Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Allosteric Site: A site on an enzyme which upon binding of a modulator, causes the enzyme to undergo a conformational change that may alter its catalytic or binding properties.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nucleotide Motifs: Commonly observed BASE SEQUENCE or nucleotide structural components which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE or a SEQUENCE LOGO.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Photoaffinity Labels: Biologically active molecules which are covalently bound to the enzymes or binding proteins normally acting on them. Binding occurs due to activation of the label by ultraviolet light. These labels are used primarily to identify binding sites on proteins.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.TritiumCell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Molecular Docking Simulation: A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Receptors, Neurotransmitter: Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.Receptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Structural Homology, Protein: The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets: A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.PhotochemistryTorpedo: A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bungarotoxins: Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs: Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Terbium: Terbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tb, atomic number 65, and atomic weight 158.92.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.5' Flanking Region: The region of DNA which borders the 5' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Position-Specific Scoring Matrices: Tabular numerical representations of sequence motifs displaying their variability as likelihood values for each possible residue at each position in a sequence. Position-specific scoring matrices (PSSMs) are calculated from position frequency matrices.Integration Host Factors: Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.

*  H2B | Application of Computational Methods for the Design of BACE-1 Inhibitors

to bind to all three recognized binding sites. Moreover NF-κB binding to these sites was inducible by TNFα. Supershift ... Oddly enough mutations from the three NF-κB binding sites uncovered that one particular NF-κB binding site was essential for ... binding site in the promoter area from the IL-8 gene and a reduced NF-κB DNA binding activity to a particular κB binding site ... evaluation revealed binding from the NF-κB subunits p50 and p65 to all or any 3 NF-κB binding sites. To look for the ...
world-of-links.com/tag/h2b/

*  Rrp47 and the function of the Sas10/C1D domain | Biochemical Society Transactions

RNA is an effective competitor in a DNA-binding assay [2], strongly suggesting that the ligands occupy the same binding site on ... Rrp47 binds structured RNA, such as poly(A)·poly(U) or tRNA in vitro, but does not bind poly(A) [2]. Similarly, C1D interacts ... Rrp47/C1D as a DNA-binding protein. C1D was isolated as a protein with 'exceptional DNA affinity', since it remained bound to ... It has been shown that Rrp47 can bind both RNA and the PMC2NT domain of Rrp6 concomitantly, demonstrating that the binding ...
biochemsoctrans.org/content/38/4/1088

*  Improvement of TRANSFAC matrices using multiple local alignment of transcription factor binding site sequences - IEEE...

... based on the transcription factor binding site (TFBS) data pr ... Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and ...
ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/1403814/?reload=true&arnumber=1403814&sortType=asc_p_Sequence&filter=AND

*  Binding Site Salaries | Glassdoor

7 salaries for 6 jobs at Binding Site. Salaries posted anonymously by Binding Site employees. ... A free inside look at Binding Site salary trends. ... Binding Site Salaries. Job Title. Binding Site Salary. Product ... Explore Binding Site Salaries. See Binding Site Bonuses.. Binding Site Salaries by Location ... How much do Binding Site employees make? Glassdoor has salaries, wages, tips, bonuses, and hourly pay based upon employee ...
https://glassdoor.com/Salary/Binding-Site-Salaries-E268680.htm

*  WikiGenes - Binding Sites

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Binding Sites. *Site-specific mutagenesis of this binding site prevents TPA ... Gene context of Binding Sites. *The CETP contains binding sites for cholesteryl ester and triglycerides and probably acts by a ... Psychiatry related information on Binding Sites. *Binding sites for tritum-labeled gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in cerebellar ... were recognized as the binding sites for HIV-1 [1].. *Genetic analysis of monoclonal antibody and HIV binding sites on the ...
https://wikigenes.org/e/mesh/e/381.html

*  Google search results for: Lipid Binding Site

We couldn't find any related search results on Google ...
abbreviations.com/extsearch.php?src=google&s=Lipid Binding Site

*  The Binding Site Jobs | Technical Jobs - jobs.ac.uk

View Technical Jobs at The Binding Site on jobs.ac.uk. Plus 1000s of other jobs from leading universities and top global ...
jobs.ac.uk/employer/the-binding-site/technical

*  3: Localization of cocaine "binding sites" | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)

... binding sites'. When a person smokes or snorts cocaine, it reaches all areas of the brain, but it binds to sites in some very ... 3: Localization of cocaine "binding sites". *4: Dopamine binding to receptors and uptake pumps in the nucleus accumbens: the ... Home » Publications » Section IV: The Action of Cocaine » 3: Localization of cocaine 'binding sites' ... Point out that cocaine binds especially in the reward areas that you have just discussed. The binding of cocaine in other areas ...
https://drugabuse.gov/publications/teaching-packets/neurobiology-drug-addiction/section-iv-action-cocaine/3-localization-cocaine-binding-sites

*  phenixbb] Modifications for Ca-binding site

Modifications for Ca-binding site , , I am getting a lot of problems with my calcium binding sites--there is , clear density ... Modifications for Ca-binding site , , Hi Jacob, , , Sucking-up neighboring residues into the Calcium (or other heavier atoms) , ... phenixbb] Modifications for Ca-binding site. Nigel Moriarty nwmoriarty at lbl.gov Tue Dec 29 07:12:03 PST 2015 *Previous ... structures with calcium binding sites similar to yours and then , make sure they're given the appropriate weight during ...
phenix-online.org/pipermail/phenixbb/2015-December/022542.html

*  Genetic variations in miRNA processing pathway and binding sites help predict ovarian cancer risk | EurekAlert! Science News

Genetic variations in the micro-RNA processing pathway genes and miRNA binding sites predict a woman's risk for developing ... Genetic variations in miRNA processing pathway and binding sites help predict ovarian cancer risk. University of Texas M. D. ... DENVER - Genetic variations in the micro-RNA (miRNA) processing pathway genes and miRNA binding sites predict a woman's risk ... Genetic variations in miRNA processing pathway and binding sites help predict ovarian cancer risk Several variations indicate ...
https://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-04/uotm-gvi041509.php

*  The actin binding site of thymosin beta 4 mapped by mutational analysis. - PubMed - NCBI

The actin binding site of thymosin beta 4 mapped by mutational analysis.. Van Troys M1, Dewitte D, Goethals M, Carlier MF, ... We characterized in detail the actin binding site of the small actin-sequestering protein thymosin beta 4 (T beta 4) using ... appear important for binding. The residues critical for contacting actin are conserved throughout the beta-thymosin family and ... dichroism experiments allow to present a model in which the N-terminal part needs to adopt an alpha-helix for actin binding and ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8617195

*  Sequence Similarity - 1IR5: Solution Structure of the 17mer TF1 Binding Site Sequence Similarity Report Page

1IR5: 1H NMR studies of a 17-mer DNA duplex
rcsb.org/pdb/explore/sequenceCluster.do?structureId=1IR5

*  RCSB PDB - 1CVD: STRUCTURAL CONSEQUENCES OF REDESIGNING A PROTEIN-ZINC BINDING SITE Macromolecule Annotations Page

Structural consequences of redesigning a protein-zinc binding site. ...
rcsb.org/pdb/explore/derivedData.do?structureId=1CVD

*  Small-molecule inhibition of pyruvate phosphate dikinase targeting the nucleotide binding site

Pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) is an essential enzyme of C4 photosynthesis in plants, catalyzing the ATP-driven conversion of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). It is further used by some bacteria and unicellular protists in the reverse, ATP-forming direction. Many weed species use C4 photosynthesis in contrast to world's major crops, which are C3 plants. Hence inhibitors of PPDK may be used as C4-specific herbicides. By screening a library of 80 commercially available kinase inhibitors, we identified compounds derived from bisindolylmaleimide (bisindolylmaleimide IV, IC50 = 0.76 ± 0.13 μM) and indirubin (indirubin-3'-monoxime, IC50 = 4.2 ± 0.9 μM) that showed high inhibitory potency towards PPDK and are among the most effective PPDK inhibitors described today. Physiological studies on leaf tissues of a C4 model plant confirmed in vivo inhibition of C4-driven photosynthesis by these substances. Moreover, comparative docking studies of non-inhibitory bisindolylmaleimide derivatives suggest
journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0181139

*  TNFR2 Signalling Regulation By Novel TRAF2-binding Site | Antibody News: Novus Biologicals

... a novel carboxyl-terminal TRAF2-binding site which blocks activation signals released from its T2bs-N binding site. Using IHC ... TNF receptor proteins activate the TRAF2 signal transduction protein at the T2bs-N binding site at their cytoplasmic domain, ... TNFR2 Signalling Regulation By Novel TRAF2-binding Site Thu, 02/18/2010 - 09:14 ... it was shown that T2bs-C does not follow the orthodox pattern of TRAF2 binding action, and it was suggested binding of TRAF2 ...
https://novusbio.com/antibody-news/antibodies/tnfr2-signalling-regulation-by-novel-traf2-binding-site

*  PLOS ONE: Asap: A Framework for Over-Representation Statistics for Transcription Factor Binding Sites

We have compared the ability of these methods to detect over-represented transcription factor binding sites in artificial ... co-regulated genes share a common regulatory regime based on the occurrence of the modelled transcription factor binding sites ... across multiple threshold values and for sequence sets containing different distributions of transcription factor binding sites ... BackgroundIn studies of gene regulation the efficient computational detection of over-represented transcription factor binding ...
journals.plos.org/plosone/article/figure?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0001623.t003

*  Structure Cluster - 1DNO: A-DNA/RNA DODECAMER R(GCG)D(TATACGC) MG BINDING SITES 3D Similarity Report Page

Hexahydrated magnesium ions bind in the deep major groove and at the outer mouth of A-form nucleic acid duplexes. ...
rcsb.org/pdb/explore/structureCluster.do?structureId=1DNO

*  Adaptive Evolution and the Birth of CTCF Binding Sites in the Drosophila Genome

... melanogaster-specific binding sites, non-D. melanogaster-specific binding sites, and shared binding sites. For a binding peak ... A CTCF binding site is described as phylogenetically congruent to a gene if and only if the binding site distributes in the ... used) in one D. melanogaster replicate as the reference binding sites and compared it to all binding sites identified in other ... For each groups of CTCF binding sites, the associated genes are the union of the nearest gene to each binding site. The ...
pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3491045/?lang=en-ca

*  Genome-Wide Profiling of H3K56 Acetylation and Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Human Adipocytes

... and that the transcription factor binding sites and acetylation sites are often adjacent but rarely overlap. We also discovered ... Although the epigenetic states and binding sites of several important transcription factors have been profiled in the mouse 3T3 ... highlighting the need to construct species-specific epigenetic and transcription factor binding site maps. This is the first ... In this study, we identified H3K56 acetylation sites in human adipocytes derived from mesenchymal stem cells. H3K56 is ...
journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0019778

*  PLOS Genetics: The Chromosomal High-Affinity Binding Sites for the Drosophila Dosage Compensation Complex

... which documents the function of our inventory of high-affinity binding sites. ... One explanation for this shortcoming could be our failure to date to identify a sufficiently large set of sites that serve as ... The closer a gene resides to one of these sites the more robust is regulation by the DCC, ... In the following study, we have systematically mapped the strongest recruitment sites of the Drosophila dosage compensation ...
journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article/related?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1000302

*  REV7 is essential for DNA damage tolerance via two REV3L binding sites in mammalian DNA polymerase ζ. | Sigma-Aldrich

... distinct from the known binding site (residues 1877-1887). Mutation of both REV7-binding sites eliminates the REV3L-REV7 ... REV7 is essential for DNA damage tolerance via two REV3L binding sites in mammalian DNA polymerase ζ.. [Junya Tomida, Kei-ichi ... In vivo complementation shows that both REV7-binding sites in REV3L are necessary for preventing spontaneous chromosome breaks ... Here, we report that REV7 interacts with full-length REV3L in vivo and we identify a new conserved REV7 interaction site in ...
sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/25567983

*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors-1 Protein (DMBT1): A Pattern Recognition Receptor with Multiple...

The binding motif on the SRCR domains comprises an 11-mer peptide in which a few amino acids are essential for binding ( ... The SRCR domains play a role in the function of DMBT1s, which is the binding of a broad range of pathogens including cariogenic ... Mucosal defense proteins like IgA, surfactant proteins and lactoferrin also bind to DMBT1s through their SRCR domains. ... These data demonstrate a role for DMBT1s as pattern recognition molecules containing various peptide and carbohydrate binding ...
mdpi.com/1422-0067/11/12/5212/htm

*  The ribosome binding site of a mini-ORF protects a T3SS mRNA from degradation by RNase E - Lodato - 2012 - Molecular...

2009) Substrate binding and active site residues in RNases E and G: role of the 5′-sensor. J Biol Chem 284: 31843-31850.. * ... Lodato, P. B., Hsieh, P.-K., Belasco, J. G. and Kaper, J. B. (2012), The ribosome binding site of a mini-ORF protects a T3SS ... The ribosome binding site of a mini-ORF protects a T3SS mRNA from degradation by RNase E. ... complementarity to nonsense triplets and ribosome binding sites. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71: 1342-1346.. *CrossRef, ...
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/mmi.12050/references?globalMessage=0

*  RCSB PDB - 1LPO: ANALOGS OF REACTION INTERMEDIATES IDENTIFY A UNIQUE SUBSTRATE BINDING SITE IN CANDIDA RUGOSA LIPASE...

Analogs of reaction intermediates identify a unique substrate binding site in Candida rugosa lipase. ... ANALOGS OF REACTION INTERMEDIATES IDENTIFY A UNIQUE SUBSTRATE BINDING SITE IN CANDIDA RUGOSA LIPASE. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1lpo/pdb ...
rcsb.org/pdb/explore/litView.do?structureId=1LPO

*  THE STORY OF ROME FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE END OF THE REPUBLIC, CHAPTER XVII. - All Empires - EBooks

He did not hesitate to assume the name C?sar, and to claim the succession, though he thus bound himself to pay the legacies ... autochroma site cialis fioricet provision cialis 20mg vermox afghani serophene acai berry cleanse celebrex sildenafil citrate ... not far from the present site of Bologna, and there, toward the end of October, it was agreed that the government of the Roman ...
allempires.com/forum/ebook_view.asp?BookID=48&ChapterID=745

DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Coles PhillipsProximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.GC box: In molecular biology, a GC box is a distinct pattern of nucleotides found in the promoter region of some eukaryotic genes upstream of the TATA box and approximately 110 bases upstream from the transcription initiation site. It has a consensus sequence GGGCGG which is position dependent and orientation independent.WIN 56,098: WIN 56,098 is a chemical that is considered to be an aminoalkylindole derivative. It is a tricyclic aryl derivative that acts as a competitive antagonist at the CB2 cannabinoid receptor.Reaction coordinatePituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1: POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (Pit1, growth hormone factor 1), also known as POU1F1, is a transcription factor for growth hormone.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".DNA-binding proteinDatabase of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.FERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.Ligand (biochemistry): In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. In protein-ligand binding, the ligand is usually a signal-triggering molecule binding to a site on a target protein.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Ethyl groupList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Phase problem: In physics the phase problem is the name given to the problem of loss of information concerning the phase that can occur when making a physical measurement. The name itself comes from the field of x-ray crystallography, where the phase problem has to be solved for the determination of a structure from diffraction data.Enhancer (genetics)CS-BLASTRNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Repressor: In molecular genetics, a repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by binding to the operator or associated silencers. A DNA-binding repressor blocks the attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter, thus preventing transcription of the genes into messenger RNA.Transmembrane domain: Transmembrane segment usually denotes a single transmembrane alpha helix of a transmembrane protein, also known as an integral protein.http://www.Triparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Nucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Affinity label: Affinity labels are molecules similar in structure to a particular substrate for a specific enzyme and are considered to be a class of enzyme inhibitors. These molecules covalently modify active site residues in order to reveal the active site and thus elucidate its structure.Cell membraneChIP-exo: ChIP-exo is a chromatin immunoprecipitation based method for mapping the locations at which a protein of interest (transcription factor) binds to the genome. It is a modification of the ChIP-seq protocol, improving the resolution of binding sites from hundreds of base pairs to almost one base pair.Hypersensitive site: In genetics a hypersensitive site is a short region of chromatin and is detected by its super sensitivity to cleavage by DNase I and other various nucleases (DNase II and micrococcal nucleases). In a hypersensitive site, the nucleosomal structure is less compacted, increasing the availability of the DNA to binding by proteins, such as transcription factors and DNase I.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Short linear motifSpecificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Spatiotemporal gene expressionAutoradiograph: An autoradiograph is an image on an x-ray film or nuclear emulsion produced by the pattern of decay emissions (e.g.CpG OligodeoxynucleotideLattice protein: Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding.Spectrofluorometer: A spectrofluorometer is an instrument which takes advantage of fluorescent properties of some compounds in order to provide information regarding their concentration and chemical environment in a sample. A certain excitation wavelength is selected, and the emission is observed either at a single wavelength, or a scan is performed to record the intensity versus wavelength, also called an emission spectra.Chemically induced dimerization: Chemically Induced Dimerization (CID) is a biological mechanism in which two proteins bind only in the presence of a certain small molecule, enzyme or other dimerizing agent. Genetically engineered CID systems are used in biological research to control protein localization, to manipulate signalling pathways and to induce protein activation.Allosteric regulationMagnesium acetateSEA Native Peptide LigationNew Zealand rabbitMargaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.Inhibitor protein: The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia. In oxygen absence, the pH of the matrix drops.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Standard enthalpy of formation: The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy during the formation of 1 mole of the compound from its constituent elements, with all substances in their standard states at 1 atmosphere (1 atm or 101.3 kPa).Zuotin: Z-DNA binding protein 1, also known as Zuotin, is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast gene.Point mutationBaby hamster kidney cell: Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (aka BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology.Escherichia coli (molecular biology): Escherichia coli (; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gammaproteobacterium commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.PSI Protein Classifier: PSI Protein Classifier is a program generalizing the results of both successive and independent iterations of the PSI-BLAST program. PSI Protein Classifier determines belonging of the found by PSI-BLAST proteins to the known families.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.

(1/81452) Extra-vesicular binding of noradrenaline and guanethidine in the adrenergic neurones of the rat heart: a proposed site of action of adrenergic neurone blocking agents.

1 The binding and efflux characteristics of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline were studied in heart slices from rats which were pretreated with reserpine and nialamide. 2 Binding of both compounds occurred at extra-vesicular sites within the adrenergic neurone. After a brief period of rapid washout, the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline proceeded at a steady rate. The efflux of both compounds appeared to occur from a single intraneuronal compartment. 3 (+)-Amphetamine accelerated the efflux of [14C]-noradrenaline; this effect was inhibited by desipramine. 4 Unlabelled guanethidine and amantadine also increased the efflux of labelled compounds. Cocaine in high concentrations increased slightly the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine but not that of [3H]-noradrenaline. 5 Heart slices labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline became refractory to successive exposures to releasing agents although an appreciable amount of labelled compound was still present in in these slices. 6 It is suggested that [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline are bound at a common extravesicular site within the adrenergic neurone. Binding of guanethidine to the extra-vesicular site may be relevant to its pharmacological action, i.e., the blockade of adrenergic transmission.  (+info)

(2/81452) The bioavailability, dispostion kinetics and dosage of sulphadimethoxine in dogs.

The disposition kinetics of sulphadimethoxine were studied in six normal beagle dogs after intravenous injection of a single dose (55 mg/kg). The median (range) distribution and elimination half times of the drug were 2.36 (2.06-3.35) hours and 13.10 (9.71-16.50) hours, respectively. Total body clearance of the drug had a median value of 21.7 ml/kg/h and a mean value of 21.4 ml/kg/h. While the overall tissue to plasma level ratio (k12/k21) of the drug was 0.55 after distribution equilibrium had been attained, analogue computer simulated curves showed that at 24 hours the fractions (percentage) of the dose in the central and tissue compartments were 12 and 11%, respectively. The drug was shown, by equilibrium dialysis method, to be highly bound to plasma proteins (greater than 75%) within the usual therapeutic range (50 to 150 mug/ml) of plasma levels. The systemic availability of sulphadimethoxine from the oral suspension was 32.8% (22.5-80.0). Since the absorption half time, 1.87 (0.86-3.22) hours, was considerably shorter than the half-life, 13.10 (9.71-16.50) hours, of the drug, the rate of absorption would have little influence on the dosage regimen. Based on the experimental data obtained, a satisfactory dosage regimen might consist of a priming dose of 55 mg/kg by the intravenous route and maintenance doses of either 27.5 mg/kg of sulphadimethoxine injection given intravenously or 55 mg/kg of the oral suspension administered at 24 hour intervals. The adequacy and duration of therapy will depend upon the clinical response obtained.  (+info)

(3/81452) Specific receptors for glucocorticoid in the cytoplasm of the liver of AH 130 tumor-bearing rats.

Specific receptors for dexamethasone (11beta, 17alpha, 21-trihydroxy-9alpha-fluoro-16alpha-methyl-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) in the cytoplasm of the liver from AH 130 (solid type) tumor-bearing rats markedly increased in the advanced stage of tumor growth. The cytoplasmic receptors of the livers of normal and tumor-bearing rats differed in their affinities for dexamethasone, and their apparent equilibrium (dissociation) constants (K) for dexamethasone were 4.0 and 2.6 X 10(-9) M, respectively. The rates of dissociation of dexamethasone-receptor complexes and the heat denaturations of the receptors in the livers of normal and tumor-bearing rats were similar. The glucocorticoid receptors of tumor-bearing rat liver had slightly higher affinities than did those of normal liver for all the steroids tested. Only a trace amount of receptors for dexamethasone could be detected in the cytoplasm of AH 130 ascites cells.  (+info)

(4/81452) The interaction of rhodium(II) carboxylates with enzymes.

The effect of rhodium(II) acetate, propionate, and methoxyacetate on the activity of 17 enzymes was evaluated. The enzymes were preincubated with the rhodium(II) complexes in order to detect irreversible inhibition. All enzymes that have essential sulfhydryl groups in or near their active site were found to be irreversibly inhibited. Those enzymes without essential sulfhydryl groups were not affected. In each case, the rate of inactivation closely paralleled the observed toxicity and antitumor activity of rhodium(II) carboxylates; that is, rhodium(II) propionate greater than rhodium(II) acetate greater than rhodium(II) methoxyacetate. In addition, those enzymes that have been demonstrated to be most sensitive to established sulfhydryl inhibitors, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, were also most sensitive to rhodium(II) carboxylate inactivation. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance measurements made during the titration of rhodium(II) acetate with cysteine showed that breakdown of the carboxylate cage occurred as a result of reaction with this sulfhydryl-containing amino acid.  (+info)

(5/81452) The direct spectrophotometric observation of benzo(a)pyrene phenol formation by liver microsomes.

Optical spectral repetitive scan analysis during the oxidative metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by liver microsomal suspensions reveals the time-dependent formation of an intermediate(s) of which the visible spectra resemble those of several benzo(a)pyrene phenols. Liver microsomes from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats showed a greater rate of formation of the phenols than did microsomes from control animals; the rate of formation catalyzed by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats was intermediate. When 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene was used as a standard for comparison of activity, the rates of formation of phenols were compared when measured by fluorometric, spectrophotometric, or high-pressure liquid chromatographic analytical techniques. An epoxide hydrase inhibitor, 1,1,1-trichloropropene-2,3-oxide, enhanced phenol formation regardless of the source of liver microsomes, and 7,8-benzoflavone inhibited control and 3-methylcholanthrene-induced microsomal metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene, 7,8-Benzoflavone did not effect benzo(a)pyrene metabolism by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats. The effect of inhibitors on the spectrophotometric assay correlates well with the results obtained from benzo(a)pyrene metabolite analysis using high-pressure liquid chromatography.  (+info)

(6/81452) Differences in benzo(a)pyrene metabolism between rodent liver microsomes and embryonic cells.

Differences in benzo(a)pyrene metabolite pattern have been shown by rodent liver microsomes (Sprague-Dawley) and rodent embryo cells from Syrian hamsters and NIH Swiss mice. Rodent liver induced by methylcholanthrene shows marked quantitative variation between species. Additional pattern changes were found in mouse and hamster embryo secondary cultures with a reduction of the K-region metabolites and a marked increase in 9-hydroxybenzo(a)-pyrene. These results are indicative of a region-specific attack on the carcinogen by the cell monooxygenases which is distinct from the liver attack of microsomal enzymes on benzo(a)pyrene. These results suggest that activation and detoxification of benzo(a)pyrene may be species and tissue variable, and susceptibility and resistence to malignant transformation may be predicted on induction of a fortuitous combination of intermediate metabolic steps.  (+info)

(7/81452) Action of partially thiolated polynucleotides on the DNA polymerase alpha from regenerating rat liver.

The effects of partially thiolated polynucleotides on the DNA polymerase alpha from regenerating rat liver were investigated. The enzyme was isolated from the nuclear fraction essentially according to the method of Baril et al.; it was characterized as the alpha polymerase on the basis of its response to synthetic templates and its inhibition with N-ethylmaleimide. Although polycytidylic acid had no effect on the DNA polymerase alpha either as a template or as an inhibitor, partially thiolated polycytidylic acid (MPC) was found to be a potent inhibitor, its activity being directly related to its extent of thiolation (percentage of 5-mercaptocytidylate units in the polymer). In comparison, the DNA polymerase beta which was purified from normal rat liver nuclear fraction, was much less sensitive to inhibition by MPC. Analysis of the inhibition of the alpha polymerase by the method of Lineweaver and Burk showed that the inhibitory action of MPC was competitively reversible with the DNA template, but the binding of the 7.2%-thiolated MPC to the enzyme was much stronger than that of the template (Ki/Km less than 0.03). Polyuridylic acid as such showed some inhibitory activity which increased on partial thiolation, but the 8.4%-thiolated polyuridylic acid was less active than the 7.2% MPC. When MPC was annealed with polyinosinic acid, it lost 80% of its inhibitory activity in the double-stranded configuration. However, 1 to 2%-thiolated DNA isolates were significantly more potent inhibitors than were comparable (1.2%-thiolated) MPC and showed competitive reversibility with the unmodified (but "activated") DNA template. These results indicate that the inhibitory activities of partially thiolated polynucleotides depend not only on the percentage of 5-mercapto groups but also on the configuration, base composition, and other specific structural properties.  (+info)

(8/81452) The effects of estrogens and antiestrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture.

We have established or characterized six lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture for at least 1 year and have examined these lines for estrogen responsiveness. One of these cell lines, MCF-7, shows marked stimulation of macromolecular synthesis and cell division with physiological concentrations of estradiol. Antiestrogens are strongly inhibitory, and at concentrations greater than 3 X 10(-7) M they kill cells. Antiestrogen effects are prevented by simultaneous treatment with estradiol or reversed by addition of estradiol to cells incubated in antiestrogen. Responsive cell lines contain high-affinity specific estradiol receptors. Antiestrogens compete with estradiol for these receptors but have a lower apparent affinity for the receptor than estrogens. Stimulation of cells by estrogens is biphasic, with inhibition and cell death at concentrations of 17beta-estradiol or diethylstilbestrol exceeding 10(-7) M. Killing by high concentrations of estrogen is probably a nonspecific effect in that we observe this response with 17alpha-estradiol at equivalent concentrations and in the otherwise unresponsive cells that contain no estrogen receptor sites.  (+info)



conformational changes


  • nevertheless, the remaining charge movement was Na(+) dependent, consistent with an intact slippage pathway.Based on an alternating access model for type IIa Na(+)/P(i) cotransport, these results suggest that site 460 is located in a region involved in conformational changes of the empty carrier. (nih.gov)
  • Based on an alternating access model for type IIa Na(+)/P(i) cotransport, these results suggest that site 460 is located in a region involved in conformational changes of the empty carrier. (nih.gov)

affinity


  • These materials combine the unique properties of nanometer-scale objects with the ability to present multiple copies of carbohydrate ligands, greatly enhancing the weak affinity of individual ligands to their binding partners. (wiley.com)
  • Using glyconanoparticles synthesized by a versatile photocoupling chemistry, methods for determining the ligand density by colorimetry and the binding affinity with lectins by a fluorescence competition assay are determined. (wiley.com)
  • The results show that the multivalent presentation of carbohydrate ligands significantly enhances the binding affinity by several orders of magnitude in comparison to the free ligands in solution. (wiley.com)
  • The type and length of the spacer linkage also affect the binding affinity, with the longer linkage promoting the association of bound ligands with the corresponding lectins. (wiley.com)

distinct


  • However, inflammation of the distinct anatomical sites (i.e., meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, and parenchyma) associated with the CNS can also be deleterious. (jci.org)
  • Thus, we propose that SBF and MBF share a common regulatory subunit (Swi6) but recognize their promoter elements via distinct DNA binding subunits. (royalsocietypublishing.org)

continuing to browse


  • More info By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. (bmj.com)

crystal


  • The large scale refinement of transmembrane helices of the CRFR1 homology model resulted in the significant improvement of its accuracy with respect to the crystal structure of CRFR1, especially in the binding site area. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The crystal structures revealed that one inhibitor (NSC 18508) occupies only the S1 subsite, while two other inhibitors (NSC 89167 and NSC 251810) bind only to the prime part of the substrate-binding site. (uzh.ch)
  • The high-resolution crystal structures reported here provide novel insights into the architecture of the substrate-binding site, which might be useful for the design of more potent caspase inhibitors. (uzh.ch)

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