Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Selection Bias: The introduction of error due to systematic differences in the characteristics between those selected and those not selected for a given study. In sampling bias, error is the result of failure to ensure that all members of the reference population have a known chance of selection in the sample.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Publication Bias: The influence of study results on the chances of publication and the tendency of investigators, reviewers, and editors to submit or accept manuscripts for publication based on the direction or strength of the study findings. Publication bias has an impact on the interpretation of clinical trials and meta-analyses. Bias can be minimized by insistence by editors on high-quality research, thorough literature reviews, acknowledgement of conflicts of interest, modification of peer review practices, etc.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.United StatesDisease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Epidemiologic Research Design: The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Laboratory Personnel: Professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.EuropeDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Causality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.AfricaBrazilFeces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.ItalyMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.IndiaMultilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.MinnesotaAsia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Great BritainEpidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Epidemiologic Factors: Events, characteristics, or other definable entities that have the potential to bring about a change in a health condition or other defined outcome.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.EnglandDrug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Communicable DiseasesGenetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.North AmericaCaliciviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.WalesModels, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.JapanHealth Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.SingaporeMinisatellite Repeats: Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Bites and StingsForecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.IsraelBreast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.TaiwanScotlandStatistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.GermanyAfrican Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)PeruAfrica South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.California

*  Misclassification of the mediator matters when estimating indirect effects | Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health
Results ORs before (total effect) and after adjustment (direct effect) for the mediator are both biased towards the null by non ... Misclassification bias is an important source of error when estimating direct and indirect effects. ... Conversely, misclassification of the mediator rapidly biases the percentage reduction of the excess OR (indirect effect) ... Background Confounding of mediator-outcome associations resulting in collider biases causes systematic error when estimating ...
*  Plus it
Analyses investigating detection bias. Detection bias is a non-random type of information bias in which one exposure group ... Laurent Azoulay, associate professor of epidemiology and oncology1 2 4. *. 1Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis ... Analyses investigating detection bias. The analyses investigating possible detection bias are summarised in figure 3⇓ and ... Robins JM, Hernán MA, Brumback B. Marginal structural models and causal inference in epidemiology. Epidemiology2000;11:550-60. ...
*  Information bias (epidemiology) - Wikipedia
In epidemiology, Information bias refers to bias arising from measurement error. Information bias is also referred to as ... The occurrence of information biases may not be independent of the occurrence of selection biases. 2. Bias in an estimate ... A Dictionary of Epidemiology, sponsored by the International Epidemiological Association, defines this as the following: "1. A ... Copeland, K. T.; Checkoway, H.; McMichael, A. J.; Holbrook, R. H. (1977). "Bias due to misclassification in the estimation of ...
*  Commentary: Selection Bias as an Explanation for the Obesit... : Epidemiology
7. Greenland S. Quantifying biases in causal models: classical confounding vs collider-stratification bias. Epidemiology. 2003; ... Bias formulas for sensitivity analysis for direct and indirect effects. Epidemiology. 2010;21:540-551. * Cited Here... , ... A structural approach to selection bias. Epidemiology. 2004;15:615-625. * Cited Here... , ... Notably, there is no bias if U has the same relative effect on heart failure risk among obese and normal weight persons. Bias ...
*  Bias Associated With Self-Report of Prior Screening Mammography | Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
10 These estimates are well-known to be subject to biases such as social response bias and recall bias (1, 2). However, ... Bias Associated With Self-Report of Prior Screening Mammography. Kathleen A. Cronin, Diana L. Miglioretti, Martin Krapcho, ... Bias Associated With Self-Report of Prior Screening Mammography. Kathleen A. Cronin, Diana L. Miglioretti, Martin Krapcho, ... Bias Associated With Self-Report of Prior Screening Mammography. Kathleen A. Cronin, Diana L. Miglioretti, Martin Krapcho, ...
*  Precision and Bias of Food Frequency-based Measures of Fruit and Vegetable Intakes | Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers &...
Precision and Bias of Food Frequency-based Measures of Fruit and Vegetable Intakes. Alan R. Kristal, Nancy C. Vizenor, Ruth E. ... We examined bias and precision for: (a) total fruit and vegetables; (b) total fruit and vegetables minus fried vegetables (to ... We defined bias as the difference between mean FFQ-based measures of fruit and vegetable intake and a self-reported criterion ... Bias and precision are presented from three large studies that collected a FFQ-based measure and at least one independent ...
*  Survivor bias
West Coast Stat Views (on Observational Epidemiology and more) Comments, observations and thoughts from two left coast bloggers ... Survivor bias There has been some discussion about meony from parents leading to a lower GPA from both Andrew Gelman and I. One ... on applied statistics, higher education and epidemiology. Joseph is a new assistant professor. Mark is a marketing statistician ...
*  Publications | AIDS Clinical Trials Group
Bias (Epidemiology). Messer K, Vaida F, Hogan C. "Robust analysis of biomarker data with informative missingness using a two- ...
*  09-SelectionBias - Principles of Epidemiology for Public Health(EPID600 Sources of error Selection bias Victor J Schoenbach PhD...
Selection bias Victor J. Schoenbach, PhD Department of Epidemiology ... Principles of Epidemiology for Public Health (EPID600) Sources of error: ... Epidemiology, Paradise Lost , Romeo and Juliet, selection bias, Study design, St. Paul's School, Horwitz ... 3/15/2011 Sources of error: Selection bias 8 Accuracy, Bias, Error, Precision, Reliability, Validity • Accuracy : lack of error ...
*  Selection Bias in Population-Based Cancer Case-Control Studies Due to Incomplete Sampling Frame Coverage | Cancer Epidemiology,...
As selection bias may differ by exposure and study base, the assessment of potential bias needs to be ongoing. ... Selection Bias in Population-Based Cancer Case-Control Studies Due to Incomplete Sampling Frame Coverage. Matthew C. Walsh, Amy ... Impact: SPRs can be used to predict the direction of bias when cases and controls stem from different sampling frames in ... Selection Bias in Population-Based Cancer Case-Control Studies Due to Incomplete Sampling Frame Coverage ...
*  Avoiding bias from aggregate measures of exposure.
Sometimes in descriptive epidemiology or in the evaluation of a health intervention policy change, proportions exposed to a ... Title: Journal of epidemiology and community health Volume: 61 ISSN: 0143-005X ISO Abbreviation: J Epidemiol Community Health ... BACKGROUND: Sometimes in descriptive epidemiology or in the evaluation of a health intervention policy change, proportions ... Cancer Research UK Centre for Epidemiology, Mathematics and Statistics, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Charterhouse ...
*  Recall bias in a case-control study of low birth weight.
The role of report/recall bias in case-control studies of low birth weight (LBW) was investigated in women who gave birth at a ... Bias (Epidemiology). Case-Control Studies. Educational Status. Female. Humans. Infant, Low Birth Weight*. Infant, Newborn. ... Pregnancy Complications / epidemiology*. Sensitivity and Specificity. Social Class. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U. ... 7636515 - Recall bias in a case-control study of low birth weight.. 15414445 - Habitual abortion.. 16640035 - No association ...
*  Clarity Has A Well-Known Liberal Bias
West Coast Stat Views (on Observational Epidemiology and more) Comments, observations and thoughts from two left coast bloggers ... Clarity Has A Well-Known Liberal Bias Paul Krugman:. Because it is, you know, a plan to dismantle Medicare. When you transform ... on applied statistics, higher education and epidemiology. Joseph is a new assistant professor. Mark is a marketing statistician ...
*  Example of a strong time-series design that controlled | Open-i
Example of a strong time-series design that controlled for history bias in the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's 100,000 ... Bias (Epidemiology)*. *Comparative Effectiveness Research/methods*/standards. *Guidelines as Topic*. *Research Design/standards ... Define healthy user bias in health care research and means to reduce it Assess means to reduce selection bias in health care ... Define healthy user bias in health care research and means to reduce it Assess means to reduce selection bias in health care ...
*  Underreporting of calories and fat consumption due to s | Open-i
Bias (Epidemiology)*. *Comparative Effectiveness Research/methods*/standards. *Guidelines as Topic*. *Research Design/standards ... Define healthy user bias in health care research and means to reduce it Assess means to reduce selection bias in health care ... Define healthy user bias in health care research and means to reduce it Assess means to reduce selection bias in health care ... Mentions: Some of the more interesting examples of this bias involve studies of obesity and nutrition. A 1995 study showed that ...
*  basal cell carcinoma of external ear 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine
Bias (Epidemiology). Ear Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ear, External. Esthetics. Eyelid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Female. Humans. ... Australia / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / ... Carcinoma, Basal Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / immunology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, ... Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. *[MeSH-minor] Adult. Cheek / pathology. Ear, External / pathology. ...
*  Statistical Modeling Choices in Biomarker-based Validation Studies: A Systematic Review, Case Study and Simulation Study
Author keywords: bias (epidemiology); biological markers; diet; energy adjustment; epidemiologic methods; transformations; ... which can hinder comparability between studies or even lead to biased results. This study determined the impact of two ... the validity coefficient and attenuation factor will be seriously biased forboth transformed and untransformed intake. Future ...
*  Effect of transformations on simulated data. Data in th | Open-i
Bias (Epidemiology). *Brain/metabolism. *Carbon Radioisotopes. *Gene Expression. *Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods/ ... Bottom Line: Image segmentation based on thresholding can be subject to floor-effects and lead to biased results.Finally, ... Bottom Line: Image segmentation based on thresholding can be subject to floor-effects and lead to biased results.Finally, ... Image segmentation based on thresholding can be subject to floor-effects and lead to biased results. In addition, including the ...
*  Comparison of Effect Sizes Associated With Biomarkers Reported in Highly Cited Individual Articles and in Subsequent Meta...
Keywords: Risk, Biological Markers, Cardiology, Bias (Epidemiology), Genome-Wide Association Study, Biomedical Research ... Citation bias for extreme results and failure to replicate initial exciting observations is common in all areas of research. ...
*  Deconstructing the smoking-preeclampsia paradox through a counterfactual framework | Springer for Research & Development
Greenland S. Quantifying biases in causal models: classical confounding vs collider-stratification bias. Epidemiology. 2003;14( ... Pearce N, Richiardi L. Commentary: three worlds collide: Berkson's bias, selection bias and collider bias. Int J Epidemiol. ... Bias formulas for sensitivity analysis for direct and indirect effects. Epidemiology. 2010;21(4):540-51.CrossRefPubMed ... A structural approach to selection bias. Epidemiology. 2004;15(5):615-25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
*  Plus it
Time-window bias in case-control studies: statins and lung cancer. Epidemiology 2011;22:228-231pmid:21228697. ... detection bias, the inclusion of prevalent users, and time-related biases such as immortal time bias, time-window bias, and ... We also assessed the studies for traditional epidemiological biases such as selection bias, information bias, and confounding. ... Immortal time bias in pharmaco-epidemiology. Am J Epidemiol 2008;167:492-499pmid:18056625. ...
*  "Evidence of a paradoxical relationship between endotoxin and lung canc" by Katie M. Applebaum, Roberta M. Ray et al.
Bias (Epidemiology); Endotoxins--adverse effects; Lung Neoplasms--chemically induced; Occupational Diseases--chemically induced ...
*  Selection Bias Assignment Help - Selection Bias Homework Help Online
25% discount ✓100% Cashback* ✓1076+ Selection Bias Experts. Ask Now ! Get 100% error-free solutions at affordable prices ... Get 24/7 Selection Bias Homework Help Online from experts on Transtutors.com. ✓ ... Selection Bias in Epidemiology. Epidemiology refers to the study of the distribution of health related states or events ... Other types of Selection Bias. *Sampling bias is another type of selection bias. This occurs when the sample is not chosen ...
*  Plus it
Sembajwe G. Common Variable Bias in Occupational Epidemiology. PhD thesis. University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA ... Epidemiology Standardization Project (American Thoracic Society). Am Rev Respir Dis 1978;118:1-120. ...

ESCAIDEInformation bias (epidemiology): Information bias}}Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Funding bias: Funding bias, also known as sponsorship bias, funding outcome bias, funding publication bias, and funding effect, refers to the tendency of a scientific study to support the interests of the study's financial sponsor. This phenomenon is recognized sufficiently that researchers undertake studies to examine bias in past published studies.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Epidemiological method: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the University of Chicago Press. It publishes research on control and evaluation of the transmission of pathogens in healthcare institutions and on the use of epidemiological principles and methods to evaluate and improve the delivery of care, including infection control practices, surveillance, cost-benefit analyses, resource use, occupational health, and regulatory issues.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Pulsenet: PulseNet is a network run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) which brings together public health and food regulatory agency laboratories around the United States.http://www.Plasmatronics: Plasmatronics is a company, founded by former Air Force Weapons Laboratory (now Phillips Laboratory) scientist Dr. Alan E.Genetic variation: right|thumbTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingGA²LENThermal cyclerDisease registry: Disease or patient registries are collections of secondary data related to patients with a specific diagnosis, condition, or procedure, and they play an important role in post marketing surveillance of pharmaceuticals. Registries are different from indexes in that they contain more extensive data.The Flash ChroniclesGlobal Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.BacitracinAmplified fragment length polymorphismColt Crag Reservoir: Colt Crag Reservoir is a relatively shallow reservoir in Northumberland, England adjacent to the A68 road, and north of Corbridge. The A68 road at this point runs along the course of Dere Street, a Roman road.Bradford Hill criteria: The Bradford Hill criteria, otherwise known as Hill's criteria for causation, are a group of minimal conditions necessary to provide adequate evidence of a causal relationship between an incidence and a possible consequence, established by the English epidemiologist Sir Austin Bradford Hill (1897–1991) in 1965.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).MIM Pan-African Malaria Conference 2009University of CampinasTriangle of death (Italy): The triangle of death (Italian: Triangolo della morte) is an area in the Italian province of Campania comprising the municipalities of Acerra, Nola and Marigliano. The region has recently experienced increasing deaths caused by cancer and other diseases that exceeds the Italian national average.Coles PhillipsTamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityRochester Epidemiology ProjectMiss Asia Pacific 2005Human mortality from H5N1: Human mortality from H5N1 or the human fatality ratio from H5N1 or the case-fatality rate of H5N1 refer to the ratio of the number of confirmed human deaths resulting from confirmed cases of transmission and infection of H5N1 to the number of those confirmed cases. For example, if there are 100 confirmed cases of humans infected with H5N1 and 10 die, then there is a 10% human fatality ratio (or mortality rate).National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.List of lighthouses in Spain: This is a list of lighthouses in Spain.Budic II of Brittany: Budic II (; or ; ), formerly known as Budick, was a king of Cornouaille in Brittany in the late 5th and early 6th centuries. He was the father of Hoel Mawr and is probably to be identified with the Emyr Llydaw ("Emperor of Brittany") and King Nentres who appear in Arthurian legend.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Ditch: A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.Cameroon–China relations: China and Cameroon established bilateral relations on March 26, 1971. Cameroon is an adherent to the One China Policy.Viral gastroenteritis: Viral gastroenteritis (Gastro-Enter-eye,tiss),http://www.merriam-webster.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Seroprevalence: Seroprevalence is the number of persons in a population who test positive for a specific disease based on serology (blood serum) specimens; often presented as a percent of the total specimens tested or as a proportion per 100,000 persons tested. As positively identifying the occurrence of disease is usually based upon the presence of antibodies for that disease (especially with viral infections such as Herpes Simplex and HIV), this number is not significant if the specificity of the antibody is low.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Codon Adaptation Index: The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI) is the most widespread technique for analyzing Codon usage bias. As opposed to other measures of codon usage bias, such as the 'effective number of codons' (Nc), which measure deviation from a uniform bias (null hypothesis), CAI measures the deviation of a given protein coding gene sequence with respect to a reference set of genes.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).

(1/2802) Influence of sampling on estimates of clustering and recent transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis derived from DNA fingerprinting techniques.

The availability of DNA fingerprinting techniques for Mycobacterium tuberculosis has led to attempts to estimate the extent of recent transmission in populations, using the assumption that groups of tuberculosis patients with identical isolates ("clusters") are likely to reflect recently acquired infections. It is never possible to include all cases of tuberculosis in a given population in a study, and the proportion of isolates found to be clustered will depend on the completeness of the sampling. Using stochastic simulation models based on real and hypothetical populations, the authors demonstrate the influence of incomplete sampling on the estimates of clustering obtained. The results show that as the sampling fraction increases, the proportion of isolates identified as clustered also increases and the variance of the estimated proportion clustered decreases. Cluster size is also important: the underestimation of clustering for any given sampling fraction is greater, and the variability in the results obtained is larger, for populations with small clusters than for those with the same number of individuals arranged in large clusters. A considerable amount of caution should be used in interpreting the results of studies on clustering of M. tuberculosis isolates, particularly when sampling fractions are small.  (+info)

(2/2802) Comparison of active and cancer registry-based follow-up for breast cancer in a prospective cohort study.

The authors compared the relative effectiveness of two distinct follow-up designs in prospective cohort studies--the active approach, based on direct contact with study subjects, and the passive approach, based on record linkages with population-based cancer registries--utilizing available information from the New York University Women's Health Study (WHS) and the New York State Cancer Registry (NYSCR). The analyses were limited to breast cancer cases identified during the period 1985-1992, for which follow-up was considered reasonably complete by both the WHS and the NYSCR. Among 12,947 cohort members who reported a New York State address, 303 pathologically confirmed cases were identified through active follow-up and 284 through record linkage. Sixty-three percent of cancers were identified by both sources, 21% by the WHS only, and 16% by the NYSCR only. The agreement was appreciably better for invasive cancers. The percentage of cases identified only by the NYSCR was increased among subjects whose active follow-up was incomplete, as well as among nonwhites, obese patients, and parous patients. This suggests that relying on either type of follow-up alone may introduce certain biases in evaluating risk factors for breast cancer. Combining both approaches appears to be a better strategy in prospective cohort studies.  (+info)

(3/2802) Statistical inference by confidence intervals: issues of interpretation and utilization.

This article examines the role of the confidence interval (CI) in statistical inference and its advantages over conventional hypothesis testing, particularly when data are applied in the context of clinical practice. A CI provides a range of population values with which a sample statistic is consistent at a given level of confidence (usually 95%). Conventional hypothesis testing serves to either reject or retain a null hypothesis. A CI, while also functioning as a hypothesis test, provides additional information on the variability of an observed sample statistic (ie, its precision) and on its probable relationship to the value of this statistic in the population from which the sample was drawn (ie, its accuracy). Thus, the CI focuses attention on the magnitude and the probability of a treatment or other effect. It thereby assists in determining the clinical usefulness and importance of, as well as the statistical significance of, findings. The CI is appropriate for both parametric and nonparametric analyses and for both individual studies and aggregated data in meta-analyses. It is recommended that, when inferential statistical analysis is performed, CIs should accompany point estimates and conventional hypothesis tests wherever possible.  (+info)

(4/2802) Estimating the effective number of breeders from heterozygote excess in progeny.

The heterozygote-excess method is a recently published method for estimating the effective population size (Ne). It is based on the following principle: When the effective number of breeders (Neb) in a population is small, the allele frequencies will (by chance) be different in males and females, which causes an excess of heterozygotes in the progeny with respect to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. We evaluate the accuracy and precision of the heterozygote-excess method using empirical and simulated data sets from polygamous, polygynous, and monogamous mating systems and by using realistic sample sizes of individuals (15-120) and loci (5-30) with varying levels of polymorphism. The method gave nearly unbiased estimates of Neb under all three mating systems. However, the confidence intervals on the point estimates of Neb were sufficiently small (and hence the heterozygote-excess method useful) only in polygamous and polygynous populations that were produced by <10 effective breeders, unless samples included > approximately 60 individuals and 20 multiallelic loci.  (+info)

(5/2802) A simulation study of confounding in generalized linear models for air pollution epidemiology.

Confounding between the model covariates and causal variables (which may or may not be included as model covariates) is a well-known problem in regression models used in air pollution epidemiology. This problem is usually acknowledged but hardly ever investigated, especially in the context of generalized linear models. Using synthetic data sets, the present study shows how model overfit, underfit, and misfit in the presence of correlated causal variables in a Poisson regression model affect the estimated coefficients of the covariates and their confidence levels. The study also shows how this effect changes with the ranges of the covariates and the sample size. There is qualitative agreement between these study results and the corresponding expressions in the large-sample limit for the ordinary linear models. Confounding of covariates in an overfitted model (with covariates encompassing more than just the causal variables) does not bias the estimated coefficients but reduces their significance. The effect of model underfit (with some causal variables excluded as covariates) or misfit (with covariates encompassing only noncausal variables), on the other hand, leads to not only erroneous estimated coefficients, but a misguided confidence, represented by large t-values, that the estimated coefficients are significant. The results of this study indicate that models which use only one or two air quality variables, such as particulate matter [less than and equal to] 10 microm and sulfur dioxide, are probably unreliable, and that models containing several correlated and toxic or potentially toxic air quality variables should also be investigated in order to minimize the situation of model underfit or misfit.  (+info)

(6/2802) Amino acid composition of protein termini are biased in different manners.

An exhaustive statistical analysis of the amino acid sequences at the carboxyl (C) and amino (N) termini of proteins and of coding nucleic acid sequences at the 5' side of the stop codons was undertaken. At the N ends, Met and Ala residues are over-represented at the first (+1) position whereas at positions 2 and 5 Thr is preferred. These peculiarities at N-termini are most probably related to the mechanism of initiation of translation (for Met) and to the mechanisms governing the life-span of proteins via regulation of their degradation (for Ala and Thr). We assume that the C-terminal bias facilitates fixation of the C ends on the protein globule by a preference for charged and Cys residues. The terminal biases, a novel feature of protein structure, have to be taken into account when molecular evolution, three-dimensional structure, initiation and termination of translation, protein folding and life-span are concerned. In addition, the bias of protein termini composition is an important feature which should be considered in protein engineering experiments.  (+info)

(7/2802) Do case studies mislead about the nature of reality?

This paper attempts a partial, critical look at the construction and use of case studies in ethics education. It argues that the authors and users of case studies are often insufficiently aware of the literary nature of these artefacts: this may lead to some confusion between fiction and reality. Issues of the nature of the genre, the fictional, story-constructing aspect of case studies, the nature of authorship, and the purposes and uses of case studies as "texts" are outlined and discussed. The paper concludes with some critical questions that can be applied to the construction and use of case studies in the light of the foregoing analysis.  (+info)

(8/2802) Do studies of the nature of cases mislead about the reality of cases? A response to Pattison et al.

This article questions whether many are misled by current case studies. Three broad types of style of case study are described. A stark style, based on medical case studies, a fictionalised style in reaction, and a personal statement made in discussion groups by an original protagonist. Only the second type fits Pattison's category. Language remains an important issue, but to be examined as the case is lived in discussion rather than as a potentially reductionist study of the case as text.  (+info)

  • systematic error
  • In epidemiological research, recall bias is a systematic error caused by differences in the accuracy or completeness of the recollections retrieved ("recalled") by study participants regarding events or experiences from the past. (wikipedia.org)
  • In science and engineering, a bias is a systematic error. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many types of possible selection bias, including: Sampling bias is systematic error due to a non-random sample of a population, causing some members of the population to be less likely to be included than others, resulting in a biased sample, defined as a statistical sample of a population (or non-human factors) in which all participants are not equally balanced or objectively represented. (wikipedia.org)
  • precision
  • Bias and precision are presented from three large studies that collected a FFQ-based measure and at least one independent criterion measure such as food records, dietary recalls, or serum carotenoids. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Image segmentation based on thresholding can be subject to floor-effects and lead to biased results.Finally, converting grey level pixel intensities to optical densities or units of radioactivity is unnecessary for most applications and can lead to data with poor statistical properties.Based on these results, suggestions are made to reduce bias, increase precision, and ultimately provide more meaningful results of gene expression data. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, including the area of the structure or region of interest in the calculation of gene expression can lead to a large loss of precision and can also introduce bias. (nih.gov)
  • A modification of an existing method for selecting the structure or region of interest is introduced which performs better than alternative methods in terms of bias and precision. (nih.gov)
  • Based on these results, suggestions are made to reduce bias, increase precision, and ultimately provide more meaningful results of gene expression data. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, cognitive biases may allow speedier choices when speed is more valuable than precision. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of publication bias, it assumes that studies with high precision will be plotted near the average, and studies with low precision will be spread evenly on both sides of the average, creating a roughly funnel-shaped distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • If high precision studies are different from low precision studies with respect to effect size (e.g., due to different populations examined) a funnel plot may give a wrong impression of publication bias. (wikipedia.org)
  • recall bias
  • National estimates of the use of cancer screening procedures are based primarily on self-reported results from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 9 and the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 10 These estimates are well-known to be subject to biases such as social response bias and recall bias ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recall bias in a case-control study of low birth weight. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The role of report/recall bias in case-control studies of low birth weight (LBW) was investigated in women who gave birth at a tertiary hospital. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recall bias can be a particular concern in retrospective studies that use a case-control design to investigate the etiology of a disease or psychiatric condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • statistical
  • There is a lack of consensus on statistical modeling choices in biomarker-based validation studies, which can hinder comparability between studies or even lead to biased results. (uu.nl)
  • This workshop concluded that while some studies reported a statistical correlation between breast cancer and abortion, the strongest scientific evidence from large prospective cohort studies demonstrates that abortion is not associated with an increase in breast cancer risk, and that the positive findings were likely due to response bias. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various attempts have been made to overcome the effects of the reporting biases, including statistical adjustments to the results of published studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Statistical bias results from an unfair sampling of a population, or from an estimation process that does not give accurate results on average. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phrase "selection bias" most often refers to the distortion of a statistical analysis, resulting from the method of collecting samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • selection
  • The occurrence of information biases may not be independent of the occurrence of selection biases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commentary: Selection Bias as an Explanation for the Obesit. (lww.com)
  • This is a special form of selection bias 4 and could arise as follows. (lww.com)
  • The selection bias alternative is illustrated by the causal directed acyclic graph (DAG) shown in Figure A. In this DAG, heart failure is a "collider" on the "backdoor path" obesity→heart failure←unmeasured factors→death. (lww.com)
  • Multivariate-adjusted selection probability ratios (SPR) were calculated to estimate potential bias when using this driver's license sampling frame to select controls. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our results indicate the potential for selection bias due to differential opt out between various demographic and behavioral subgroups of controls. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using a counterfactual framework we aimed to explore the structure of this paradox as being a consequence of selection bias. (springer.com)
  • Using a case-control study nested in the Icelandic Birth Registry (1309 women), we show how this selection bias can be explored and corrected for. (springer.com)
  • The smoking-preeclampsia paradox appears to be an example of (1) selection bias most likely caused by studying cases prevalent at birth rather than all incident cases from conception in a pregnancy cohort, (2) omitting important confounders associated with both smoking and preeclampsia (preventing the outcome to develop) and (3) controlling for a collider (gestation weeks at delivery). (springer.com)
  • It was also criticized for selection bias by using studies with widely varying results, using different types of studies and not working with the raw data from several studies, and including studies that have methodological weaknesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selection bias is the bias introduced by the selection of individuals, groups or data for analysis in such a way that proper randomization is not achieved, thereby ensuring that the sample obtained is not representative of the population intended to be analyzed. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the selection bias is not taken into account, then some conclusions of the study may not be accurate. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is mostly classified as a subtype of selection bias, sometimes specifically termed sample selection bias, but some classify it as a separate type of bias. (wikipedia.org)
  • A distinction of sampling bias (albeit not a universally accepted one) is that it undermines the external validity of a test (the ability of its results to be generalized to the rest of the population), while selection bias mainly addresses internal validity for differences or similarities found in the sample at hand. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this sense, errors occurring in the process of gathering the sample or cohort cause sampling bias, while errors in any process thereafter cause selection bias. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of sampling bias include self-selection, pre-screening of trial participants, discounting trial subjects/tests that did not run to completion and migration bias by excluding subjects who have recently moved into or out of the study area. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevalent
  • The methodological assessment involved the inclusion of prevalent users, inclusion of lag periods, time-related biases, and duration of follow-up between insulin initiation and cancer incidence. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • causal
  • citation needed] Major research challenges in social epidemiology include tools to strengthen causal inference, methods to test theoretical frameworks such as Fundamental Cause Theory, translation of evidence to systems and policy changes that will improve population health, and mostly obscure causal mechanisms between exposures and outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • To address obscurity of causal mechanisms in social epidemiology, it has been proposed to integrate molecular pathological epidemiology into social epidemiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • publication bias
  • The most direct evidence of publication bias in the medical field comes from follow-up studies of research projects identified at the time of funding or ethics approval. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deviation from this shape can indicate publication bias. (wikipedia.org)
  • A symmetric inverted funnel shape arises from a 'well-behaved' data set, in which publication bias is unlikely. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the standard error is used, straight lines may be drawn to define a region within which 95% of points might lie in the absence of both heterogeneity and publication bias. (wikipedia.org)
  • obesity
  • Some of the more interesting examples of this bias involve studies of obesity and nutrition. (nih.gov)
  • The term epidemiology is now widely applied to cover the description and causation of not only epidemic disease, but of disease in general, and even many non-disease, health-related conditions, such as high blood pressure and obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • If opt out is also related to risk factors, bias can arise. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although health research is often organized by disease categories or organ systems, theoretical development in social epidemiology is typically organized around factors that influence health (i.e., health determinants rather than health outcomes). (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • Statisticians have developed methods to adjust for this type of bias, which may assist somewhat in compensating for this problem when known and when it is quantifiable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Second, we used classical logistic regression and mediation analytic methods for dichotomous outcomes to explore the structure of the bias. (springer.com)
  • estimation
  • The bias-adjusted estimation of the smoking effect on preeclampsia showed an OR of 1.22 (95 %CI 0.41, 6.53). (springer.com)
  • results
  • These results, which were consistent across diverse participant samples, suggest that the 5 A Day method yields both biased and imprecise measures of vegetable intake and that research to improve this measure is needed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Image segmentation based on thresholding can be subject to floor-effects and lead to biased results. (nih.gov)
  • Citation bias for extreme results and failure to replicate initial exciting observations is common in all areas of research. (acc.org)
  • In this context, reporting bias can eventually lead to a status quo where multiple investigators discover and discard the same results, and later experimenters justify their own reporting bias by observing that previous experimenters reported different results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reporting bias occurs when the dissemination of research findings is influenced by the nature and direction of the results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Validity
  • The effects of log-transformations were inconsistent in the case study, but the simulation study showed that if the intake distribution is in between normal and log-normal, the validity coefficient and attenuation factor will be seriously biased forboth transformed and untransformed intake. (uu.nl)
  • Variables
  • BACKGROUND: Sometimes in descriptive epidemiology or in the evaluation of a health intervention policy change, proportions exposed to a risk factor or to an intervention are used as explanatory variables in log-linear regressions for disease incidence or mortality. (biomedsearch.com)
  • interpretation
  • Lead time bias can affect interpretation of the five-year survival rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, cognitive biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • Social epidemiology draws on methodologies and theoretical frameworks from many disciplines, and research overlaps with several social science fields, most notably economics, medical anthropology, medical sociology, health psychology and medical geography, as well as many domains of epidemiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In artificial intelligence research, the term reporting bias is used to refer to people's tendency to under-report all the information available. (wikipedia.org)
  • This erroneous epidemiology has dominated over scientific evidence in society due to the miscommunication of scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The constant influence from the biased mass media has resulted in people being highly aware of false epidemiologies and unaware of the scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
  • also see Program for Appropriate Technology in Health and Immunization Alliance) The false epidemiology of autism has caused new research for the origin of autism to suffer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study
  • The term "epidemiology" appears to have first been used to describe the study of epidemics in 1802 by the Spanish physician Villalba in Epidemiología Española. (wikipedia.org)
  • lead
  • Researchers Frank Pega and Ichiro Kawachi from Harvard University have suggested that this may lead to the new discipline of Political Epidemiology, which is more policy-applied in that it identifies effective and cost-effecfive social interventions for government action to improve health equity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Health portal Medicine portal Stats portal Science portal Length time bias Lead time bias - General Practice Notebook Gordis, Leon (2008). (wikipedia.org)
  • However some cognitive biases are taken to be adaptive, and thus may lead to success in the appropriate situation. (wikipedia.org)
  • absence
  • Other cognitive biases are a "by-product" of human processing limitations, coming about because of an absence of appropriate mental mechanisms, or just from human limitations in information processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assess
  • An attribution bias can happen when individuals assess or attempt to discover explanations behind their own and others' behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • social
  • Fat intake was measured as the absolute percentage change for every 1% change in social desirability bias. (nih.gov)
  • Understanding the origins of health disparities and identifying strategies to eliminate health disparities is a major focus of social epidemiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • People may develop biases toward or against an individual, an ethnic group, a sexual or gender identity, a nation, a religion, a social class, a political party, theoretical paradigms and ideologies within academic domains, or a species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather than operating as objective perceivers, individuals are inclined to perceptual slips that prompt biased understandings of their social world. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • None of these approaches has proved satisfactory, however, and there is increasing acceptance that reporting biases must be tackled by establishing registers of controlled trials and by promoting good publication practice. (wikipedia.org)