Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Dangerous Behavior: Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Drug-Seeking Behavior: Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Information Seeking Behavior: How information is gathered in personal, academic or work environments and the resources used.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Juvenile Delinquency: The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.United StatesPlay and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Courtship: Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Homing Behavior: Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Intention: What a person has in mind to do or bring about.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Self Mutilation: The act of injuring one's own body to the extent of cutting off or permanently destroying a limb or other essential part of a body.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Socialization: The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Schools: Educational institutions.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Education of Intellectually Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Mice, Inbred C57BLCocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Personality Development: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Stereotypic Movement Disorder: Motor behavior that is repetitive, often seemingly driven, and nonfunctional. This behavior markedly interferes with normal activities or results in severe bodily self-injury. The behavior is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. (DSM-IV, 1994)African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Dominance-Subordination: Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Token Economy: A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Immobility Response, Tonic: An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by complete loss of muscle strength.Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Housing, AnimalSocial Facilitation: Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.

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New brain research proves doctors like Cohen are onto something: Pessimism can override the effectiveness of even powerful treatments.

*  "Maternal social competence, mothers' social management behavior, and c" by Mitchell Jay Prinstein

Investigated maternal social competence and mothers' social management behavior as factors that may influence the development of children's social competence:. Also, developed and tested a conceptual, mediational model in which mothers' and children's social competence are related via mothers social management behavior. Participants included 78 kindergarten children (42 girls, 36 boys) and their mothers. Mothers completed an assessment of social skills and social frames during home-based interviews as measures of their own social competence. Phone-based logs of mothers' parenting behavior during children's social contacts provided an assessment of the number of children's social contacts, the frequencies of mother- and child-initiated contacts, mothers' initiation and monitoring styles. Finally, an assessment of children's social competence included mother-rated social skills and school-based peer ratings and nominations. Greater levels of mothers' social ...

*  US Government Social Engineering Exposed: OSD Human Social Behavior Modeling Program, page 3

He came up with an algorithm that could take prior behaviors, on the individual level, and predict future behaviors. Problem with it was, we couldn't get it to be anywhere near accurate on individual levels. But on the macro, 100 agent level it was up to 95% with only about 2 months of data to go from. We had to mothball the project before really getting to do much with it when the company did its annual 4th quarter budget crisis. We averaged, over the last 7 days that we were alpha testing, about 90% overall accuracy in predicting both the length of absence, and the time incurred when measured on agent groups of at least 100 (it didn't give much more improvement when we doubled the sample size, with around 100 or so seeming to be where the sharp bell curve levelled out ...

*  In Search of the Social Brain - Association for Psychological Science

What are the biological underpinnings of human social behavior? Is it possible for brain research to provide the same degree of insight into human interaction that it recently has into more solitary …

*  Thermal markers of social categorization | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

Members of highly social species decode, interpret, and react to the emotion of a conspecific depending on whether the other belongs to the same (ingroup) or different (outgroup) social group. While studies indicate that consciously perceived emotional stimuli drive social categorization, information about how implicit emotional stimuli and specific physiological signatures affect social categorization is lacking. We addressed this issue by exploring whether subliminal and supraliminal affective priming can influence the categorization of neutral faces as ingroup versus outgroup. Functional infrared thermal imaging was used to investigate whether the effect of affective priming on the categorization decision was moderated by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). During the subliminal condition, we found that stronger SNS activation after positive or negative affective primes induced ingroup and outgroup face categorization, respectively. The exact opposite pattern (i.e. ...

*  Citizen Centre : Social organizations, consumer forums - Government Organization: RTO, Civic Centre, Passport office - Citizen...

Pune: Social Organizations,civic activities,puneites-A whole lot of information right from social organisations to social and civic issues

*  eScienceCommons: January 2014

We believe this is the most comprehensive study yet of how the rearrangement of a chromosome affects social behavior in a vertebrate," says Brent Horton, a post-doctoral fellow in the Maney lab and lead author of the study. "So much of the process of genetic discovery is restricted behind closed doors in a laboratory. But our study began in the woods, where we first observed the social behaviors of the actual subjects of our experiments in their natural setting. The results provide valuable insight into the mechanistic basis of aggression and parenting in all vertebrates, including humans ...

*  Cj's Instructional Systems Design Blog: October 2013

More recently, applications of neuroscience have given us another reason to consider peer teaching as a useful strategy. Prof. Matthew Lieberman author of the book "Social, Why Our Brains Are Wired to Connect" has been making the circuits with the like of webinars and NPR's Science Friday (3) sharing the results on how our brain functions in response to socially oriented environmental situations. Our social brain has high motivational factors and even a specialized social memory. Dr. Lieberman shares that, when activated, "social motivations to learn" results in more inclusive learning with longer retention, using areas of the social brain. ...

*  Patients With Large Social Network Recover Early After Surgery

A strong social network can help in reducing the pain and anxiety prior to having a surgical procedure and the postoperative recovery.

*  communication | social behaviour |

communication: The exchange of meanings between individuals through a common system of symbols. This article treats the functions, types, and psychology of communication. For a treatment of animal...

*  Easy Ways to Incorporate Sensory/Therapy Fun into Your Summer - Children's Therapy Works

Even if your child is enrolled in activities this summer like a camp, social skills group, or just playdates. A lot of sensory needs and therapy techniques can be included in these environments. Social group and activities are great for working on attention, sequencing steps, modeling age appropriate behaviors, and increase confidence. Social groups are also a great way to work on tolerating social and increased auditory sensory situations.. P.S. Here at Children's Therapy Works we offer Social Skill Groups during the summer and year round!. Hope this helps with planning some summer activities that are fun and therapy based. Comment and let us know if you plan on incorporating any these into your summer schedule.. Marjorie J. Louis, MSOT, OTR/L. ...

*  Economy Sizzles But Edmonton's Social Health Not as Hot: Social Planning Council Releases New Publication Tracking Social Trends

The Edmonton Social Planning Council (ESPC) is an independent, non-profit, charitable organization. Our focus is social research, particularly in the areas of homelessness, low income and poverty.

*  I-Pari: do you wanna drink a peg?

Many may argue in favour of liquor by calling themselves 'social drinkers'. They claim that they only have one or two pegs and they have self-control and so never get intoxicated. Investigations reveal that every alcoholic started as a social drinker. Not a single alcoholic or drunkard initially starts drinking with the intention of becoming an alcoholic or a drunkard. No social drinker can say that I have been having alcohol for several years and that I have so much self-control that I have never been intoxicated even a single time. ...

*  Teen Sex Rates Stop Falling, Data Show

The long decline in sexual activity among U.S. teenagers, hailed as one of the nation's most important social and public health successes, appears to have stalled.

*  Recruiting for values and behaviours in social care

Recruiting people with the right values, behaviours and attitudes will help you find workers who perform well and are likely to stay. We have lots of resources to help social care employers find people who are the right fit for the sector.

*  Social factors affect acceptance of sustainable technologies | Scitech | The Earth Times

Social factors influence local farmers' willingness to accept sustainable technologies, a Stanford study shows. Local farmers may only accept sustainable and more cost-efficient methods if trusted resources promote the new methods.

*  ConnectYard Releases Blackboard Building Block to Boost Community and Social Networking

WAYNE, N.J., June 2 /PRNewswire/ -- ConnectYard Releases Blackboard Building Block to Boost Community and Social Networking Applications for the...

*  Measure the value of social with the Conversions report

Join Brad Batesole for an in-depth discussion in this video Measure the value of social with the Conversions report, part of Google Analytics Essential Training

*  5 Principles Of B2B Lead Generation | A Social,...

The B2B Lead Generation Manifesto
#1. Thou Shalt Create Valuable Content
#2. Thou Shalt Optimize Your Lead Gen Pages
#3. Thou Shalt Market After the Conversion
#4 - Thou Shalt Embrace the Mobile Market
#5. Thou Shalt Nurture Your Leads

Follow these 5 principles and you'll start seeing an improvement in your B2B lead generation conversion rates.

Source. | A Social, Tech, Market, Geek addicted

*  sub>urban 'Transforming for Social Inclusion' - Transnational meeting Düsseldorf |...

The 4th transnational meeting of the network sub|urban will be hosted in Düsseldorf from October 9 - 11. Central topic is: 'Transforming for Social Inclusion'.üsseldorf

*  20+ Social Networking Themes on ThemeForest

Save yourself the hard work of finding great items and discover items recommended by JoshuaSprague in their collection, 20+ Social Networking Themes.

*  Boyfriends, Girlfriends and Teenagers' Risk of Sexual Involvement - Marín - 2006 - Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive...

CONTEXT: Having a boyfriend or girlfriend, especially an older one, is associated with increased sexual risk in early adolescence. The mechanisms underlying this association are unclear.. METHODS: Middle school students in Northern California were surveyed annually from 1997 to 2000. For a sample of 1,214 males and 1,308 females who were sexually inexperienced in seventh grade, logistic and linear regression were used to explore associations between relationship status in seventh grade and sexual activity in ninth grade, controlling for sixth-grade and eighth-grade characteristics.. RESULTS: Males who had had a girlfriend their age by seventh grade were more likely than those who had had no relationship to report sexual activity in ninth grade (odds ratio, 2.1). Similarly, for females, the odds of being sexually active in ninth grade were elevated among those who had had a boyfriend their age (2.9); however, they also were higher among those who had had an older boyfriend than among those who ...

*  High-risk Sexual Behavior Adolescents Attract Peers With Similar Attitudes ( High-risk sexual behavior in adolescent...)

Health,High-risk sexual behavior in adolescents appears to be influenced by t... The study addressed issues of peer influence. Researchers sough... The study analyzed data on 1350 15- to 18-year-old male and fe... Some of the study's findings showed that peers influence adoles... Other findings showed that adolescents choose new friends with ...,High-risk,Sexual,Behavior,Adolescents,Attract,Peers,With,Similar,Attitudes,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news

*  Adolescent Clinical Sexual Behavior- Parent Report

The ACSBI is a screening measure designed for clinical populations to assess sex-related behaviors that might suggest a need for intervention. It assesses sexual risk taking, nonconforming sexual behaviors, sexual interest, and sexual avoidance/discomfort. The ACSBI is based on the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory, a widely used measure of child sexual behavior for children aged 2-10, which is also reviewed in this database. Although the measure is psychometrically young and in need of some revision, it is an important measure in that risky and unsafe sexual behaviors are important to assess in adolescents, especially those with histories of sexual abuse. There are two versions of the ACSBI, a parent-report version (ACSBI-P) and an adolescent self-report version (ACSBI-S). Both are reviewed in this database.. ...

*  Nigerian Sexual Health Blog: the Risks of Having Multiple Sex Partners

Hepatitis C. Having multiple sex partners significantly increases your risk of contracting a serious whole body infection. This is an infection that is not confined to the genital. The most common disease in this category is Hepatitis C. Hepatitis C is a viral infection that damages the liver. It is the number one cause of liver transplantation in the United States, a major risk factor for both liver scarring and liver cancer, and can only be cured in 50 percent of affected people. The treatment is painful and intensive. Pills and shots are given. The treatment has many side effects, specifically fatigue, nausea, anemia, and headache. ...

*  "Outness as a protective factor against risky sex in gay males" by Margaret Levicoff

Homosexual men between the ages of 15 and 25 constitute a disproportionate majority of new sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, worldwide (Harper, 2007). Men who have sex with men (MSM) more frequently engage in riskier health behaviors, such as drinking, substance use, and risky sexual practices than their heterosexual counterparts (Hamilton & Mahalik, 2009). The current study sampled 150 self-identified homosexual men between the ages of 18 through 30 to assess whether or not level of outness influenced the likelihood of an individual to engage in risky sexual behaviors. Participants completed an online survey that measured each individual's level of outness, mental health symptoms, likelihood to engage in risky sexual behavior, and likelihood to suffer from alcohol and drug abuse. A linear regression did not yield a significant relationship between outness and risky sexual behavior. Linear regressions and ...

*  My boyfriend and I have recently had unprotected sex | Ask The Doctor

My boyfriend and I have recently had unprotected sex for the first time, the next day I noticed a vaginal odor and a little discharge I now have a little bit of itchiness and redness. I have had a couple yeast infections in the past and I

*  SEXUAL PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS | American Academy of Pediatrics | Pediatrics

ACCURATE DATA on teenage sexual behavior is difficult to obtain. Only a small proportion of the problem behavior comes to the attention of the juvenile courts, and schools usually prefer to direct little attention to sexual behavior among students. To equip professionals in the health fields to cope with contemporary problems of American youth, more attention should be directed toward studying deviant sexual behavior, especially homosexuality, drugs, use of contraceptives, sex education, and venereal disease in teenagers. Since most teenage problems related to identification and sexual behavior have their genesis in early childhood, the family physician plays an important role in promoting optimum childrearing practices and identifying potentially problematic behavior.. THE NEED FOR RESEARCH. There is a limited amount of valid scientific knowledge regarding the sexual behavior of ...

*  Medicated sex in Britain: evidence from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles | Sexually Transmitted...

We found that ever use of medication to assist sexual performance was much more common among men than women; men were over six times more likely to report ever having medicated sex (12.9% vs 1.9%). Although women reporting medicated sex tended to be younger and men to be older, ever use of medication was associated with recent use of other drugs (alcohol, cigarettes, recreational drugs), recent unsafe sex, same-sex sex and low overall sexual function in both genders. Use of medication in the last year is higher among men reporting ED, 28.4%, compared with 4.1% among men without difficulties, but at a population level, the proportion of medication users who do and do not report ED is similar. We found that recent use of medication increased with age in both groups of men, but low interest in sex was only associated with medication use in men without ED. Among men, medicated sex in the last year was associated with higher levels of sexual activity and a range of risk-related behaviours, and these ...

*  Behavior Data Systems-Research|Adolescent Chemical Dependency Inventory (ACDI) is designed for individuals new to testing, practitioners who need help finding a test, existing users looking for concise and current research on BDS tests, and researchers. Visitors can find information about individual tests, download copies of articles and inventories of scientific findings, learn more about the importance of using psychometrically sound tools, as well as read examples of how some tests have been used in clinical practice.

*  Behavior Data Systems-Research|Sexual Adjustment Inventory (SAI) is designed for individuals new to testing, practitioners who need help finding a test, existing users looking for concise and current research on BDS tests, and researchers. Visitors can find information about individual tests, download copies of articles and inventories of scientific findings, learn more about the importance of using psychometrically sound tools, as well as read examples of how some tests have been used in clinical practice.

*  The Pervocracy: From this month's "Glamour."

While good general advice for anyone who isn't in a "definitely exclusive since last STI test" relationship, I don't think it was meant that way. There's a reason it was this and not "and remember to always wear a seatbelt!" And there's a reason that women who write in about "my boyfriend slept with another woman" usually don't get this advice, at least not as a first line. (Note that the letter writer doesn't say this experimentation took place during their relationship, and now consider the likelihood that any woman saying "my boyfriend slept with another woman, at some point in his life" would get this advice ...

*  Boyfriend of 9 months is still keeping me a secret to avoid conflict with ex and his family, I forgot for a moment and posted...

ME: early 20's, him late 20's, relationship, 9 months. So my significant other doesnt want to acknowledge our relationship publically and it...

*  WYOO Secret Breastfeeding - BabyCentre

So you are considering giving up, and your partner realy wants you to, so you agree... but then continue to BF (breastfeed, or boyfriend) in secret. WYOO?

*  Shop girl battered for rejecting revellers' advances | Daily Star

A SHOP girl has been left too scared to go out alone after two men who tried to chat her up battered her when she told them she already had a boyfriend.

*  Queensland mum is scared daughter Bianca Girvin's killer may be freed | Daily Mail Online

Sonia Anderson's daughter, Bianca Girvin, 22, was choked to death by her boyfriend Rhys Austin near the Mount Gravatt lookout in Brisbane's south on March 30, 2010.

*  Free hot mom tubes -

Free hot mom tubes, michelle christy escort. Couple , Vaginal Sex , Oral Sex , Black-haired , Small Tits , Caucasian , Blowjob , Shaved , Skinny , Cum Shot , Big Cock , Facial , MILF , HD ,..

*  Data from: Visual effects in great bowerbird sexual displays and their implications for signal design - Dryad

It is often assumed that the primary purpose of a male's sexual display is to provide information about quality, or to strongly stimulate prospective mates, but other functions of courtship displays have been relatively neglected. Male great bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus nuchalis) construct bowers that exploit the female's predictable field of view (FOV) during courtship displays by creating forced perspective illusions, and the quality of illusion is a good predictor of mating success. Here, we present and discuss two additional components of male courtship displays that use the female's predetermined viewpoint: (i) the rapid and diverse flashing of coloured objects within her FOV and (ii) chromatic adaptation of the female's eyes that alters her perception of the colour of the displayed objects. Neither is directly related to mating success, but both are likely to increase signal efficacy, and may also be associated with attracting and holding the female's attention. Signal efficacy is ...

*  Data from: Impact of cryptic female choice on insemination success: larger sized and longer copulating male squid ejaculate...

In polyandrous mating systems, sperm competition and cryptic female choice (CFC) are well recognized as postcopulatory evolutionary forces. However, it remains challenging to separate CFC from sperm competition and to estimate how much CFC influences insemination success because those processes usually occur inside the female's body. The Japanese pygmy squid, Idiosepius paradoxus, is an ideal species in which to separate CFC from sperm competition because sperm transfer by the male and sperm displacement by the female can be observed directly at an external location on the female's body. Here, we counted the number of spermatangia transferred to, removed from, and remaining on the female body during single copulation episodes. We measured behavioral and morphological characteristics of the male, such as duration of copulation and body size. Although males with larger body size and longer copulation time were capable of transferring larger amounts of sperm, females preferentially eliminated ...

*  Sexual selection in flies: a comparison of Drosophila simulans and D. melanogaster » Brill Online

The traditional view of sexual selection via female mate choice is that female preference for certain males either has no net fitness cost or is beneficial to overall female fitness. A more contemporary view is that preferred males can at times reduce female fitness. This view has arisen from the realisation that conflict between the sexes is an inevitable feature of sexual reproduction, as each sex necessarily has a different agenda for maximizing fitness. Despite the hailing of sexual conflict as a paradigm shift and its prevalence in the recent sexual selection literature, compelling evidence that attractive males reduce female fitness remains taxonomically restricted. Here we review the findings of a series of investigations into the fitness consequences of female preference in the fly Drosophila simulans and compare them with its sibling species, D. melanogaster. We show that there are stark differences in the fitness consequences of mating with preferred males in the two species and discuss this

*  Progestin Signals through DARPP | Science Signaling

Female sexual receptivity in mice and rats is mediated by the progestin receptors. Mani et al. found that antisense nucleotides to DARPP-32, a dopamine- and cAMP-regulated protein, as well as DARPP-32 knockout mice, demonstrated decreased sexual receptivity in response to stimulation of progestin receptors or dopamine receptors. The data suggest that the dopamine and progestin pathways converge at the level of DARPP-32 to regulate sexual receptivity. Mani, S.K., Feinberg, A.A., O'Callaghan, J.P., Snyder, G.L., Allen, P.B., Dash, P.K., Moore, A.N., Mitchell, A.J., Bibb, J., Greengard, P., and O'Malley, B.W. (2000) Requirement for DARPP-32 in progesterone-facilitated sexual receptivity in female rats and mice. Science 287: 1053-1056. [Abstract] [Full Text]. ...

*  sexual motivation |

sexual motivation: The impulse to gratify sexual needs, either through direct sexual activity or through apparently unrelated activities (sublimation). The term libido was coined by Sigmund Freud...

*  Female promiscuity in primates: When do women have multiple partners?

It was a moment that smashed assumptions with the force of a wrecking ball. She approached the sexy older male who seemed to arrive from out of nowhere ...

*  3 Weirdest Animal Sexual Behaviors in the World |

Discover the top 3 nastiest and deadliest animal sexual behaviors in the world. From Hypo to parrot, for these animals sex is synonymous with pain and death

*  Male Sexual Behavior | Technology News, Latest Gadget Reviews, Gaming and Tech

Today, many people are aware of androgenic steroids, especially the actor or athlete who want to boost up their performance suddenly and effectively well. But not everyone clearly understands what the steroids are and how they perform. Actually, the term […]. ...

*  Copulation synonyms, copulation antonyms -

Synonyms for copulation in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for copulation. 27 synonyms for copulation: sexual intercourse, love, sex, lovemaking, the other, coupling, congress, mating, intimacy, sex act, nookie, coitus.... What are synonyms for copulation?

*  CBS Orders Comedy Pilot 'Good Session' | Variety

CBS has ordered a single-camera comedy pilot, 'Good Session,' with John Hamburg at the helm and he and Matt Miller co-writing/exec producing. The show focuses on a happy couple who attends a therapist to see if they should have a baby, but quickly discovers they have more to discuss.

*  July 2017 - Calories Counter… Posted by sabrebiade on 2012-09-04 13:01:29 Tagged: , Cory Everson , female fitness models…. ...

*  Re: Who are you? | Big Think

|a href='user/whitman-moore'||/a|I have grown in this existence to listen. This is the crux for any and all professional and personal interaction. True listening eventually provides all knowledge for consideration. This is beyond claiming or potentially being a 'good listener' This is the 'why' not understood, before the ...

*  Immature 12 year old - Child Behavior - MedHelp

I have a 12 year old girl. She has been struggling socially, due to the fact that she is much more immature than the other children her age. She has a 9 year old brother and a 4 year old sister. She...

*  Smart Child - Bad behavior - Child Behavior - MedHelp

My son will be 8 years old this week. He is extremely bright, making straight A's in every subject. His problem is his lack of control. He is disruptive in every class - PE, Music, regular class - e...

*  my son refuses to 'poop' - Child Behavior - MedHelp

My 4 yr old son also refuses to 'poop' on the toilet.. he crosses his legs all the time and holds in in!! Ive been to the dr.and the. pediatrition.!! and also have a child psycolgist come see him onc...

*  4yr old Preschooler Behavioral Concerns - Child Behavior - MedHelp

I had my first parent-teacher conference for my four-year old and it didn't go very well. Her teacher indicated she has a hard time transitioning at times, and during these times she will get mad and ...

*  I think my son is a sociopath. - Child Behavior - MedHelp

My son A is now 6 years old , the second boy of three . Upon birth it was apparent that A was 'different ' or 'odd' in some way ( others commented upon this as well ) although I could never put my fing...

*  America's Child Sex Trafficking Victim | HuffPost

Contrary to popular belief, many of America's child sex trafficking victims were never part of our foster care system. Many grew up in such horrific cir...

*  Data from: The correlation between colouration and exploration behaviour varies across hierarchical levels in a wild passerine...

IIn vertebrates, darker individuals are often found to be more active and willing to take risks (representing characteristics of a 'proactive' coping style), whereas lighter individuals are instead more cautious and less active (representing characteristics of a 'reactive' coping style). It is thus generally expected that melanin-based colouration and proactivity form a suite of positively integrated traits at the among-individual level. Here we use a multi-generational pedigree of free-living great tits (Parus major) to partition variation in, and the correlation between, melanin-based breast stripe ('tie') size and exploration behaviour (a proxy for coping style) into its among- and within-individual components. We show that both traits harbour heritable variation. Against predictions, tie size and speed of exploration were negatively correlated at the among-individual level due to the combined influences of permanent environmental and additive genetic effects. By contrast, the two traits were ...

*  Draw Curiosity - A place to stimulate your curiosity for science!

Draw Curiosity is a science website run by Inés Dawson from the University of Oxford, covering a range of topics from Biology to Mathematics, there is always something new to be learnt!

*  A Return to Promoting Breastfeeding as an Experience | Childbirth Solutions

by Ted Greiner, PhD I imagine LLL brought me here as something of a curiosity. First, in today's efforts to achieve gender balance in everything, I certainly have an edge in the breastfeeding world. Second, as an American I have […]

*  Items in The UK Novelty Dollar Shop store on eBay !

Buy The UK Novelty Dollar Shop items on eBay. Find a huge selection of items and get what you want today The UK Novelty Dollar Shop items - Get great deals on items on eBay Stores!

*  Abdominal exploration. Causes, symptoms, treatment Abdominal exploration

Description of disease Abdominal exploration. Treatment Abdominal exploration. Symptoms and causes Abdominal exploration Prophylaxis Abdominal exploration

*  Normal Adolescent Behavior - Wikipedia

Normal Adolescent Behavior é um filme dramático de 2007 escrito e realizado por Beth Schacter. O filme fez parte da selecção oficial do Tribeca Film Festival. JoBlo (em inglês) Normal Adolescent Behavior Sítio oficial do Tribeca Film Festival (em inglês ...

*  Parental Influences on Adolescent Problem Behavior: Revisiting Stattin and Kerr - PDF

Child Development, May/June 2004, Volume 75, Number 3, Pages Influences on Adolescent Problem Behavior: Revisiting Stattin and Kerr Anne C. Fletcher, Laurence Steinberg, and Meeshay Williams-Wheeler

*  THE ATTRIBUTES OF ADULTHOOD RECOGNISED BY ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS - Polish Psychological Bulletin - Volume 39, Issue 3 (2008) -...

The article has made an attempt to identify the ways in which adolescents and adults see the process of 'transitioning into adulthood' and what attributes they think are necessary for an adult person to possess. The problem of 'becoming an adult' has been portrayed in the broader context of parent-adolescent relation development. Research by Smetana (1988) has cast some light on a possible source of the conflict: differences in understanding social situations and the role of authority figures by adolescents and their parents. In contemporary society there are no unquestionable determinants of adulthood, a fact very conducive to intergenerational conflict. In the current study two groups of adolescents (15- and 18-year-olds) and a group of adults (38 to 56-year-olds) were examined using a questionnaire by J. J. Arnett (1997) The Attributes of Adulthood. The results show marked uniformity among subjects as to the choice of 'adulthood' characteristics. They point to ...

*  Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (12th-Grade Survey), 2011

... (ICPSR 34409) Alternate Title: MTF 2011 ( ...[0]=drug education&paging.startRow=1

*  Adolescent unit closes following inspection | Community Care

The commission applied for an emergency order to close the Harleston unit. But Mild Professional Homes, which owns St Luke's Hospital, decided not to go to court and the company has voluntarily agreed to the closure of the unit ...

*  Plus it

Most parents (27/45, 60%) wanted service support for their children. The only significant influence on this desire was the mental state of the child, specifically externalising behaviour (above or below the median: P=0.03) and total problem scores (above or below the median:P=0.05). Of those parents whose children were probably psychiatrically disturbed, 82% (9 of 11) would have liked support compared with 53% (18 of 34) of parents whose children were not psychiatrically disturbed (P=0.07). Similarly, 90% (9 of 10) of parents whose children were rated by teachers as probably psychiatrically disturbed desired support compared with only 55%11 of those not so rated (P=0.06). The manner of parental death did not influence whether surviving parents wanted support for their children (P=0.7), neither did parental mental health scores when forced into a logistic regression before child total problem scores (P=0.1).. Overall, 22 parents (49%) were offered support for their children. Of those wanting ...

*  Daily dose for kids: May 2014

Consistent with findings among adolescents in Norway and US, high soft drink consumption is positively related to behavior problems in children age 5 years. The study is important because of its large sample size and ability to adjust for a range of confounding factors. The study's findings are supported by existing evidence. In addition to the chemicals in soft drinks mentioned by the authors, phthalates from plastic packaging may also explain the link. A high maternal prenatal urinary phthalates level is associated with child behavior problems at age 3 years. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey suggest that there is an association between phthalates and attention deficit disorder in children. High consumption of soft drinks among young children is of great concern and supports focusing attention towards reducing consumption. ...

*  Working Memory, Attention, Inhibition, and Their Relation to Adaptive Functioning and Behavioral/Emotional Symptoms in School...

The present study investigated the development of executive functions (EFs) and their associations with performance and behavior at school in 8-12-year-old children. The EFs were measured by computer-based n-back, Continuous Performance and Go/Nogo tasks. School performance was evaluated by Teacher Report Form (TRF) and behavior by TRF and Child Behavior Checklist. The studied dimensions of EF were cognitive efficiency/speed, working memory/attention and inhibitory control. Strong age effects were found for these cognitive abilities (p values ,0.01). Inhibitory control was associated with better adaptive functioning (learning, working hard and behaving well), academic performance and less psychiatric symptoms (p values ,0.05), specially in 8-9-year-old children. In this youngest age group low inhibitory control was also associated with teacher-reported inattention (p = 0.042). Low inhibitory control was associated with teacher- and parent-reported ...

*  Behavior Problem in Children

... , The behavior of the child is the major concern of today's parent, because it is the common problem now a days & every second

*  Specialized Foster Care | Family & Children's Agency

Family & Children's Agency (FCA) offers specialized foster care, programs designed for children with serious medical, emotional, and behavioral disorders.

*  PRAMS prints :: State Publications II

PRAMS Prints No. 6 December 2012 The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is an ongoing, state specific, population-based surveillance system of maternal behaviors and experiences before, during and after pregnancy. Developed in 1987, PRAMS was designed to supplement vital records by providing state-specific data on maternal behaviors and experiences to be used for planning and assessing perinatal health programs. Currently conducted in 40 states and New York City, PRAMS collects data representative of 78 percent of U.S. births. N.C. PRAMS is a random, stratified, monthly mail/telephone survey of North Carolina women who recently delivered a live-born infant. Data collection began in North Carolina on July 1, 1997, providing us with six months of data for 1997. Since 1997, PRAMS data have been collected every year. Each month around 150 to 160 women are selected from the Provisional Live Birth File and ...

*  "Paying attention?" an app asks - helping kids monitor their own classroom behavior - The Hechinger...

One of Beckman's students used the app during math lessons and the other during writing. After about 30 days of the intervention, the student in math (also diagnosed with the developmental disability fragile X syndrome) increased his on-task behavior from 19 percent to 63 percent. The student who self-monitored during writing lessons, meanwhile, improved from 9 percent to 91 percent in on-task behavior. Both students also had substantial academic gains.. Self-monitoring must be precisely targeted. If a student gets engrossed in reading, then he doesn't need to be pestered by an app every minute. But, if this student can't focus on math worksheets for more than three minutes at a time, then a little on-task reminder during these lessons every couple minutes could be quite helpful.. The idea is to break up a big behavior challenge into manageable chunks. For some students, the prospect of focusing for an entire school day can seem daunting. Staying focused for ...

*  Advanced behavior modification

The Behaviors feature in Camtasia 9 is an exceptional tool for quickly adding interest to your project. Corbin Anderson shows you some advanced techniques for tweaking the parameters available with each behavior.

*  Clinical Behavior Therapy av Marvin R. Goldfried (Heftet) - Psykologi | Tanum nettbokhandel

Clinical Behavior Therapy (Heftet) av forfatter Marvin R. Goldfried. Psykologi. Pris kr 659. Se flere bøker fra Marvin R. Goldfried.

*  Israel Opposes Soviet Proposal on Aggression at U.n.; Wants War Criminals Punished | Jewish Telegraphic Agency

LAKE SUCCESS (Nov. 8). Israel today opposed the idea of an attempt on the part of the United Nations to define aggression in absolute terms by means of a list of its various forms. Arthur Lourie, of the Israel delegation (##)sing that no such list could be exhaustive, announced Israel's intentions to abstain on a Soviet proposal to this effect. He said that a decision should be made by competent organs of the U.N. in each individual case of alleged aggression.. Meanwhile, in an address prepared for delivery before the General Assembly's legal Committee, Jacob Robinson, of the Israel delegation, vigorously urged that the international Law Commission's formulation on the Nuremberg principles of punishment of war criminals should be adopted despite their imperfection. He declared that the original formulation had already been "dehydrated" and denounced proposals to refer the whole question back for further study and "further weakening.". ...

*  Childhood aggression may be linked to worse health in adulthood - latimes

Kids who show aggression could have worse health as adults, a study finds. Lifestyle choices -- what you eat, how much you exercise -- may not be the only forecaster of health later in life. A study

*  Why Studies of Fighting Fruit Flies Are Relevant to Understanding Human Aggression

For more information, see Does that mean that we humans have aggression neurons in our own brains? We don't know for sure, but in other work we have identified what appear to be aggression neurons in the mouse brain. These neurons are located in the hypothalamus, an evolutionarily ancient structure deep in the brain that is also present in humans. Therefore, it seems likely that humans have similar cells as well. But if we were able to find these cells in mice, then why even bother with flies? First, the work in mice progresses far more slowly than in flies, because of their long generation time (10 weeks for a mouse, compared to 12 days for a fly). Our findings in the fly encouraged us to pursue our more laborious studies in mice. Second, flies have only about 3-5 of these "aggression neurons" in their brain, while mice have ~2,000. That makes it much easier to study the neurons in the ...

*  Aggressor Fleet - Official Website

Dear Aggressor Team,. "I have just returned from the fam trip on the maiden voyage of the Red Sea Aggressor with Tom Gebhardt." . . . "Eleven of the group visited Luxor prior to boarding the boat and that is a side trip I would highly recommend. We were told by our tour guide that we were the first American group that had visited Luxor in 3 years. We felt very safe at all times and I will be happy to serve as a reference if any potential visitors have questions about safety for land trip. The crew on the boat was great and worked hard to accommodate everyone. I had some equipment issues upon arrival with my regulator and David Patterson did a great job or working with me to sort out all the problems so I was comfortable diving with my equipment. He did a wonderful job of working with the guest and crew to make the trip great for all divers. Our charter went to St John's Reef and this was not originally planned for a 7 day charter. The diving at St John's was " as good as it gets". I would highly ...

*  IJERPH | Free Full-Text | The Involvement of Girls and Boys with Bullying: An Analysis of Gender Differences | HTML

This exploratory and cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence of bullying in a group of students and analyze the data regarding the gender of those involved in the violence. A questionnaire adapted from Olweus was applied in seven elementary education schools in Portugal. The sample consisted of 387 students between 7 and 14 years old. Data are presented in terms of descriptive statistics and differences between proportions were analyzed using chi-square tests. The gender analysis of victimization and aggression shows that boys and girls are both victims and aggressors, and there are significant differences in involvement in bullying between genders and the roles played. Boys are victims more often when considering different types of bullying, although significant differences were only found for physical aggression. Strategies that include gender roles are a priority for prevention and careful attention to this phenomenon in the school context. The questions addressed contribute to a

*  9780398055561 isbn/isbn13 $$ Compare Prices at 110 Bookstores! Sex Murder and Sex Aggression: Phenomenology, Psychopathology,...

9780398055561 Sex Murder and Sex Aggression: Phenomenology, Psychopathology, Psychodynamics and Prognosis,books, textbooks, text book

*  Brain Structure and functioning as an explanation of aggression - Flashcards in A Level and IB Psychology

The PAG links the the pre-frontal cortex to the amygdala and hypothalamus. It deals with the responses we have to stressors both internal and external such as threat and pain. Rats with lesions in this area show aggression towards unfamiliar males. ...

Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Sexual motivation and hormones: Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In most mammalian species, sex hormones control the ability to engage in sexual behaviours.Curiosity: Curiosity (from Latin curiosus "careful, diligent, curious," akin to cura "care") is a quality related to inquisitive thinking such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in human and animal species. Curiosity is heavily associated with all aspects of human development, in which derives the process of learning and desire to acquire knowledge and skill.Dog aggression: Dog aggression is a term used by dog owners and breeders to describe canine-to-canine antipathy. Aggression itself is usually defined by canine behaviorists as "the intent to do harm".Dutch profanity: Dutch profanity can be divided into several categories. Often, the words used in profanity by speakers of Dutch are based around various names for diseases.Disinhibition: In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania.Nest (protein structural motif): The Nest is a type of protein structural motif. Peptide nests are small anion-binding molecular features of proteins and peptides.Intraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.Exercise addiction: An exercise addiction can have harmful consequences although it is not listed as a disorder in the latest revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). This type of addiction can be classified under a behavioral addiction in which a person’s behavior becomes obsessive, compulsive, and/or causes dysfunction in a person's life.Barratt WaughSickness behavior: [Ancher 001.jpg|thumb|350px|right|Ancher, Michael], "The Sick Girl", 1882, [[Statens Museum for Kunst.Tales from the Dark Side Greatest Hits and Choice Collectables 1974–1997: Tales from the Dark Side Greatest Hits and Classic Collectables 1974-1997 is a compilation album by rock music group, Dragon, released in 1998. Disc one has the same track listing as Snake Eyes on the Paradise Greatest Hits 1976–1989, which was issued in the same year.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale: The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS),also known as the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale (BNAS),Kaplan, R. M.Charles Ottley Groom NapierInformation hypothesis of conditioned reinforcementTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingBehavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Hypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.Vortex ring toyMatrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==The Thrill Killers: The Thrill Killers is a horror/thriller film released in 1964 and directed by low-budget film-maker Ray Dennis Steckler. It stars Cash Flagg (Steckler under a nom de plume) and Liz Renay.Substance-related disorderInterpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).The great imitator: The Great Imitator is a phrase used for medical conditions that feature nonspecific symptoms and may be confused with a number of other diseases.J.Document-centric collaboration: Document-centric collaboration is a new approach to working together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at the centre of the process.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.History of psychopathy: Psychopathy, from psych (soul or mind) and pathy (suffering or disease), was coined by German psychiatrists in the 19th century and originally just meant what would today be called mental disorder, the study of which is still known as psychopathology. By the turn of the century 'psychopathic inferiority' referred to the type of mental disorder that might now be termed personality disorder, along with a wide variety of other conditions now otherwise classified.Walker (BEAM): In BEAM robotics, a walker is a walking machine that has a driven mode of locomotion by intermittent ground-contacting legs. They usually possess 1 to 12 (generally, three or less) motors.Cigarette smoking among college students: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.Reward system: The reward system is a group of neural structures that are critically involved in mediating the effects of reinforcement. A reward is an appetitive stimulus given to a human or some other animal to alter its behavior.Professional DiscLearning Plan: A Learning Plan is a document (possibly an interactive or on-line document) that is used to plan learning, usually over an extended period of time.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Texas Juvenile Justice Department: The Texas Juvenile Justice Department (TJJD) is a state agency in Texas, headquartered in the Braker H Complex in Austin.HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Olson's Extinction: Olson's Extinction was a mass extinction that occurred in the Early Guadalupian of the Permian period and which predated the Permian–Triassic extinction event.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Madrasi chess: Madrasi chess is a chess variant invented in 1979 by Abdul Jabbar Karwatkar which uses the conventional rules of chess with the addition that when a piece is attacked by a piece of the same type but opposite colour (for example, a black queen attacking a white queen) it is paralysed and becomes unable to move, capture or give check. Most of the time, two like pieces attack each other mutually, meaning they are both paralysed (en passant pawn captures are an exception to this, since the attack is not mutual.Avoidance reactionPunishmentSong control system: A song system, also known as a song control system (SCS), is a series of discrete brain nuclei involved in the production and learning of song in songbirds. It was first observed by Fernando Nottebohm in 1976 in a paper titled "Central control of song in the canary, Serinus canarius", published in the Journal of Comparative Neurology.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of special education. The editors-in-chief are Alisa K.Parent structure: In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.LifeStyles Condoms: LifeStyles Condoms is a brand of condom made by the Australian company Ansell Limited, previously known as Pacific Dunlop Limited.Anti-abortion violence: Anti-abortion violence is violence committed against individuals and organizations that provide abortion. Incidents of violence have included destruction of property, in the form of vandalism; crimes against people, including kidnapping, stalking, assault, attempted murder, and murder; and crimes affecting both people and property, including arson and bombings.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.

(1/2056) Evidence for an eye-centered spherical representation of the visuomotor map.

During visually guided movement, visual coordinates of target location must be transformed into coordinates appropriate for movement. To investigate the representation of this visuomotor coordinate transformation, we examined changes in pointing behavior induced by a local visuomotor remapping. The visual feedback of finger position was limited to one location within the workspace, at which a discrepancy was introduced between the actual and visually perceived finger position. This remapping induced a change in pointing that extended over the entire workspace and was best captured by a spherical coordinate system centered near the eyes.  (+info)

(2/2056) Disrupted temporal lobe connections in semantic dementia.

Semantic dementia refers to the variant of frontotemporal dementia in which there is progressive semantic deterioration and anomia in the face of relative preservation of other language and cognitive functions. Structural imaging and SPECT studies of such patients have suggested that the site of damage, and by inference the region critical to semantic processing, is the anterolateral temporal lobe, especially on the left. Recent functional imaging studies of normal participants have revealed a network of areas involved in semantic tasks. The present study used PET to examine the consequences of focal damage to the anterolateral temporal cortex for the operation of this semantic network. We measured PET activation associated with a semantic decision task relative to a visual decision task in four patients with semantic dementia compared with six age-matched normal controls. Normals activated a network of regions consistent with previous studies. The patients activated some areas consistently with the normals, including some regions of significant atrophy, but showed substantially reduced activity particularly in the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (iTG) (Brodmann area 37/19). Voxel-based morphometry, used to identify the regions of structural deficit, revealed significant anterolateral temporal atrophy (especially on the left), but no significant structural damage to the posterior inferior temporal lobe. Other evidence suggests that the left posterior iTG is critically involved in lexical-phonological retrieval: the lack of activation here is consistent with the observation that these patients are all anomic. We conclude that changes in activity in regions distant from the patients' structural damage support the argument that their prominent anomia is due to disrupted temporal lobe connections.  (+info)

(3/2056) Behavioral and physiological effects of remifentanil and alfentanil in healthy volunteers.

BACKGROUND: The subjective and psychomotor effects of remifentanil have not been evaluated. Accordingly, the authors used mood inventories and psychomotor tests to characterize the effects of remifentanil in healthy, non-drug-abusing volunteers. Alfentanil was used as a comparator drug. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in which they received an infusion of saline, remifentanil, or alfentanil for 120 min. The age- and weight-adjusted infusions (determined with STANPUMP, a computer modeling software package) were given to achieve three predicted constant plasma levels for 40 min each of remifentanil (0.75, 1.5, and 3 ng/ml) and alfentanil (16, 32, and 64 ng/ml). Mood forms and psychomotor tests were completed, and miosis was assessed, during and after the infusions. In addition, analgesia was tested at each dose level using a cold-pressor test. RESULTS: Remifentanil had prototypic micro-like opioid subjective effects, impaired psychomotor performance, and produced analgesia. Alfentanil at the dose range tested had more mild effects on these measures, and the analgesia data indicated that a 40:1 potency ratio, rather than the 20:1 ratio we used, may exist between remifentanil and alfentanil. A psychomotor test administered 60 min after the remifentanil infusion was discontinued showed that the volunteers were still impaired, although they reported feeling no drug effects. CONCLUSIONS: The notion that the pharmacodynamic effects of remifentanil are extremely short-lived after the drug is no longer administered must be questioned given our findings that psychomotor effects were still apparent 1 h after the infusion was discontinued.  (+info)

(4/2056) Postoperative behavioral outcomes in children: effects of sedative premedication.

BACKGROUND: Although multiple studies document the effect of sedative premedication on preoperative anxiety in children, there is a paucity of data regarding its effect on postoperative behavioral outcomes. METHODS: After screening for recent stressful life events, children undergoing anesthesia and surgery were assigned randomly to receive either 0.5 mg/kg midazolam in 15 mg/kg acetaminophen orally (n = 43) or 15 mg/kg acetaminophen orally (n = 43). Using validated measures of anxiety, children were evaluated before and after administration of the intervention and during induction of anesthesia. On postoperative days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14, the behavioral recovery of the children was assessed using the Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire. RESULTS: The intervention group demonstrated significantly lower anxiety levels compared with the placebo group on separation to the operating room and during induction of anesthesia (F[1,77] = 3.95, P = 0.041). Using a multivariate logistic regression model, the authors found that the presence or absence of postoperative behavioral changes was dependent on the group assignment (R = 0.18, P = 0.0001) and days after operation (R = -0.20, P = 0.0001). Post hoc analysis demonstrated that during postoperative days 1-7, a significantly smaller number of children in the midazolam group manifested negative behavioral changes. At week 2 postoperatively, however, there were no significant differences between the midazolam and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS: Children who are premedicated with midazolam before surgery have fewer negative behavioral changes during the first postoperative week.  (+info)

(5/2056) Genomic imprinting: implications for human disease.

Genomic imprinting refers to an epigenetic marking of genes that results in monoallelic expression. This parent-of-origin dependent phenomenon is a notable exception to the laws of Mendelian genetics. Imprinted genes are intricately involved in fetal and behavioral development. Consequently, abnormal expression of these genes results in numerous human genetic disorders including carcinogenesis. This paper reviews genomic imprinting and its role in human disease. Additional information about imprinted genes can be found on the Genomic Imprinting Website at  (+info)

(6/2056) Caregiver behaviors and resources influence child height-for-age in rural Chad.

The purpose of this study was to identify caregiver characteristics that influence child nutritional status in rural Chad, when controlling for socioeconomic factors. Variables were classified according to the categories of a UNICEF model of care: caregiving behaviors, household food security, food and economic resources and resources for care and health resources. Sixty-four households with 98 children from ages 12 to 71 mo were part of this study. Caregivers were interviewed to collect information on number of pregnancies, child feeding and health practices, influence on decisions regarding child health and feeding, overall satisfaction with life, social support, workload, income, use of income, and household food expenditures and consumption. Household heads were questioned about household food production and other economic resources. Caregiver and household variables were classified as two sets of variables, and separate regression models were run for each of the two sets. Significant predictors of height-for-age were then combined in the same regression model. Caregiver influence on child-feeding decisions, level of satisfaction with life, willingness to seek advice during child illnesses, and the number of individuals available to assist with domestic tasks were the caregiver factors associated with children's height-for-age. Socioeconomic factors associated with children's height-for-age were the amount of harvested cereals, the sources of household income and the household being monogamous. When the caregiver and household socioeconomic factors were combined in the same model, they explained 54% of the variance in children's height-for-age, and their regression coefficients did not change or only slightly increased, except for caregiver's propensity to seek advice during child illnesses, which was no longer significant. These results indicate that caregiver characteristics influence children's nutritional status, even while controlling for the socioeconomic status of the household.  (+info)

(7/2056) Saccadic performance characteristics and the behavioural neurology of Tourette's syndrome.

OBJECTIVE: To better understand the neuropathological correlates of Tourette's syndrome (TS), measures of saccadic eye movement performance were examined among patients with TS. METHODS: A case-control design was used. Twenty one patients with DSM-IV TS (mean age 40.6 years (SD 11.0); 38% female) mainly recruited from UCSD Psychiatry Services, and a community based sample of 21 normal subjects (mean age 34.6 years (SD 13.4); 43% women) participated in this study. Participants were administered ocular motor tasks assessing visual fixation, and the generation of prosaccades, predictive saccades, and antisaccades. Saccadic reaction time, amplitude, duration, and mean and peak velocity were computed. Intrusive saccades during visual fixation and the proportion of correct antisaccade responses were also evaluated. RESULTS: The groups had similar visual fixation performance. Whereas patients with TS generated prosaccades with normal reaction times and amplitudes, their saccade durations were shorter and their mean velocities were higher than in normal subjects. During a prosaccade gap task, patients with TS exhibited an increased proportion of anticipatory saccades (RTs<90). The proportion of "express" saccades (90+info)

(8/2056) Changes in behavioural characteristics of elderly populations of local authority homes and long-stay hospital wards, 1976-7.

Behavioural characteristics of the elderly populations of seven local authority residential homes and three long-stay hospital wards were assessed in 1976 and 1977 with the Crichton Royal behavioural rating scale. In 1977 the levels of behavioural problems had increased in the residential homes, but declined in the hospital wards. Differences between the homes had decreased as the overall level of problems increased. The findings suggested that the additional burden of caring for increasing numbers of severely disabled elderly people was affecting the balance of institutional care, and a radical reappraisal of present patterns of care may be necessary to meet their future needs.  (+info)

Mindless Behavior

  • Mindless Behavior é uma boy band oriunda de Los Angeles, Estados Unidos formada por quatro adolescentes, Ray Ray, Princeton, Prodigy e Roc Royal. (
  • Mindless Behavior já abriu turnês dos Backstreet Boys, Justin Bieber e Jason Derülo, e foram responsáveis por abrir todos os shows da ultima turnê de Janet Jackson em 2011. (
  • Mindless Behavior - Awards» (em inglês). (
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  • News about Mindless Behavior continually updated from thousands of sources around the net. (


  • He suggested that behaviors or "social facts" which are present in the majority of cases are normal, and exceptions to that behavior indicate pathology. (
  • 4 . Please indicate which of the listed challenging behaviors your child currently exhibits. (
  • 5 . Please indicate how frequently your child exhibits challenging behavior. (
  • 6 . Please indicate the current status of your child's challenging behavior. (


  • Behavior can be normal for an individual ( intrapersonal normality ) when it is consistent with the most common behaviour for that person. (


  • Corbin Anderson shows you some advanced techniques for tweaking the parameters available with each behavior. (


  • In support of one our main public policy priorities, Autism New Jersey is looking to collect data from parents who have children with autism who exhibit severe challenging behavior. (


  • I use the jump and fall behavior on the text. (


  • 9 . If your child does currently live at home, does your child's challenging behavior prevent you and your family from attending family, social, or other events? (
  • The first thing to look for is mirroring of verbal behavior and pace," explains Michael Cunningham, Ph.D., a professor of social psychology at the University of Louisville. (
  • We chose to collaborate with Elsevier on a study into how we can motivate pro-social behavior. (


  • I'm against the behavior that many students enjoy listening to music whild doing other things. (


  • 5. Executive SummaryConsumer behavior is the study of when, why, how, and where people do or do not buya product. (


  • [5] Durkheim's model of normality further explained that the most frequent or general behaviors, and thus the most normal behaviors, will persist through transition periods in society. (


  • Flight Behavior is arguably Kingsolver's must thrilling and accessible novel to date, and like so many other of her acclaimed works, represents contemporary American fiction at its finest. (


  • Debido al uso de la blasfemia en tres canciones, Extreme Behavior fue el único obstaculizar registro para recibir una Parental Advisory etiqueta hasta el lanzamiento de la versión de lujo de All American Nightmare y en 2012 su álbum Welcome to the Freakshow. (
  • It is long past time for irresponsible behavior to be called out by every American, and that includes the pinheads in the far-left media. (