Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.Wandering Behavior: Moving oneself through space while confused or otherwise cognitively impaired. Patterns include akathisia, exhibiting neuroleptic-induced pacing and restlessness; exit seekers who are often newly admitted institution residents who try to open locked exit doors; self-stimulators who perform other activities such as turning doorknobs, in addition to continuous pacing; and modelers who shadow other pacers.Psychomotor Agitation: A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.Biological Psychiatry: An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Frontotemporal Dementia: The most common clinical form of FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION, this dementia presents with personality and behavioral changes often associated with disinhibition, apathy, and lack of insight.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Behavioral Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.Behavioral Medicine: The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
Psychomotor agitationPeter Riederer: Peter Riederer (born 1942) is a German neuroscientist with several thousands of citations and around 950 scientific writings. He has published more than 620 scientific papers in peer-reviewed scientific journals that are indexed in the most referent biomedical scientific database Medline.Familial British dementia: Familial British dementia is a form of dementia. It was first reported by Cecil Charles Worster-Drought in 1933 and is therefore also known as Worster-Drought syndrome.Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of special education. The editors-in-chief are Alisa K.Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).Relationship Development Intervention: Relationship Development Intervention (RDI) is a trademarked proprietary treatment program for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), based on the belief that the development of dynamic intelligence is the key to improving the quality of life for individuals with autism. The program's core philosophy is that individuals with autism can participate in authentic emotional relationships if they are exposed to them in a gradual, systematic way.Mental disorderAdult attention deficit hyperactivity disorderRating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Atypical antipsychotic: The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilisers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions. Some atypical antipsychotics have received regulatory approval (e.Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a worldwide project that provides reliable clinical data for the research of pathology principle, prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Multiple research groups contribute their findings of the biological markers to the understanding of the progression of Alzheimer’s disease in the human brain.Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Noreen M. Clark: Noreen M. Clark was the Myron E.Ovide F. PomerleauDavid FulkerList of psychological research methods: A wide range of research methods are used in psychology. These methods vary by the sources of information that are drawn on, how that information is sampled, and the types of instruments that are used in data collection.
(1/241) Embryonic and postnatal injections of bromodeoxyuridine produce age-dependent morphological and behavioral abnormalities.
The mitotic marker 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected twice daily (60 mg/kg) into pregnant hooded rats on one of embryonic days (E) 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, or 21, or into rat pups on postnatal day (P) 10. The principal findings were the following: (1) BrdU exposure on E11 produces profound effects on body morphology, and animals must be fed a special diet because of chronic tooth abnormalities; (2) BrdU exposure at E17 or earlier produces a change in coat spotting pattern, the precise pattern varying with age; (3) BrdU exposure on E15 or earlier produces a reduction in both brain and body weight; (4) BrdU exposure on E17 or earlier reduces cortical thickness; (5) BrdU exposure on E11-E13 and at P10 reduces cerebellar size relative to cerebral size; (6) spatial learning is significantly affected after injections of BrdU at E11-E17, but the largest effect is on E17; (7) the deficit in spatial learning may be related in part to a reduction in visual acuity; and (8) skilled forelimb ability is most disrupted after BrdU exposure at E15 but is also impaired after injections on E13 or earlier. BrdU thus has teratological effects on body, brain, and behavior that vary with the developmental age of the fetus or infant. (+info)
(2/241) Treatment-resistant schizophrenia and staff rejection.
This study examined the relationship between characteristics of patients suffering from treatment-refractory schizophrenia and staff rejection and criticism. Subjects were 30 inpatients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia and the 29 staff members treating them. Measures included assessment of the patients' symptoms and aggression risk profile using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and assessment of staff attitudes toward these patients using the Patient Rejection Scale (PRS). Nursing staff completed the Nurses' Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation (NOSIE). PRS ratings did not correlate with patients' demographic and treatment characteristics. Significant correlations existed, however, between increased staff rejection and higher scores for PANSS cognitive factor and NOSIE manifest psychosis factor. Negative symptoms, although preponderant in the patient sample, were not significant predictors of staff rejection on the PRS. Older nursing staff tended to view patients as more irritable and manifestly psychotic. These findings suggest that disorganized behavior and impaired cognition dysfunction areas are more likely to be associated with high levels of rejection among staff working with treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients. Incorporation of the relatively new concepts of cognitive dysfunction and treatment resistance in staff training programs and multidisciplinary team reviews may greatly benefit schizophrenia patients and the staff treating them. (+info)
(3/241) Violence in inpatients with schizophrenia: a prospective study.
Accurate evaluations of the dangers posed by psychiatric inpatients are necessary, although a number of studies have questioned the accuracy of violence prediction. In this prospective study, we evaluated several variables in the prediction of violence in 63 inpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Nurses rated violent incidents with the Overt Aggression Scale. During hospitalization, sociodemographic variables, clinical history, neurological soft signs, community alcohol or drug abuse, and electroencephalographic abnormalities did not differ between violent and nonviolent groups. Violent patients had significantly more positive symptoms as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), higher scores on the PANSS general psychopathology scale, and less insight in the different constructs assessed. A logistic regression was performed to discriminate between violent and nonviolent patients. Three variables entered the model: insight into symptoms, PANSS general psychopathology score, and violence in the previous week. The actuarial model correctly classified 84.13 percent of the sample; this result is significantly better than chance for the base rate of violence in this study. At hospital admission, clinical rather than sociodemographic variables were more predictive of violence. This finding has practical importance because clinical symptoms are amenable to therapeutic approaches. This study is the first to demonstrate that insight into psychotic symptoms is a predictor of violence in inpatients with schizophrenia. (+info)
(4/241) Course of violence in patients with schizophrenia: relationship to clinical symptoms.
To understand the heterogeneity of violent behaviors in patients with schizophrenia, one must consider underlying clinical symptoms of the illness and their change over time. The purpose of this study was to examine persistence and resolution of violence in relation to psychotic symptoms, ward behaviors, and neurological impairment. Psychiatric symptoms and ward behaviors were assessed in violent inpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and in nonviolent controls on entry into the study. Patients were followed for 4 weeks; those who showed resolution of assaults over this time were classified as transiently violent, and those who remained assaultive were categorized as persistently violent. At the end of the 4 weeks, psychiatric symptoms, ward behaviors, and neurological impairment were assessed. Overall, the two violent groups presented with more severe psychiatric symptoms and were judged to be more irritable than the nonviolent control subjects, but the transiently violent patients showed improvement in symptoms over time. At the end of 4 weeks, the persistently violent patients had evidence of more severe neurological impairment, hostility, suspiciousness, and irritability than the other two groups. Canonical discriminant analyses identified two significant dimensions differentiated the groups. The first, characterized by positive psychotic symptoms, differentiated the violent patients from the control subjects; the second, characterized by neurological impairment and high endpoint score for negative symptoms, differentiated the transiently from the persistently violent patients. Identification of certain symptoms associated with different forms of violence has important implications for the prediction and differential treatment of violent behavior in patients with schizophrenia. (+info)
(5/241) Suicide risk in schizophrenia: an analysis of 17 consecutive suicides.
The aim of this study was to investigate interactional factors related to the recognition of suicide risk in patients with schizophrenia. The study focused on 17 schizophrenia patients who had committed suicide during the National Suicide Prevention Project in Finland between April 1, 1987, and March 31, 1988, in the province of Kuopio. Consensus case reports were assembled by using the psychological autopsy method. Study methods included structured and in-depth interviews of next of kin and interviews of health care or social services workers who had treated the suicide victims. Male and female patients with schizophrenia committed suicide in equal proportions. Most had suffered from schizophrenia for more than 15 years; all but one had been receiving psychiatric treatment at the time of suicide. Retrospective assessment indicated that 59 percent of the patients were clinically depressed at the time of suicide. In 76 percent of the cases, the mental health professionals involved in treatment had not believed that there was a risk of suicide during their last contact with the patient. In 29 percent of the cases, the patient's paranoid ideas concerning treatment personnel had increased. Patients' withdrawal from human relationships because of depression was related to loss of the treatment professionals' concern for the patients. The findings in this descriptive study suggest that withdrawal by a patient with schizophrenia and an increase in the patient's paranoid behavior should be regarded as signals of risk of suicide. (+info)
(6/241) Altered parallel auditory processing in schizophrenia patients.
Patients with schizophrenia have impaired auditory processing that has been demonstrated by diminished P50 response to paired auditory stimuli in event-related potential (ERP) studies. Cerebral processing can also be studied with magnetoencephalography (MEG). With a whole-head MEG, which enables one to simultaneously measure brain activity in both hemispheres, we investigated whether early parallel auditory processing is impaired in schizophrenia. Sequences of tones were monaurally presented to schizophrenia patients and healthy controls in a passive condition, and the event-related magnetic fields were recorded simultaneously over both auditory cortices. The interhemispheric latency difference of the P50m, but not that of the N100m, was significantly shorter in the patient group in the right-ear but not in the left-ear stimulus condition. Further, the ipsilateral P50m was significantly earlier in schizophrenia patients in the right-ear condition. This result suggests that schizophrenia affects the consecutive preconscious auditory processing in a different manner. (+info)
(7/241) Genetic variants of dopamine receptor D4 and psychopathology.
There is much evidence to indicate that the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene is involved in psychiatric disorders. We investigated the correlation between DRD4 gene polymorphism and the psychopathology of major psychoses, independently of diagnoses. Some 461 inpatients affected by major psychoses were assessed by the Operational Criteria checklist for psychotic illness and typed for DRD4 variants. The four symptomatologic factors-mania, depression, delusion, and disorganization-were used as phenotype definitions. DRD4 Exon 3 long allele variants were associated with high delusional scores, with the most significant difference between alleles 2 and 7 (p = 0.004). DRD4 variants may, therefore, constitute a liability factor for development of delusional symptomatology in patients with major psychoses. (+info)
(8/241) X linked severe mental retardation, craniofacial dysmorphology, epilepsy, ophthalmoplegia, and cerebellar atrophy in a large South African kindred is localised to Xq24-q27.
To date over 150 X linked mental retardation (XLMR) conditions have been documented. We describe a five generation South African family with XLMR, comprising 16 affected males and 10 carrier females. The clinical features common to the 16 males included profound mental retardation (100%), mutism despite apparently normal hearing (100%), grand mal epilepsy (87.5%), and limited life expectancy (68.8%). Of the four affected males examined, all had mild craniofacial dysmorphology and three were noted to have bilateral ophthalmoplegia and truncal ataxia. Three of 10 obligate female carriers had mild mental retardation. Cerebellar and brain stem atrophy was shown by cranial imaging and postmortem examination. Linkage analysis shows the gene to be located between markers DXS424 (Xq24) and DXS548 (Xq27.3), with a maximum two point lod score of 3.10. (+info)