Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Dangerous Behavior: Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Drug-Seeking Behavior: Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Information Seeking Behavior: How information is gathered in personal, academic or work environments and the resources used.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Juvenile Delinquency: The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.United StatesPlay and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Courtship: Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Homing Behavior: Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Intention: What a person has in mind to do or bring about.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Self Mutilation: The act of injuring one's own body to the extent of cutting off or permanently destroying a limb or other essential part of a body.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Socialization: The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Schools: Educational institutions.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Education of Intellectually Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Mice, Inbred C57BLCocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Personality Development: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Stereotypic Movement Disorder: Motor behavior that is repetitive, often seemingly driven, and nonfunctional. This behavior markedly interferes with normal activities or results in severe bodily self-injury. The behavior is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. (DSM-IV, 1994)African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Dominance-Subordination: Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Token Economy: A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Immobility Response, Tonic: An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by complete loss of muscle strength.Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Housing, AnimalSocial Facilitation: Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.

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Animal-to-animal variability in neural circuit elements is often hidden under normal conditions, but becomes functionally ... play essential roles in the neural circuit underlying the swimming behavior. We found that there is animal-to-animal variation ... Given that the concept of animal-to-animal variability refers to the case where various combinations of many (non-linear) ... This makes the swimming behavior of this animal more vulnerable to disruption than one in which there is a fair degree of ...
https://elifesciences.org/articles/02598

*  SparkNotes: Animal Behavior: Orientation and Navigation: Problems

Home → SparkNotes → Biology Study Guides → Animal Behavior: Orientation and Navigation → Problems. Animal Behavior: Orientation ... Behaviors based on a daily cycle are called circadian. Month-based behaviors are called lunar and year-based behaviors are ... Lunar behaviors are often timed to tides. Circannual behaviors can be timed to seasonal temperature differences and the length ... An endogenous stimulus comes from within the body of an animal. An exogenous comes from the external environment of the animal ...
sparknotes.com/biology/animalbehavior/orientationandnavigation/problems_1.html

*  Perspectives on Animal Behavior 3rd Edition | Rent 9780470045176 | 0470045175

Perspectives on Animal Behavior. by Judith Goodenough, Elizabeth Jakob, Betty McGuire by Judith Goodenough, Elizabeth Jakob, ... Perspectives on Animal Behavior', published 2009 under ISBN 9780470045176 and ISBN 0470045175. ... It includes the topic animal awareness, and there is requisite background material on genetics and other basic molecular topics ...
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*  animal behavior ppt ap biology essay

AP Biology Lab 11: Animal Behavior Hypothesis development Poor: I... ... AP Biology Lab 11: Animal Behavior Hypothesis development Poor: I.... animal behavior ppt ap biology essay. animal behavior ... "ANIMAL BEHAVIOR "Molecules Gone Wild (Bio. AP Biology Lab 11: Animal Behavior Hypothesis development Animal Behavior - Download ... ap biology animal behavior lab handout; ap biology animal behavior lab. My menu. *Fast ...
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*  How can job stressors affect behavior and performance?

What are some potential job stressors that may affect you specifically? How can these stressors affect job behavior and ... human behavior, cognition, and affect, be used ... can organizations reduce workplace. stressors for employees ... equation is ... How can job stressors affect behavior and performance?. Add. Remove. Evaluate your current or previous employment. What are ... some potential job stressors that may affect you specifically? How can these stressors affect job behavior and performance? How ...
https://brainmass.com/psychology/stress-and-coping/job-stress-behavior-performance-316355

*  Can animal behavior predict weather?

Wheeling says she s not sure what the strange animal behavior means.. I don t want to think we ll have an open winter, she said ...
https://durangoherald.com/articles/45049-can-animal-behavior-predict-weather

*  Animal Behavior - Futility Closet

Futility Closet is a collection of entertaining curiosities in history, literature, language, art, philosophy, and mathematics, designed to help you waste time as enjoyably as possible.. You can read Futility Closet on the web, subscribe by RSS, or sign up to receive a free daily email -- see "Subscribe by Email" in the sidebar.. You can support us by telling your friends about us, leaving a review of the books or podcast on Amazon or iTunes, pledging to our Patreon campaign to support the podcast, or contributing directly via the Donate button in the sidebar above. Thanks!. ...
https://futilitycloset.com/2017/07/08/animal-behavior-4/

*  Comparative Animal Behavior - Drake University

The Comparative Animal Behavior concentration offers a coherent interdisciplinary program of study intended to prepare students ... PSY 127 - Behavior Genetics. (PSY 127 is cross-listed with BIO 107 and NSCI 127, therefore credits from any of those classes ... for employment or advanced study in fields including components of the behavior of captive animals and wildlife. These fields ... Comparative Animal Behavior. Available Options. Comparative Animal Behavior Concentration. Psychology department web site ...
drake.edu/catalog/undergrad/14-15/collegeofartsandsciences/areas/comparativeanimalbehavior/index.php

*  Animal Behavior Program | Bucknell University

Our animal behavior program combines both biology and psychology, gives students hands-on experience in both disciplines. ... Unlike animal science - a field associated with the use of animals for human needs - the study of animal behavior at Bucknell ... As an animal behavior major, you will work up close and personal with their subjects and often have opportunities to conduct ... Comparative Animal Cognition. Examine issues of nature/nurture, learning, development and adaptation, and learn about behaviors ...
https://bucknell.edu/AnimalBehavior

*  Animal Behavior & Conservation - MA - Hunter College

You are here: Home » Graduate Admissions » Program Requirements » School of Arts and Sciences » Social Sciences » Animal ... GRE scores are optional for those students who hold the Advanced Certificate in Animal Behavior and Conservation from Hunter ...
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*  Animal behavior expert Fred Provenza - ABC Rural - ABC News

Fred Provenza explains to Stephen Stockwell that there are several ways to broaden the diet of livestock
abc.net.au/news/rural/2013-05-02/fred-provenza/4664952?pfmredir=ms&pfm=sm

*  Particular Animal Behaviors

Particular Animal ...
bapd.org/links/particular-animal-behaviors.html

*  Understanding Animal Behavior DVD (NR)

Get your own DVD of this movie at SwapaDVD.com. If you're not yet a member, your first DVD and membership are free! All you have to do is post 10 DVDs you want to get rid of. Visit the site to find a huge selection of movies!
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*  Animal Behavior College

Offers dog training schools and animal trainer jobs. ... Animal Behavior College * 25104 Rye Canyon Loop * Santa Clarita ... Please be advised that Animal Behavior College ("ABC") is the exclusive entity authorized to provide certifications and/or ... degrees from Animal Behavior College. Moreover, such certifications and/or degrees are only conferred by ABC following a ...
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*  Animal Behavior College

Offers dog training schools and animal trainer jobs. ... While training under Animal Behavior College, I learned a lot ... I understand that submitting my information gives consent for Animal Behavior College to provide me with information and ... Please be advised that Animal Behavior College ("ABC") is the exclusive entity authorized to provide certifications and/or ... Animal Behavior College * 25104 Rye Canyon Loop * Santa Clarita, CA 91355-5004 ...
animalbehaviorcollege.com/dog_trainer_search_result.asp?State=Maryland

*  Animal Behavior Studies - Care2 Members who Love this Book

ANIMAL BEHAVIOR STUDIES:. 2 Members Love this Book I Love It too! See Our Favorite Books at Care2 ...
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*  Colleges with Animal Behavior and Ethology majors

... functional behavior, and applications to specific behaviors and patterns as well as to specific phyla and species. Is Animal ... Animal Behavior and Ethology Major. Description: A program that focuses on the scientific study of the psychological and ... neurological bases of animal sensation, perception, cognition, behavior, and behavioral interactions within and outside the ... Behavior and Ethology the right major for you?. Take the MyMajors Quiz and find out if it fits one of your top recommended ...
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*  Animal Behavior/Speciation - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

You can help by expanding this section of the Animal Behavior Book. In the meantime please consult Wikipedia on this subject. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=Animal_Behavior/Speciation&oldid=3251825" ... Animal Behavior/Speciation. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world. , Animal Behavior ...
https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Animal_Behavior/Speciation

*  Animal Behavior/Eusociality - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Social behavior: Behavior that relates to interactions with other members of the population. Pros/cons of group living. , ... Group Living, altruism, coorperative behaviors may emerge if genes for such characteristics are favored. This may occur under ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=Animal_Behavior/Eusociality&oldid=3251785" ... Reciprocal altruism where the benefits accrued to the individual exceed the costs it incurs Kin selection when behavior ...
https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Animal_Behavior/Eusociality

*  Animal behavior

... , Cat Behavior, Cat Bits & Bytes!, Litter box, New cat, Training Cats Tagged With: Cat Behavior, Cat Behavior ... Animal behavior, Cat Behavior, Cat Bits & Bytes!, Cats, Kittens, New cat, Uncategorized Tagged With: Cat Behavior, Cat Behavior ... Filed Under: Animal behavior, Cat Behavior, Cat Bits & Bytes!, Cats Tagged With: Cat Behavior, Cat Behaviorist, cat paws, cat ... Filed Under: Animal behavior, Cat Behavior, Cat Bits & Bytes!, Cats, Kittens, New cat, Uncategorized Tagged With: Cat Behavior ...
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*  Recent Articles | Animal Behavior And Culture | The Scientist Magazine®

tags: animal behavior x culture x The Scientist. » animal behavior and culture ...
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*  Animal Behavior Management Specialist Salaries in Atlanta, GA | Indeed.com

... "animal behavior management specialist"?. The average salary for 'animal behavior management specialist' ranges from ... Animal Behavior Management Specialist Salaries in Atlanta, GA. Salary estimated from 2,283 employees, users, and past and ...
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*  With Magnetic Nanoparticles, Scientists Remotely Control Neurons and Animal Behavior

... 07.07.2010 ... neurons and even animal behavior, according to a paper published by University at Buffalo physicists in Nature Nanotechnology. ... this research will help us unravel the signaling networks that control animal behavior," says Arnd Pralle, PhD, assistant ... Animal »Biomedical Science »Science TV »cell membrane »magnetic field »magnetic resonance imaging »nanoparticles »neurons » ...
innovations-report.com/html/reports/life-sciences/magnetic-nanoparticles-scientists-remotely-control-157623.html

*  Star Trek (2009) / Headscratchers - TV Tropes

Which is generally what you're advised not to do when faced with a predatory hunting animal. Basically the monster in ... Vulcan children have to be taught to rein in emotional behavior, it does not come automatically. So the bullies were actually ... You're complaining about a lack of adherence to actual military behavior? In a Star Trek movie? Really? ... if you're going to adhere to a demand for realistic military procedure of promotion and behavior to the point of making a ...
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*  The Awareness Center, Inc. (International Jewish Coaltion Against Sexual Assault): The Cruelest Crime - Sexual Abuse Of...

... criminal behavior and mental illness. The behavior we study always has a history of it in early childhood." Nothing can erase ... "Erica's eyeballs would roll back in her head, she would make nothing but animal noises and she was talking to another person ... Sexual behavior, however, is learned through role models and experience. Kinsey and others have found that many people have ... We've just got messed-up behavior." Married three times and an ex-Navy man, Rickey was convicted of abusing two boys, three and ...
theawarenesscenter.blogspot.com/1984/12/the-cruelest-crime-sexual-abuse-of.html

Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Sexual motivation and hormones: Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In most mammalian species, sex hormones control the ability to engage in sexual behaviours.Curiosity: Curiosity (from Latin curiosus "careful, diligent, curious," akin to cura "care") is a quality related to inquisitive thinking such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in human and animal species. Curiosity is heavily associated with all aspects of human development, in which derives the process of learning and desire to acquire knowledge and skill.Dog aggression: Dog aggression is a term used by dog owners and breeders to describe canine-to-canine antipathy. Aggression itself is usually defined by canine behaviorists as "the intent to do harm".Dutch profanity: Dutch profanity can be divided into several categories. Often, the words used in profanity by speakers of Dutch are based around various names for diseases.Disinhibition: In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania.Nest (protein structural motif): The Nest is a type of protein structural motif. Peptide nests are small anion-binding molecular features of proteins and peptides.Intraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.Exercise addiction: An exercise addiction can have harmful consequences although it is not listed as a disorder in the latest revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). This type of addiction can be classified under a behavioral addiction in which a person’s behavior becomes obsessive, compulsive, and/or causes dysfunction in a person's life.Barratt WaughSickness behavior: [Ancher 001.jpg|thumb|350px|right|Ancher, Michael], "The Sick Girl", 1882, [[Statens Museum for Kunst.Tales from the Dark Side Greatest Hits and Choice Collectables 1974–1997: Tales from the Dark Side Greatest Hits and Classic Collectables 1974-1997 is a compilation album by rock music group, Dragon, released in 1998. Disc one has the same track listing as Snake Eyes on the Paradise Greatest Hits 1976–1989, which was issued in the same year.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale: The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS),also known as the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale (BNAS),Kaplan, R. M.Charles Ottley Groom NapierInformation hypothesis of conditioned reinforcementTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingBehavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Hypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.Vortex ring toyMatrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==The Thrill Killers: The Thrill Killers is a horror/thriller film released in 1964 and directed by low-budget film-maker Ray Dennis Steckler. It stars Cash Flagg (Steckler under a nom de plume) and Liz Renay.Substance-related disorderInterpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).The great imitator: The Great Imitator is a phrase used for medical conditions that feature nonspecific symptoms and may be confused with a number of other diseases.J.Document-centric collaboration: Document-centric collaboration is a new approach to working together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at the centre of the process.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.History of psychopathy: Psychopathy, from psych (soul or mind) and pathy (suffering or disease), was coined by German psychiatrists in the 19th century and originally just meant what would today be called mental disorder, the study of which is still known as psychopathology. By the turn of the century 'psychopathic inferiority' referred to the type of mental disorder that might now be termed personality disorder, along with a wide variety of other conditions now otherwise classified.Walker (BEAM): In BEAM robotics, a walker is a walking machine that has a driven mode of locomotion by intermittent ground-contacting legs. They usually possess 1 to 12 (generally, three or less) motors.Cigarette smoking among college students: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.Reward system: The reward system is a group of neural structures that are critically involved in mediating the effects of reinforcement. A reward is an appetitive stimulus given to a human or some other animal to alter its behavior.Professional DiscLearning Plan: A Learning Plan is a document (possibly an interactive or on-line document) that is used to plan learning, usually over an extended period of time.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Texas Juvenile Justice Department: The Texas Juvenile Justice Department (TJJD) is a state agency in Texas, headquartered in the Braker H Complex in Austin.HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Olson's Extinction: Olson's Extinction was a mass extinction that occurred in the Early Guadalupian of the Permian period and which predated the Permian–Triassic extinction event.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Madrasi chess: Madrasi chess is a chess variant invented in 1979 by Abdul Jabbar Karwatkar which uses the conventional rules of chess with the addition that when a piece is attacked by a piece of the same type but opposite colour (for example, a black queen attacking a white queen) it is paralysed and becomes unable to move, capture or give check. Most of the time, two like pieces attack each other mutually, meaning they are both paralysed (en passant pawn captures are an exception to this, since the attack is not mutual.Avoidance reactionPunishmentSong control system: A song system, also known as a song control system (SCS), is a series of discrete brain nuclei involved in the production and learning of song in songbirds. It was first observed by Fernando Nottebohm in 1976 in a paper titled "Central control of song in the canary, Serinus canarius", published in the Journal of Comparative Neurology.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of special education. The editors-in-chief are Alisa K.Parent structure: In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.LifeStyles Condoms: LifeStyles Condoms is a brand of condom made by the Australian company Ansell Limited, previously known as Pacific Dunlop Limited.Anti-abortion violence: Anti-abortion violence is violence committed against individuals and organizations that provide abortion. Incidents of violence have included destruction of property, in the form of vandalism; crimes against people, including kidnapping, stalking, assault, attempted murder, and murder; and crimes affecting both people and property, including arson and bombings.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.

(1/16705) Effect of morphine and naloxone on priming-induced audiogenic seizures in BALB/c mice.

1 Morphine (1-200 mg/kg s.c.) reduced the incidence and prolonged the latency of priming-induced audiogenic siezures in a dose-dependent manner. 2 This effect was reversed by naloxone (1 and 2 mg/kg) although naloxone was itself inactive. 3 This priming-induces seizure model may be useful in the study of tolerance and physical dependence.  (+info)

(2/16705) A review of the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and behavioral effects of procaine in thoroughbred horses.

Since procaine has both local anaesthetic and central stimulant actions its presence in the blood or urine of racing horses is forbidden. After rapid intravenous injection of procaine HC1 (2.5 mg/Kg) in thoroughbred mares plasma levels of this drug fell rapidly (t 1/2 alpha = 5 min) and then more slowly (t 1/2 beta = 50.2 min). These kinetics were well fitted by a two compartment open model (Model I). This model gave an apparent Vdbeta for procaine in the horse of about 3,500 litres. Since procaine was about 45% bound to equine plasma protein this gives a true Vdbeta for procaine of about 6,500 litres. After subcutaneous injection of procaine HC1 (3.3 mg/Kg) plasma levels peaked at about 400 ng/ml and then declined with a half-life of about 75 minutes. These data were well fitted by Model I when this was modified to include simple first order absorption (K = 0.048 min-1) from the subcutaneous injection site (Model II). After intramuscular injection of procaine penicillin (33,000 I.U./Kg) plasma levels reached a peak at about 270 ng/ml and then declined with a half-life of about 9 hours. These data were approximately fitted by Model II assuming a first order rate constant for absorption of procaine of 0.0024 min-1. After intramuscular injection of procaine HC1 (10 mg/Kg) plasma levels of procaine peaked rapidly at about 600 ng/ml but thereafter declined slowly (+ 1/2 = 2 hours). A satisfactory pharmaco-kinetic model for this intramuscular data could not be developed. An approximation of these data was obtained by assuming the existence of two intramuscular drug compartments, one containing readily absorbable drug and the other poorly absorbable drug (Model III). After intra-articular administration of procaine (0.33 mg/Kg) plasma levels of this drug reached a peak at about 17 ng/ml and then declined with a half-life of about 2 hours. These data were not modelled.  (+info)

(3/16705) A genetic model of substrate deprivation therapy for a glycosphingolipid storage disorder.

Inherited defects in the degradation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) cause a group of severe diseases known as GSL storage disorders. There are currently no effective treatments for the majority of these disorders. We have explored a new treatment paradigm, substrate deprivation therapy, by constructing a genetic model in mice. Sandhoff's disease mice, which abnormally accumulate GSLs, were bred with mice that were blocked in their synthesis of GSLs. The mice with simultaneous defects in GSL synthesis and degradation no longer accumulated GSLs, had improved neurologic function, and had a much longer life span. However, these mice eventually developed a late-onset neurologic disease because of accumulation of another class of substrate, oligosaccharides. The results support the validity of the substrate deprivation therapy and also highlight some limitations.  (+info)

(4/16705) Competitive mechanisms subserve attention in macaque areas V2 and V4.

It is well established that attention modulates visual processing in extrastriate cortex. However, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. A consistent observation is that attention has its greatest impact on neuronal responses when multiple stimuli appear together within a cell's receptive field. One way to explain this is to assume that multiple stimuli activate competing populations of neurons and that attention biases this competition in favor of the attended stimulus. In the absence of competing stimuli, there is no competition to be resolved. Accordingly, attention has a more limited effect on the neuronal response to a single stimulus. To test this interpretation, we measured the responses of neurons in macaque areas V2 and V4 using a behavioral paradigm that allowed us to isolate automatic sensory processing mechanisms from attentional effects. First, we measured each cell's response to a single stimulus presented alone inside the receptive field or paired with a second receptive field stimulus, while the monkey attended to a location outside the receptive field. Adding the second stimulus typically caused the neuron's response to move toward the response that was elicited by the second stimulus alone. Then, we directed the monkey's attention to one element of the pair. This drove the neuron's response toward the response elicited when the attended stimulus appeared alone. These findings are consistent with the idea that attention biases competitive interactions among neurons, causing them to respond primarily to the attended stimulus. A quantitative neural model of attention is proposed to account for these results.  (+info)

(5/16705) Neural changes after operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea stagnalis.

In this study, we demonstrate neural changes that occurred during operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior of Lymnaea stagnalis. Aerial respiration in Lymnaea occurs at the water interface and is achieved by opening and closing movements of its respiratory orifice, the pneumostome. This behavior is controlled by a central pattern generator (CPG), the neurons of which, as well as the motoneurons innervating the pneumostome, have previously been identified and their synaptic connections well characterized. The respiratory behavior was operantly conditioned by applying a mechanical stimulus to the open pneumostome whenever the animal attempted to breathe. This negative reinforcement to the open pneumostome resulted in its immediate closure and a significant reduction in the overall respiratory activity. Electrophysiological recordings from the isolated CNSs after operant conditioning showed that the spontaneous patterned respiratory activity of the CPG neurons was significantly reduced. This included reduced spontaneous activity of the CPG interneuron involved in pneumostome opening (input 3 interneuron) and a reduced frequency of spontaneous tonic activity of the CPG interneuron [right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1)]. The ability to trigger the patterned respiratory activity by electrical stimulation of RPeD1 was also significantly reduced after operant conditioning. This study therefore demonstrates significant changes within a CPG that are associated with changes in a rhythmic homeostatic behavior after operant conditioning.  (+info)

(6/16705) Neural encoding in orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala during olfactory discrimination learning.

Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is part of a network of structures involved in adaptive behavior and decision making. Interconnections between OFC and basolateral amygdala (ABL) may be critical for encoding the motivational significance of stimuli used to guide behavior. Indeed, much research indicates that neurons in OFC and ABL fire selectively to cues based on their associative significance. In the current study recordings were made in each region within a behavioral paradigm that allowed comparison of the development of associative encoding over the course of learning. In each recording session, rats were presented with novel odors that were informative about the outcome of making a response and had to learn to withhold a response after sampling an odor that signaled a negative outcome. In some cases, reversal training was performed in the same session as the initial learning. Ninety-six of the 328 neurons recorded in OFC and 60 of the 229 neurons recorded in ABL exhibited selective activity during evaluation of the odor cues after learning had occurred. A substantial proportion of those neurons in ABL developed selective activity very early in training, and many reversed selectivity rapidly after reversal. In contrast, those neurons in OFC rarely exhibited selective activity during odor evaluation before the rats reached the criterion for learning, and far fewer reversed selectivity after reversal. The findings support a model in which ABL encodes the motivational significance of cues and OFC uses this information in the selection and execution of an appropriate behavioral strategy.  (+info)

(7/16705) Complete compensation in skilled reaching success with associated impairments in limb synergies, after dorsal column lesion in the rat.

Each of the dorsal columns of the rat spinal cord conveys primary sensory information, by way of the medullary dorsal column nucleus, to the ventrobasal thalamus on the contralateral side; thus the dorsal columns are an important source of neural input to the sensorimotor cortex. Damage to the dorsal columns causes impairments in synergistic proximal or whole-body movements in cats and distal limb impairments in primates, particularly in multiarticulated finger movements and tactile foviation while handling objects, but the behavioral effects of afferent fiber lesions in the dorsal columns of rodents have not been described. Female Long-Evans rats were trained to reach with a forelimb for food pellets and subsequently received lesions of the dorsomedial spinal cord at the C2 level, ipsilateral to their preferred limb. Reaching success completely recovered within a few days of dorsal column lesion. Nevertheless, a detailed analysis of high-speed video recordings revealed that rotatory limb movements (aiming, pronation, supination, etc.) were irreversibly impaired. Compensation was achieved with whole-body and alternate limb movements. These results indicate the following: (1) in the absence of the dorsal columns, other sensorimotor pathways support endpoint success in reaching; (2) sensory input conveyed by the dorsal columns is important for both proximal and distal limb movements used for skilled reaching; and (3) detailed behavioral analyses in addition to endpoint measures are necessary to completely describe the effects of dorsal column lesions.  (+info)

(8/16705) High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice.

Semipurified diets incorporating either perilla oil [high in alpha-linolenate, 18:3(n-3)] or safflower oil [high in linoleate, 18:2(n-6)] were fed to senescence-resistant SAMR1 mouse dams and their pups. Male offspring at 15 mo were examined using behavioral tests. In the open field test, locomotor activity during a 5-min period was significantly higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group. Observations of the circadian rhythm (48 h) of spontaneous motor activity indicated that the safflower oil group was more active than the perilla oil group during the first and second dark periods. The total number of responses to positive and negative stimuli was higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group in the light and dark discrimination learning test, but the correct response ratio was lower in the safflower oil group. The difference in the (n-6)/(n-3) ratios of the diets reflected the proportions of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids, rather than those of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain total fatty acids, and in the proportions of (n-6) and (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the total polyunsaturated fatty acids of the brain phospholipids. These results suggest that in SAMR1 mice, the dietary alpha-linolenate/linoleate balance affects the (n-6)/(n-3) ratio of brain phospholipids, and this may modify emotional reactivity and learning ability.  (+info)



responses


  • Moreover, it is unclear whether animal models that assess responses to inescapable novelty are homologous to self-reported novelty seeking in humans. (jneurosci.org)
  • On the other hand, in mice and rats, activation or inactivation of the MCH system does not affect stereotyped behaviors, dopamine-related responses that depend on the activity of the nigrostriatal pathway. (nih.gov)

drug


  • Novelty-seeking personality traits are a major risk factor for the development of drug abuse and other unsafe behaviors. (jneurosci.org)