Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Cola: A plant genus of the family STERCULIACEAE. This is the source of the kola nut which contains CAFFEINE and is used in popular beverages.Tea: The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Coffee: A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.Energy Drinks: Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Food and Beverages: Edible or potable substances.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Soy Milk: A beverage prepared from SOYBEANS.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Tooth Erosion: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Cooking and Eating UtensilsNutritive Sweeteners: Any agent that adds not only sweet taste but some energy value to food. They include natural sugars such as SUCROSE; FRUCTOSE; and GALACTOSE; and certain SUGAR ALCOHOLS.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Aspartame: Flavoring agent sweeter than sugar, metabolized as PHENYLALANINE and ASPARTIC ACID.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Ilex paraguariensis: A plant species of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. An infusion of the leaves is commonly drunk in South America for stimulating effect in much the same manner as coffee is in other cultures.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Menu PlanningSchools: Educational institutions.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Mineral Waters: Water naturally or artificially infused with mineral salts or gases.Dental Enamel Solubility: The susceptibility of the DENTAL ENAMEL to dissolution.United StatesSatiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Saliva, Artificial: A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Flavoring Agents: Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Banisteriopsis: A plant genus of the family MALPIGHIACEAE which includes an Amazonian psychoactive plant that contains the beta-carboline harmine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine.

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Sports drink: Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy after training or competition, though their efficacy for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise which is only moderate.List of Coca-Cola brands: List of all brands (fully or partially) owned by The Coca-Cola Company:Blended malt whisky: A blended malt, formerly called a vatted malt, or pure malt, is a blend of different single malt whiskies from different distilleries. These terms are most commonly used in reference to Scotch whisky, or whisky in that style, such as Japanese whisky.Sweetness: Sweetness is one of the five basic tastes and is universally regarded as a pleasurable experience, except perhaps in excess. Foods rich in simple carbohydrates such as sugar are those most commonly associated with sweetness, although there are other natural and artificial compounds that are sweet at much lower concentrations, allowing their use as non-caloric sugar substitutes.Draught beer: Draught beer, also spelt draft, is beer served from a cask or keg rather than from a bottle or can. Canned draught is beer served from a pressurised container featuring a widget.Glucerna: Glucerna is the brand name of a family of tube feeding formula, bottled or canned shakes, and snack bars manufactured by Abbott Laboratories. These medical nutritional products are meant for people with diabetes and are promoted for their ability to satisfy hunger without causing rapid increases in glucose concentration in the bloodstream.Rice wineCola (plant): Cola is a genus of trees native to the tropical rainforests of Africa, classified in the family Malvaceae, subfamily Sterculioideae (or treated in the separate family Sterculiaceae). Species in this genus are sometimes referred to as Kola tree or Kola nut for the caffeine-containing fruit produced by the trees that is often used as a flavoring ingredient in beverages.Green tea extractList of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.White coffee: White coffee can refer to any of a number of different kinds of coffees or coffee substitutes worldwide.Energy shot: Energy shots are a specialized kind of energy drink that contain a dose of the stimulant caffeine in a small amount of liquid. Whereas most energy drinks are sold in cans or bottles, energy shots are usually sold in 50ml bottles.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.Fruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score: Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) is a method of evaluating the protein quality based on both the amino acid requirements of humans and their ability to digest it. The PDCAAS rating was adopted by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) in 1993 as "the preferred 'best'" method to determine protein quality.Soy milk: Soy milk, also referred to as soymilk or soya milk, is a plant milk produced byCastleberry's Food Company: Castleberry's Food Company was an Augusta, Georgia-based canned food company founded in the 1920s by Clement Stewart Castleberry with the help of his father Clement Lamar Castleberry and closed permanently in March 2008 by the United States Food and Drug Administration.School meal programs in the United States: School meal programs in the United States provide school meals freely, or at a subsidized price, to the children of low income families. These free or reduced meals have the potential to increase household food security, which can improve children's health and expand their educational opportunities.Ethanol fuel: Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline.Powdered milk: Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content.Orange Peel (horse): Orange Peel was a Thoroughbred stallion that had a significant influence on the breeding of sport horses.Australian referendum, 1913 (Trade and Commerce): The Constitution Alteration (Trade and Commerce) 1912 was an Australian referendum held in the 1913 referendums which sought to alter the Australian Constitution to extend Commonwealth legislative power in respect to trade and commerce.Health effects of natural phenols and polyphenols: Because of the large structural diversity and extensive metabolism of dietary polyphenols, it is difficult to determine their fate in vivo and assert specific health effects. Although many are speculated to be part of the health-promoting effects of consuming fruits and vegetables, no evidence exists to date that dietary polyphenols actually provide health benefits.Cookware and bakeware: Pan}}Fructose malabsorptionAspartameCaffeineClassification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Healthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.Mate con malicia: Mate con malicia (Spanish: "mate with malice") or mate con punta ("spiked mate")is a drink made of mate infusion and aguardiente or pisco, consumed mainly in rural areas of Chile. Huarisnaque is typically drunk by huasos, gauchos, fishermen and lumberjacks to warm up, as it combines both alcohol and the psychoactive substances of yerba mate, namely caffeine, theobromine and theophylline.Alcohol intoxicationWhite chocolate: White chocolate is a chocolate derivative. It commonly consists of cocoa butter, sugar and milk solids and is characterized by a pale yellow or ivory appearance.Carbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.AlkylphenolMenu FoodsSt. Vrain Valley School DistrictVegetable juiceDamavand Mineral Water Co.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Sensory-specific satiety: Sensory-specific satiety is a sensory hedonic phenomenon that refers to the declining satisfaction generated by the consumption of a certain type of food, and the consequent renewal in appetite resulting from the exposure to a new flavor or food.Raynor H, Epstein L.California Proposition 29 (2012): Proposition 29, the California Cancer Research Act, is a California ballot measure that was defeated by California voters at the statewide election on June 5, 2012.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning: Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning (31 March 1817–18 November 1861), one of the most prolific women artists in India, was the wife of Charles Canning, 1st Earl Canning. Two portfolios in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London contain some three hundred and fifty watercolours by her, the result of four major tours in India.Artificial butter flavoring: Artificial butter flavoring may contain diacetyl, acetylpropionyl, or acetoin, three natural compounds in butter that contribute to its characteristic flavor. Because of this, manufacturers of margarines or similar oil-based products typically add diacetyl, acetylpropionyl and acetoin (along with beta carotene for the yellow color) to make the final product butter-flavored, because it would otherwise be relatively tasteless.Food desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Candy: Candy, also called sweets or lollies, is a confection that features sugar as a principal ingredient. The category, called sugar confectionery, encompasses any sweet confection, including chocolate, chewing gum, and sugar candy.Tetrahydroharmine

(1/1434) Comparison of serum carotenoid responses between women consuming vegetable juice and women consuming raw or cooked vegetables.

The objective of this study was to examine serum concentrations of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin due to consumption of vegetable juice versus raw or cooked vegetables. Subjects included female breast cancer patients who had undergone surgical resection and who were enrolled in a feasibility study for a trial examining the influence of diet on breast cancer recurrence. A high-vegetable, low-fat diet was the focus of the intervention, and some of the subjects were specifically encouraged to consume vegetable juice. At 12 months, blood samples were collected and analyzed for carotenoid concentrations via high-performance liquid chromatography methodology. Matched analysis and paired t test were conducted on two groups: those who consumed vegetable juice (the juice group) and those who consumed raw or cooked vegetables (no juice group). Serum concentrations of alpha-carotene and lutein were significantly higher in the vegetable juice group than in the raw or cooked vegetable group (P < 0.05 and P = 0.05, respectively). Paired t test analysis did not demonstrate a significant difference in serum values of beta-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin between subjects consuming juice and those not consuming any juice. These results suggest that alpha-carotene and lutein appear to be more bioavailable in the juice form than in raw or cooked vegetables. Therefore, the food form consumed may contribute to the variability in serum carotenoid response to vegetable and fruit interventions in clinical studies.  (+info)

(2/1434) Serum levels of ochratoxin A in healthy adults in Tuscany: correlation with individual characteristics and between repeat measurements.

Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin widely contaminating staple foods and beverages, has been classified as a "possible human carcinogen (Group 2B)" by the IARC. Serum levels of OTA were measured in a group of 138 healthy adults (age, 35-65 years) living in the area surrounding Florence (Tuscany, central Italy) and detected in all but four samples (97%). After the exclusion of one subject with a peak value of 57.2 ng/ml, OTA levels ranged between 0.12 and 2.84 ng/ml, with mean and median values of 0.56 and 0.48 ng/ml, respectively. OTA levels were significantly higher in men than in women (0.64 versus 0.50) and correlated positively with height. A strong association was found with the season in which blood samples were obtained, with summer values higher than autumn values. On the other hand, OTA levels tended to be negatively associated with blood pressure, either systolic or diastolic; no association was evident with age, weight, body mass index, and smoking history. The associations with height and season persisted in a multivariate regression analysis. A subgroup of subjects provided a repeat blood sample approximately 1 year later. The Spearman correlation coefficient between 68 pairs of original and repeat measurements was practically null (r = 0.05). Only two subjects (2.9%) had OTA levels of >1 ng/ml on both occasions. These results suggest that OTA contamination is widespread in foods consumed by this population, in agreement with previous reports from Italy and other countries. A strong seasonal variation, which possibly differs from year to year, was observed. OTA serum levels are a short-term biomarker with a high within-subject variability; therefore they have limited use at the individual level but can be used to characterize populations or subgroups of subjects. Additional analyses are needed to explore the dietary determinants of OTA levels in this population.  (+info)

(3/1434) Enteropathogenic bacteria in faecal swabs of young children fed on lactic acid-fermented cereal gruels.

The influence of consumption of a lactic acid-fermented cereal gruel togwa with pH < or = 4 on the presence of faecal enteric bacteria such as campylobacter, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC:O157), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), salmonella and shigella was evaluated. Under 5 years old healthy children listed in an ascending order of age were alternatively assigned and given either a lactic-acid fermented cereal gruel togwa (test diet) or an unfermented cereal gruel uji (control diet) once a day for 13 consecutive days. The presence of the enteropathogens was examined in rectal swabs collected from the children at baseline (before feeding session started), on days 7 and 13, and additionally 14 days (follow-up day) after the feeding session had stopped. The swabs were cultured on to different optimal media for respective enteropathogen and confirmed by standard microbiological and serological methods. Campylobacter spp. dominated among the enteropathogens (62% out of total) followed by Salmonella spp., ETEC and Shigella spp. Children with isolated enteropathogens in the togwa group was significantly reduced (P < 0.001) from 27.6% at baseline to 7.8, 8.2 and 12.7% on days 7, 13 and follow-up day, respectively. The effect was more pronounced in those children taking togwa > 6 times during the study period. In the control group, there was a slight decrease from 16.7% at baseline to 11.4% on day 7 and 8.1% on day 13. On the follow-up day, enteropathogens were found in 22.6% of the children, which was significantly higher than in those children taking togwa > 6 times. We conclude, that regular consumption of togwa with pH < or = 4, once a day, three times a week may help to control intestinal colonization with potential diarrhoea-causing pathogens in young children.  (+info)

(4/1434) Combinations of intervention treatments resulting in 5-log10-unit reductions in numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium DT104 organisms in apple cider.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently mandated a warning statement on packaged fruit juices not treated to reduce target pathogen populations by 5 log10 units. This study describes combinations of intervention treatments that reduced concentrations of mixtures of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (strains ATCC 43895, C7927, and USDA-FSIS-380-94) or Salmonella typhimurium DT104 (DT104b, U302, and DT104) by 5 log10 units in apple cider with a pH of 3.3, 3.7, and 4.1. Treatments used were short-term storage at 4, 25, or 35 degrees C and/or freeze-thawing (48 h at -20 degrees C; 4 h at 4 degrees C) of cider with or without added organic acids (0.1% lactic acid, sorbic acid [SA], or propionic acid). Treatments more severe than those for S. typhimurium DT104 were always required to destroy E. coli O157:H7. In pH 3.3 apple cider, a 5-log10-unit reduction in E. coli O157:H7 cell numbers was achieved by freeze-thawing or 6-h 35 degrees C treatments. In pH 3.7 cider the 5-log10-unit reduction followed freeze-thawing combined with either 6 h at 4 degrees C, 2 h at 25 degrees C, or 1 h at 35 degrees C or 6 h at 35 degrees C alone. A 5-log10-unit reduction occurred in pH 4.1 cider after the following treatments: 6 h at 35 degrees C plus freeze-thawing, SA plus 12 h at 25 degrees C plus freeze-thawing, SA plus 6 h at 35 degrees C, and SA plus 4 h at 35 degrees C plus freeze-thawing. Yeast and mold counts did not increase significantly (P < 0.05) during the 6-h storage at 35 degrees C. Cider with no added organic acids treated with either 6 h at 35 degrees C, freeze-thawing or their combination was always preferred by consumers over pasteurized cider (P < 0.05). The simple, inexpensive intervention treatments described in the present work could produce safe apple cider without pasteurization and would not require the FDA-mandated warning statement.  (+info)

(5/1434) Growth from spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum in heat-treated vegetable juice.

Unheated spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum were able to lead to growth in sterile deoxygenated turnip, spring green, helda bean, broccoli, or potato juice, although the probability of growth was low and the time to growth was longer than the time to growth in culture media. With all five vegetable juices tested, the probability of growth increased when spores were inoculated into the juice and then heated for 2 min in a water bath at 80 degrees C. The probability of growth was greater in bean or broccoli juice than in culture media following 10 min of heat treatment in these media. Growth was prevented by heat treatment of spores in vegetable juices or culture media at 80 degrees C for 100 min. We show for the first time that adding heat-treated vegetable juice to culture media can increase the number of heat-damaged spores of C. botulinum that can lead to colony formation.  (+info)

(6/1434) Caffeine content of beverages as consumed.

Quantitative analysis of beverages prepared at home by staff of the Addiction Research Foundation revealed a lower and much more variable caffeine content of both tea and coffee than had been reported in earlier studies, most of which were based on analysis of laboratory-prepared beverages. Median caffeine concentration of 37 home-prepared samples of tea was 27 mg per cup (range, 8 to 91 mg); for 46 coffee samples the median concentration was 74 mg per cup (range, 29 to 176 mg). If tea and coffee as drunk contain less caffeine than generally supposed, the potency of caffeine may be greater than commonly realized, as may the relative caffeine content of certain commercial preparations, including chocolate and colas. The substantial variation in caffeine content emphasizes the need to establish actual caffeine intake in clinical, epidemiologic and experimental investigations of caffeine effects.  (+info)

(7/1434) Teas and other beverages suppress D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in rats.

We compared the effects of various types of beverages (teas, coffee, and cocoa) on D-galactosamine-induced liver injury by measuring plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in 7-wk-old male Wistar rats. The effects of five fractions extracted with different organic solvents from green tea, different types of dietary fibers, and some short chain fatty acids were also investigated. All of the beverages tested significantly suppressed D-galactosamine-induced enhancement of plasma enzyme activities when powdered beverages were added to the diet (30 g/kg) and fed to rats for 2 wk. Plasma ALT activities were 1155 +/- 82 [micromol/(min.L), control], 289 +/- 61 (green tea), 626 +/- 60 (roasted green tea), 471 +/- 84 (puerh tea), 676 +/- 69 (oolon tea), 423 +/- 76 (black tea), 829 +/- 53 (coffee), and 885 +/- 89 (cocoa). The profile of AST activities was similar. The caffeine-containing fraction from green tea had no significant effect, whereas the other four fractions, including the soluble fiber fraction, significantly suppressed liver injury. In addition to tea fibers, many other types of dietary fiber (hemicellulose, chitin, chitosan, alginate, pectin, guar gum, glucomannan, and inulin, but not cellulose) had liver injury-preventive effects when added to the diet (30 g/kg), suggesting that liver injury-prevention may be one of the general effects of dietary fibers. Of three short-chain fatty acids tested (acetate, propionate, and butyrate), only acetate prevented liver injury when added to the diet (15 g/kg), supporting the possibility that the liver injury-preventive effect of dietary fibers may be mediated at least in part by certain organic acids. These results suggest that several beverages possess preventive effects on certain types of liver injury, such as that induced by D-galactosamine, and that different constituents of high and low molecular weights contribute to the liver injury-preventive effects of green tea.  (+info)

(8/1434) Nutrient intake and use of beverages and the risk of kidney stones among male smokers.

High intakes of calcium, potassium, and fluids have been shown to be associated with lowered risk of kidney stones. The authors studied the associations between diet and risk of kidney stones in a cohort of 27,001 Finnish male smokers aged 50-69 years who were initially free of kidney stones. All men participated in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Lung Cancer Prevention Study and completed a validated dietary questionnaire at baseline. After 5 years of follow-up (1985-1988), 329 men had been diagnosed with kidney stones. After data were controlled for possible confounders, the relative risk of kidney stones for men in the highest quartile of magnesium intake was 0.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.85) as compared with men in the lowest quartile. Intake of fiber was directly associated with risk (relative risk (RR) = 2.06, 95% CI 1.39-3.03). Calcium intake was not associated with the risk of kidney stones. Beer consumption was inversely associated with risk of kidney stones; each bottle of beer consumed per day was estimated to reduce risk by 40% (RR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.47-0.76). In conclusion, the authors observed that magnesium intake and beer consumption were inversely associated and fiber intake was directly associated with risk of kidney stones.  (+info)

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