foundation of clinical bioethics and ...

*  Carrying Out End-of-Life Refusal Orders in a 'Culture of Refusal' - ZENIT - English

ZENIT StaffBioethics Q-and-A. WASHINGTON, D.C., JULY 4, 2012 ( Here is a response to a question on bioethics, ... Readers may send questions regarding bioethics to [email protected]. The text should include your initials, your city and state ...

*  lifeissues, The Impact of International Bioethics on the 'Sanctity of Life Ethics', and the Ability of OB Gyn's to Practice...

... of bioethics, and an analysis of its principles, see Dianne N. Irving, 'What is 'bioethics'? (Quid Est 'Bioethics'?'), in ... 31 For extensive discussions and references for the following, see D. Irving, 'What Is 'Bioethics'? 'Quid Est Bioethics?', in ... bioethics', see also, D. N. Irving, 'The Bioethics Mess', Crisis Magazine, Vol. 19, No. 5, May 2001; 'The Stem Cell Decision in ... Bioethics; Medical Humanities Review; Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics; Christian Bioethics; Journal of Religious ...

*  Dutch team creates 3D atlas of human embryo | Bioethics Research Library

... opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics ...

*  Gene Duplication: New Analysis Shows How Extra Copies Split the Work | Bioethics Research Library

Bioethics Blogs. Gene Duplication: New Analysis Shows How Extra Copies Split the Work. ... opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics ...

*  WCG to Co-sponsor Webinar with NYU School of Medicine's Division of Bioethics to Commemorate 50th

... Anniversary... ... Caplan in his impactful article, "Judging the Past: How History Should Inform Bioethics," published in April in the Annals of ... WCG to Co-sponsor Webinar with NYU School of Medicine's Division of Bioethics to Commemorate 50th Anniversary of Publication of ... WCG to Co-sponsor Webinar with NYU School of Medicine's Division of Bioethics to Commemorate 50th Anniversary of Publication of ...

*  Avoiding Determination of Brain Death by Refusing Consent for Diagnostic Tests | Bioethics Research Library

Bioethics Blogs. Avoiding Determination of Brain Death by Refusing Consent for Diagnostic Tests. ... opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics ...

*  Research - Nuffield Bioethics

People with dementia who understand what is involved in a particular research project decide for themselves whether or not to take part. Those who cannot decide for themselves may be able to take part as long as a number of legal requirements are met.. ...

*  Review - Bioethics in a Liberal Society - Health Policy & Advocacy

There are many books on bioethics. Yet few books offer a comprehensive analysis of the political framework within which ... A Companion to BioethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Philosophical DiseaseA Question of TrustBetter Than WellBioethics in a ... Thomas May is Associate Professor and Director of Graduate Studies in Bioethics at the Center for the Study of Bioethics at the ... Bioethics in a Liberal Society. by Thomas May. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002. Review by Christopher Newell, PhD on Sep ...

*  BioethicsTV: Mass Casualties & Triage | Bioethics Research Library

Read more at The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not ... necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University. ...

*  Introduction - Nuffield Bioethics

The report was produced by an expert Working Party. To inform its deliberations, the Working Party consulted a wide range of people, including those with direct experience of living with dementia, people working in the field of dementia, and other members of the public.. ...

*  Listen to Bioethics and the Human Goods - Audiobook |

Bioethics and the Human Goods: An Introduction to Natural Law Bioethics. *Written by: Alfonso Gómez-Lobo , John Keown ... Bioethics and the Human Goods lays out the essential elements of this tradition before engaging a host of issues in bioethics, ... Bioethics and the Human Goods offers students and general listeners a brief introduction to bioethics from a "natural law" ... Issues applies a natural law perspective to some of the most controversial debates in contemporary bioethics at the beginning ...

*  The Ethics of Resuscitation | Bioethics Research Library

A Brief History and Center for Practical Bioethics' Efforts to Improve CPR Outcomes Promise and Problems Cardio-pulmonary ... The Center for Practical Bioethics and others imagined that issuing do not resuscitate (DNR) orders would protect patients, who ... A Brief History and Center for Practical Bioethics' Efforts to Improve CPR Outcomes. ... one of the Center for Practical Bioethics' "near founders," Bill Bartholome, MD, wrote an article for the Annals of Internal ...

*  UK experts: Research methods to make embryos from 2 women, 1 man should be allowed if safe

An influential British bioethics group says that couples who face the risk of having a baby with certain genetic diseases ... LONDON - An influential British bioethics group says that couples who face the risk of having a baby with certain genetic ... Such controversial procedures should only be allowed if they are proven safe, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics said Tuesday, ...

*  What Does 'Futility' Mean? An Empirical Study of Physician Perceptions | Bioethics Research Library

Bioethics Blogs. What Does "Futility" Mean? An Empirical Study of Physician Perceptions. ... opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics ...

*  About - Nuffield Bioethics

The Nuffield Council on Bioethics is an independent body that examines and reports on ethical issues in biology and medicine. ... The Council has achieved an international reputation for advising policy makers and stimulating debate in bioethics. ...

*  Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics - incl. option to publish open access

Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics examines clinical judgment and reasoning, medical concepts such as health and disease, the ... Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics. Philosophy of Medical Research and Practice. Editor-in-Chief: Daniel P. Sulmasy. Co-Editor ... Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics is an international forum for interdisciplinary studies in the ethics of health care and in ... Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics examines clinical judgment and reasoning, medical concepts such as health and disease, the ... and philosophy of science/journal/11017

* | What is "Bioethics"?? pg.10

The purpose of this paper is simply to provide historical confirmation of what bioethics is, who the Founders, theorists and ... Search ,, Home » Irving » What is "Bioethics"? pg.10 What is "Bioethics"? pg.10 « 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ... 94 Gilbert C. Meilaender, Body Soul, and Bioethics (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1995), p. x.[Back] ... 93 Edwin DuBose, Ronald Hamel and Laurence O'Connell (eds.), A Matter of Principles?: Ferment in U.S. Bioethics (Valley Forge, ...

*  Privacy -

... Tue, 01 Mar 2016 19:27:47 +0000. ... Thu, 10 Sep 2015 20:35:01 +0000. ... Wed, 30 Mar 2016 21:45:29 +0000. ... Fri, 18 Aug 2017 18:49:42 +0000. http:// ...

*  The Pope's Bioethics Council

As one of many entities of the Vatican - essentially a bioethics council for the Pope and the Church -- the Academy for Life ...

*  Bioethics - Bernard Gert; Charles M. Culver; K. Danner Clouser - Oxford University Press

Bioethics. A Systematic Approach. Second Edition. Bernard Gert, Charles M. Culver, and K. Danner Clouser. *This account offers ... Arts & Humanities , Philosophy , Practical Ethics , Bioethics & Medical Ethics Arts & Humanities , Philosophy , Practical ... "The authors provide a significant contribution to the field of bioethics and, overall, provide an insightful and useful ... and so has had an impact that reveals beyond the field of bioethics.. In this edition, the authors also offer a new, more ...

*  bioethics |

bioethics: Branch of applied ethics that studies the philosophical, social, and legal issues arising in medicine and the life ... Global bioethics. The field of bioethics has grown most rapidly in North America, Australia and New Zealand, and Europe. Cross- ... Issues in bioethics. The health care context. The issues studied in bioethics can be grouped into several categories. One ... ethics: Bioethics. Ethical issues raised by abortion and euthanasia are part of the subject matter of bioethics, which deals ...

*  Bioethics - The Corpus Callosum

Bioethics. The Corpus Callosum. Category archives for Bioethics. A Quandary For the Supreme Court In Death Penalty Case. Posted ...

*  bioethics | The Christian Century

Imagine Jennifer Doudna working in the lab overnight, her eyes sore, her head pulsing, and her mind swirling with an existential crisis. Utilizing a bacterial cell's self-defense mechanism, the geneticist has mastered the ability to reproduce and guide gene-editing technology, otherwise known as CRISPR-Cas9. This technology could save countless lives, cure genetic diseases, and reverse the effects of cancer. But it could also advance efforts at human enhancement, leading to a revival of modern eugenics. In December, the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Medicine held a three-day summit on CRISPR technology ...

University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics: The University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics, or JCB, is an academic research centre located on the downtown campus of the University of Toronto in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Joint Centre for Bioethics is a partnership between the University and 15 affiliated health care organizations in the Greater Toronto Area.Regulation of science: The regulation of science refers to use of law, or other ruling, by academic or governmental bodies to allow or restrict science from performing certain practices, or researching certain scientific areas. It is a bioethical issue related to other practices such as abortion and euthanasia; and areas of research such as stem-cell research and cloning synthetic biology.Dignitas Personae: Dignitas Personae is the title of a 2008 instruction by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith giving doctrinal directives on certain embryonic ethical controversies that had emerged since 1987, after Donum Vitae was released.Howard Phillips (politician)Libertarian perspectives on political alliances: Libertarian perspectives on political alliances vary greatly, with controversies among libertarians as to which alliances are acceptable or useful to the movement.Motivations for joining the Special OlympicsThe Schizophrenia of Modern Ethical Theories: The Schizophrenia of Modern Ethical Theories (1976) is a popular paper in ethics by Michael Stocker. The central claim of the paper is that some modern ethical theories fail to account for motive in their theories, producing a sort of schizophrenia because the agent is unable to use his reasons or motives as a basis for his actions.Oil imperialism theories: Oil imperialism theories assert that direct and indirect control of world petroleum reserves is a root factor in current international politics.Henry Lygon, 5th Earl Beauchamp: Henry Lygon, 5th Earl Beauchamp (13 February 1829 – 4 March 1866), styled Viscount Elmley between 1853 and 1863, was a British politician.Mark Siegler: Mark Siegler (born June 20, 1941) is an American physician who specializes in internal medicine. He is the Lindy Bergman Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Surgery at the University of Chicago.Morality and religion: Morality and religion is the relationship between religious views and morals. Many religions have value frameworks regarding personal behavior meant to guide adherents in determining between right and wrong.A Confucian ConfusionBritish Columbia Human Rights Tribunal: The British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal is a quasi-judicial human rights body in British Columbia, Canada. It was established under the British Columbia Human Rights Code.Never Come UndoneElaine ShowalterHuman subject research legislation in the United States: Human subject research legislation in the United States can be traced to the early 20th century. Human subject research in the United States was mostly unregulated until the 20th century, as it was throughout the world, until the establishment of various governmental and professional regulations and codes of ethics.Daesun Jinrihoe: Daesun Jinrihoe (Also transliterated as Daesunjinrihoe, Daesun Chillihoe, Taesunchillihoe, Daesoonjinrihoe, Daesoon Jinrihoe and Taesŏn Chillihoe) is a Korean new religious movement, founded in April 1969 by Park Han-gyeong (박한경) (1918–96). It is a splinter of the syncretic religion founded by Gang Il-Sun (1871–1909, also known as Chungsan Kang).Criticisms of globalization: Criticism of globalization is skepticism of the claimed benefits of globalization. Many of these views are held by the anti-globalization movement.Injustice SocietyUna HealyEugenics in the United States: Eugenics, the set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States prior to its involvement in World War II.Jump for the Cause: Jump for the Cause is a non-profit group of women who perform mass skydiving formations to raise money. A new world's record was set on Saturday, September 26, 2009; when 181 women from 31 countries jumped in formation.Jonathan AllynSeventh-day Adventist theology: The theology of the Seventh-day Adventist Church resembles that of Protestant Christianity, combining elements from Lutheran, Wesleyan/Arminian, and Anabaptist branches of Protestantism. Adventists believe in the infallibility of Scripture and teach that salvation comes through faith in Jesus Christ.Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition: The Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition was adopted by governments attending the 1974 World Food Conference. In it, states recognised that it is the common purpose of all nations to eliminate hunger and malnutrition.Ritual washing in JudaismIndignation (novel): Indignation is a novel by Philip Roth, released by Houghton Mifflin on September 16, 2008. It is his twenty-ninth book.List of asbestos disease medical articles: Thousands of scientific and medical articles have chronicled human understanding of the hazards of asbestos to human life.Environmental Working Group, List of References regarding asbestos hazards This understanding paralleled the growth of the industrial revolution, particularly in the textile factories and mines of Great Britain.David Glass (sociologist): 1970sRosenhan experiment: The Rosenhan experiment was a famous experiment done in order to determine the validity of psychiatric diagnosis, conducted by psychologist David Rosenhan (November 22, 1929 – February 6, 2012), a Stanford University professor, and published by the journal Science in 1973 under the title "On being sane in insane places". The study is considered an important and influential criticism of psychiatric diagnosis.Swadeshi Jagaran Manch: The Swadeshi Jagaran Manch or SJM is an economic wing of Sangh Parivar that again took the tool of Swadeshi advocated in India before its independence to destabilize the British Empire. SJM took to the promotion of Swadeshi (indigenous) industries and culture as a dote against LPG.Erga omnes: Erga omnes is a Latin phrase which means "towards all" or "towards everyone". In legal terminology, erga omnes rights or obligations are owed toward all.Rainer Moormann: Rainer Moormann (born 1950) is a German chemist and nuclear whistleblower. He grew up in Osnabrück.Patient advocacyGroningen Protocol: The Groningen Protocol is a text created in September 2004 by Eduard Verhagen, the medical director of the department of pediatrics at the University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG) in Groningen, the Netherlands. It contains directives with criteria under which physicians can perform "active ending of life on infants" (child euthanasia) without fear of legal prosecution.The Plot Against Common SenseBlue Peter Book Award: The Blue Peter Book Awards are a set of literary awards for children's books conferred by the BBC television programme Blue Peter. They were inaugurated in 2000 for books published in 1999.Modern Moral Philosophy: "Modern Moral Philosophy" is an influential article on moral philosophy by G. E.Mass suicides in 1945 Nazi Germany: Mass suicides in 1945 Nazi Germany among civilians, government officials and military personnel alike occurred with unusual frequency during the final weeks of Nazi Germany and the end of World War II in Europe for numerous reasons. These include the influence of Nazi propaganda, reaction to the suicide of Adolf Hitler, loyalty to the tenets of the Nazi Party, the nation's impending defeat in war, the anticipated Allied occupation of Nazi Germany, and fears of harsh treatment at the hands of military personnel both from the Western armies and the Soviet army.David S. Oderberg: Professor David S. Oderberg (born 1963) is an Australian philosopher of metaphysics and ethics based in Britain since 1987.Ellen Lewis Herndon Arthur: Ellen Lewis Herndon Arthur (August 30, 1837 – January 12, 1880) was the wife of the 21st President of the United States, Chester A. Arthur I.Voluntary euthanasia: Voluntary euthanasia is the practice of ending a life in a painless manner. Voluntary euthanasia (VE) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) have been the focus of great controversy in recent years.Russian postmodernism: Russian postmodernism refers to the cultural, artistic, and philosophical condition in Russia since the downfall of the Soviet Union and dialectical materialism. With respect to statements about post-Soviet philosophy or sociology, the term is primarily used by non-Russians to describe the state of economic and political uncertainty they observe since the fall of communism and the way this uncertainty affects Russian identity.Stepfamily: The Stepfather}}Hoya Corporation: TOPIX 100 ComponentWolf Dittus: Wolfgang Peter Johann Dittus (born 1 June 1943) is a primatologist and behavioral ecologist based in Sri Lanka.The Oxford Textbook of Medicine: The Oxford Textbook of Medicine Warrell DA, Cox TM, Firth JD. (2010).Esther InglisDisorders of consciousness: Disorders of consciousness are medical conditions that inhibit consciousness. Some define disorders of consciousness as any change from complete self-awareness to inhibited or absent self-awareness.International Task Force on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: The International Task Force on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide is a 501(c)(3) non-profit educational organization that concerns itself with the issues of euthanasia, doctor-prescribed suicide, advance directives, assisted suicide proposals, "right-to-die" cases, disability rights, pain control, and related bioethical issues. They oppose the legalization of euthanasia.Prince (musician)Systematic Protein Investigative Research Environment

(1/245) How identical would cloned children be? An understanding essential to the ethical debate.

The ban on human cloning in many countries worldwide is founded on an assumption that cloned children will be identical to each other and to their nuclear donor. This paper explores the scientific basis for this assumption, considering both the principles and practice of cloning in animals and comparing genetic and epigenetic variation in potential human clones with that in monozygotic twins.  (+info)

(2/245) In defence of medical ethics.

A number of recent publications by the philosopher David Seedhouse are discussed. Although medicine is an eminently ethical enterprise, the technical and ethical aspects of health care practices can be distinguished, therefore justifying the existence of medical ethics and its teaching as a specific part of every medical curriculum. The goal of teaching medical ethics is to make health care practitioners aware of the essential ethical aspects of their work. Furthermore, the contention that rational bioethics is a fruitless enterprise because it analyses non-rational social events seems neither theoretically tenable nor to be borne out by actual practice. Medical ethics in particular and bioethics in general, constitute a field of expertise that must make itself understandable and convincing to relevant audiences in health care.  (+info)

(3/245) Bioethics regulations in Turkey.

Although modern technical and scientific developments in medicine are followed closely in Turkey, it cannot be claimed that the same is true in the field of bioethics. Yet, more and more attention is now being paid to bioethics and ethics training in health sciences. In addition, there are also legal regulations in bioethics, some of which are not so new. The objective of these regulations is to provide technical and administrative control. Ethical concerns are rather few. What attracts our attention most in these regulations is the presence of the idea of "consent".  (+info)

(4/245) Some ethical issues at the population level raised by 'soft' eugenics, euphenics, and isogenics.

It is argued that at the population level there are three central genetic developments raising ethical issues. The first is the emergence of 'soft' eugenics, due primarily to the increasing ability to detect carriers of genetic diseases, to monitor their pregnancies, and to provide the option to abort a fetus predisposed to major genetic disease. The second development is the recognition of the extent to which many serious diseases of adult life are due to a disturbance of ancient genetic homeostatic mechanisms due to changing life style, raising the question of whether a society that increasingly pays the medical bills should attempt to impose healthier standards of living on its members. Such an attempt at 'euphenics' may be thought of as the antithesis to eugenics. The third development relates to recognition of the need to regulate the size of the earth's population to numbers that can be indefinitely sustained; this regulation in a fashion (isogenic) that will preserve existing genetic diversity.  (+info)

(5/245) Ethnicity, bioethics, and prenatal diagnosis: the amniocentesis decisions of Mexican-origin women and their partners.

Bioethical standards and counseling techniques that regulate prenatal diagnosis in the United States were developed at a time when the principal constituency for fetal testing was a self-selected group of White, well-informed, middle-class women. The routine use of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) testing, which has become widespread since the mid-1980s, introduced new constituencies to prenatal diagnosis. These new constituencies include ethnic minority women, who, with the exception of women from certain Asian groups, refuse amniocentesis at significantly higher rates than others. This study examines the considerations taken into account by a group of Mexican-origin women who had screened positive for AFP and were deciding whether to undergo amniocentesis. We reviewed 379 charts and interviewed 147 women and 120 partners to test a number of factors that might explain why some women accept amniocentesis and some refuse. A woman's attitudes toward doctors, medicine, and prenatal care and her assessment of the risk and uncertainty associated with the procedure were found to be most significant. Case summaries demonstrate the indeterminacy of the decision-making process. We concluded that established bioethical principles and counseling techniques need to be more sensitive to the way ethnic minority clients make their amniocentesis choices.  (+info)

(6/245) Talking about cases in bioethics: the effect of an intensive course on health care professionals.

Educational efforts in bioethics are prevalent, but little is known about their efficacy. Although previous work indicates that courses in bioethics have a demonstrable effect on medical students, it has not examined their effect on health care professionals. In this report, we describe a study designed to investigate the effect of bioethics education on health care professionals. At the Intensive Bioethics Course, a six-day course held annually at Georgetown University, we administered a questionnaire requiring open-ended responses to vignettes both before and after the course. Following the course, respondents defended their responses more carefully and articulated their thoughts more clearly. In addition, after the course respondents seemed to have a more subtle understanding of the relevant issues in the cases and applied theory to these cases more frequently. These findings help to formulate an understanding of the effect of bioethics education on health care professionals.  (+info)

(7/245) Ongoing research on mammalian cloning and embryo stem cell technologies: bioethics of their potential medical applications.

Reproduction by cloning has been achieved by transfer into enucleated oocytes of nuclei from embryonic cells and more recently from cells of adult animals. The efficiency at which embryos produced by such nuclear transfers will develop into healthy newborns is very low but has succeeded in producing some cloned bovines, ovines and mice. Since the first report of sheep cloning from an adult cell in 1997, the potential applications of reproductive cloning in human medicine have been envisaged amidst a flurry of moral debates. Although the technology is still far from being ready for any human use, it has been condemned up front. It has also led to irrational fantasies and fears, based mainly on the misconception that genetic identity means identical twin personalities. Scientific research is ongoing to refine the cloning technology for applications in the production of genetically homogeneous farm animals with useful nutritional or therapeutic genetic traits. A new area of research is non-reproductive therapeutic cloning for the purpose of producing autologous embryonic cells and tissues for transplantation.  (+info)

(8/245) Progress and potential for gene-based medicines.

During the past decade researchers have explored the potential of gene-based medicines to extend current treatments employing chemical entities and proteins. However, progress has been slower than was originally predicted due to our limited knowledge of the genetic components of major diseases, the complexity of developing active biological agents as therapies, and the stringent and time-consuming tests necessary to ensure safety prior to introduction of these novel modalities in the clinic. In spite of the present technology challenges and clinical setbacks in gene therapy it is anticipated that gene-based medicines will find their niche in disease prevention and management strategies in the coming decade, extending the repertoire of medicines available to satisfy key unmet medical needs. Additionally, progress in xenotransplantation research is creating the opportunity to use gene-modified porcine organs for human transplantation. This innovative approach aims to address the current insufficiency of human donor organs for clinical transplantation.  (+info)

American Journal o

  • This is a special pre-print posting of an editorial scheduled for the January 2016 issue of the American Journal of Bioethics. (

Nuffield Council on Bioeth

  • The Nuffield Council on Bioethics is an independent body that examines and reports on ethical issues in biology and medicine. (

applied ethics

  • Bioethics , branch of applied ethics that studies the philosophical, social, and legal issues arising in medicine and the life sciences. (
  • Although bioethics-and indeed the whole field of applied ethics as currently understood-is a fairly recent phenomenon, there have been discussions of moral issues in medicine since ancient times. (


  • Ethical issues raised by abortion and euthanasia are part of the subject matter of bioethics, which deals with the ethical dimensions of new developments in medicine and the biological sciences. (
  • Adnan Hyder , director of the Health Systems Program, Associate Director for Global Bioethics at BI, and co-program director of FABTP with Kass, noted that there are unique ethical concerns when reviewing and conducting health systems research in countries where people are already stressed by public health, economic, social, and political instability. (
  • Johns Hopkins is in a unique position to further global dialogue on ethical issues around health systems research due to the university's strong bioethics expertise and renowned experience in international health systems. (


  • As one of many entities of the Vatican - essentially a bioethics council for the Pope and the Church -- the Academy for Life represents a key concern of the Church. (
  • The Council has achieved an international reputation for advising policy makers and stimulating debate in bioethics. (


  • Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics publishes original scholarly articles, occasional special issues on important topics, and book reviews. (


  • Bioethics, however, is broader than this, because some of the issues it encompasses concern not so much the practice of health care as the conduct and results of research in the life sciences, especially in areas such as cloning and gene therapy ( see clone and genetic engineering ), stem cell research, xenotransplantation (animal-to-human transplantation), and human longevity. (
  • Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics is an international forum for interdisciplinary studies in the ethics of health care and in the philosophy and methodology of medical practice and biomedical research. (

medical ethics

  • In one common usage, bioethics is more or less equivalent to medical ethics, or biomedical ethics. (


  • The Global Forum on Bioethics in Research meets annually to debate a chosen topic, with partners contributing funds to enable participants from developing countries to attend. (
  • The Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics will host its first "Global Bioethics Week" June 10-14, designed to launch two unique global research ethics initiatives, in collaboration with colleagues from several African universities. (
  • The establishment of the consortium represents a new phase of the Berman Institute's 13-year-old Johns Hopkins Fogarty African Bioethics Training Program (FABTP), focusing on building self-sustaining capacity for research ethics work within and between African universities. (
  • Global Bioethics Week will also include a first-of-its-kind workshop, "Ethics of Health Systems Research in Low and Middle Income Countries," co-sponsored by the BI and the Health Systems Program in the Department of International Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. (
  • For more information on the Treuman Katz Lectureship in Pediatric Bioethics, please visit . (


  • In addition to the Global Bioethics Week events, six faculty members from the FABTP consortium African universities will spend the month of June in bioethics intensive courses , meetings with Johns Hopkins faculty and Institutional Review Boards, and visits to the National Institutes of Health Department of Bioethics, the Food and Drug Administration and other federal agencies in Washington, DC. (


  • The range of issues considered to fall within the purview of bioethics varies depending on how broadly the field is defined. (
  • The issues studied in bioethics can be grouped into several categories. (


  • Children's Mercy Bioethics Center webinar with Larry Churchill: "What would you do if this were your child, doc? (
  • The Center for Pediatric Bioethics is committed to providing and promoting bioethics education in the form of lectures and discussions. (