Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.GuanineDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Isochores: Large regions of the GENOME that contain local similarities in BASE COMPOSITION.GC Rich Sequence: A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of GUANINE and CYTOSINE bases.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.AT Rich Sequence: A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of ADENINE and THYMINE bases.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Acetobacteraceae: A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Nucleic Acid Renaturation: The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Genome Size: The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Schiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.ThymineCarex Plant: A plant genus of the family CYPERACEAE. The seed contains oligostilbenes (STILBENES).Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Narcissus: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain ungiminorine and LECTINS.Densitometry: The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Hypotrichida: An order of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include a dorsoventrally flattened, highly mobile body with a unique cursorial type of locomotion.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.TritiumElectrophoresis, Paper: Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.UracilSelection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Prokaryotic Cells: Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Polydeoxyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.PolynucleotidesPhospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.UridineCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Centrifugation, Zonal: Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA, Intergenic: Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Skull Base Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.CpG Islands: Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Denture Bases: The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.

*  Starch-based composition - Solvay (Societe Anonyme)

The composition contains a starch, which is preferably plasticised, and a polymer which acts as c ... The invention relates to an alloy composition possessing improved properties of mechanical resistance. ... Polymer base blend compositions containing destructurized starch.. WO1991002025A1. 1991-02-21. A POLYMER COMPOSITION INCLUDING ... The invention is intended to provide a composition based on a starch modified by the addition of a so-called polymer coupling ...

*  Patent US4593048 - Base composition for external preparations, pharmaceutical composition for ... - Google Patents

... and an external preparation containing the above composition as a base. ... A composition capable of promoting the skin permeation or percutaneous absorption of a drug, which comprises a lower alcohol ... 2) A pharmaceutical composition for external use which comprises a drug and the above-mentioned base composition; and ... Base composition for external preparations, pharmaceutical composition for external use and method of promoting percutaneous ...

*  Composition-Based View - Wikipedia

Coordination costs and difficulties of orchestration may undermine composition-based success. Composition-based strategies may ... The composition-based view (CBV) was recently developed by Luo and Child (2015). It is a new theory that explicates the growth ... Firms that follow the composition-based strategy are often led by executives who have sharp vision and who have adopted ... According to Luo and Child (2015), there exist several limitations of the composition-based strategy: It increases the ...

*  Patent US4256828 - Photocopolymerizable compositions based on epoxy and hydroxyl-containing ... - Google Patents

Photocopolymerizable compositions are described which contain epoxides, organic material with hydroxyl functionality, and a ... Photocopolymerizable compositions based on epoxy and hydroxyl-containing organic materials. US4929305 *. Apr 20, 1989. May 29, ... Photocopolymerizable compositions based on epoxy and hydroxyl-containing organic materials. US 4256828 A ... Photocopolymerizable compositions based on epoxy and hydroxyl-containing organic materials having primary hydroxyl content. ...

*  Brevet US5614587 - Collagen-based bioadhesive compositions - Google Brevets

Methods are disclosed for using the compositions to effect the attachment of a native tissue to the surface of another native ... A particularly preferred composition comprises fibrillar collagen, a fiber disassembly agent, and a multifunctionally activated ... The compositions comprise collagen crosslinked using a multifunctionally activated synthetic hydrophilic polymer. ... Collagen-based compositions useful in the attachment of tissues, or the attachment of tissues to synthetic implant materials, ...

*  Pharmaceutical composition based on a hepatoprotector and a prebiotic, and production and application thereof - Dikovskiy...

... hepatology and pharmacology and can be used for producing and using a pharmaceutical composition based on a hepatoprotector and ... Pharmaceutical composition based on a hepatoprotector and a prebiotic, and production and application thereof ... Based on the results of the examination, there was no evidence of acute toxicity of each composition under the experimental ... It can be used for the production and application of a pharmaceutical composition based on a hepatoprotector and a prebiotic ...

*  PRRSV GP5 BASED COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS - Patent application

0075]Virus Based Compositions [0076]The disclosure is based upon the antigenicity and/or immunogenicity of the conserved GP5 ... Patent application title: PRRSV GP5 BASED COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS. Inventors: Byoung-Kwan Kim (Mankato, MN, US) Assignees: MJ ... Patent application title: PRRSV GP5 BASED COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS. Inventors: Byoung-Kwan Kim Agents: Patentique PLLC ... 0087]Polypeptides and Compositions [0088]The disclosure is based upon the antigenicity and/or immunogenicity of a polypeptide ...

*  SILICONE-BASED COMPOSITION FOR SKIN TREATMENT - Patent application

0035] The method 100 may comprise providing a base composition 102. The base composition may be a silicone-based gel. The ... The method 100 may include providing a silicone-based gel as a base composition 102; adding to the base composition: a ... Preferably, the base composition of the transdermal cream or gel may be a silicone-based gel. The silicone-based gel may have a ... Preferably, a silicone-based gel may be provided as a base composition and may have a non-zero percentage of silicone or ...

*  Genome size and base composition variation in natural and experimental Narcissus (Amaryllidaceae) hybrids : Annals of Botany -...

Keywords: Amaryllidaceae; base composition; DAPI; flow cytometry; genome size; interspecific hybrids; Narcissus; polyploidy; ... Flow cytometry measurements with two staining techniques, PI and DAPI, were used to estimate 2C values and base composition (AT ... allow us to study how DNA content and composition varies in such hybrids. ... allow us to study how DNA content and composition varies in such hybrids. ...

*  Patent US7105162 - Pharmaceutical composition for immunomodulation based on peptides and adjuvants - Google Patents

The composition is particularly intended for use as a vaccine, e.g. as a tumour vaccine. ... Pharmaceutical composition containing at least one peptide or protein (fragment) with an immunomodulatory activity together ... The pharmaceutical composition may, for example, take the form of hydrogel based on polyacrylic acid or polyacrylamide (such as ... Hydrogel compositions. US9700650. Nov 5, 2010. Jul 11, 2017. Spotlight Technology Partners Llc. Polysaccharide based hydrogels ...

*  Automatic Service Composition Based on Graph Coloring

Prior to service composition, the most important issue in finding suitable candidate services samples is their compliance with ... Recently, numerous studies have been done to reduce the search time in finding a service composition. However, many of these ... For this purpose, modified graph coloring method to filter the data before compositions in large-scale data is used which ... Service composition provides new components by using an interactive model to accelerate the programs. ...

*  COMPOSITION-BASED APPLICATION USER INTERFACE FRAMEWORK - Patent application

Patent application title: COMPOSITION-BASED APPLICATION USER INTERFACE FRAMEWORK. Inventors: Ju Hee Bae Jonathan P. Munson ... Patent application title: COMPOSITION-BASED APPLICATION USER INTERFACE FRAMEWORK. Inventors: Ju Hee Bae (Seoul, KR) Jonathan P ... Application Composition [0029]In the present invention, according to the novel XVC's application composition model enables ... eXtensible Viewer Composition). XVC has three primary characteristics: (1) it supports a document-based application model; (2) ...

*  Patent US5525654 - Polyurethane-based sealing and adhesive compositions containing special ... - Google Patents

Also described is a method of preparing the moisture-curing sealing and/or adhesive compositions and their use as joint ... Described are moisture-curing sealing and/or adhesive compositions based on alkoxysilane-terminated polyurethanes and ... Hardenable compositions based on silylated polyurethanes. US20110034627 *. Oct 18, 2010. Feb 10, 2011. Henkel Ag & Co. Kgaa. ... Curable compositions containing silylated polyether block polymer-based polyurethanes. US20110136991 *. Feb 5, 2009. Jun 9, ...

*  PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS BASED ON A MICROEMULSION - Patent application

Patent application title: PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS BASED ON A MICROEMULSION. Inventors: Amnon Sintov Haim Levy Agents: ... Patent application title: PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS BASED ON A MICROEMULSION. Inventors: Amnon Sintov (Omer, IL) Haim Levy ( ... composition is a pharmaceutical composition. [0039]According to some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition is a ... 0024]In the present invention, it has now been found that various compositions or combinations, which are not based on glycols ...

*  Numerous modern therapeutic applications of blessed thistle composition are based on its unique composition conditioning its...

... blessed thistle has been naturalized in a variety of other regions due to its remarkable chemical composition. Blessed thistle ... Numerous modern therapeutic applications of blessed thistle composition are based on its unique composition conditioning its ... The documented chemical composition of blessed thistle, the profound studies of its effects and numerous in vivo and in vitro ... Blessed thistle composition is also made use of in cholagogic and gastrointestinal medicals, which prove its effectiveness. In ...

*  Composition Based On Zeolite And Usage As Lick Stone - Patent application

Patent application title: Composition Based On Zeolite And Usage As Lick Stone. Inventors: Stephan Hugo Frei (Hume Park 2, SG) ... Compositions and methods for treating or preventing ophthalmic light toxicity. 2009-11-19. Resorbable polymer compositions for ... The composition of zeolites is: Mx/n[(AlO2)x(SiO2)y]-zH2O (with n=charge of M, mostly 1, 2). Zeolites have a regular ... 8. Licking element for ruminants with at least one moulded part, which has a composition in accordance with claim 1. 9. Licking ...

*  SOAP BASED SUNSCREEN COMPOSITION - Specialchem

The present invention relates to a composition comprising: a) one or more fatty acids selected from the group consisting of ... SOAP BASED SUNSCREEN COMPOSITION 0){ var querystring= "&p=1" ;}else{ var querystring= "?p=1";} window.open(window.location.href ... The present invention relates to shampoo compositions. In particular, the invention relates to shampoo compositions, which are ... 1. A shampoo composition comprising: a) from 3 to 11 wt % alkyl sulfate surfactant, ethoxylated alkyl sulfate surfactant or ...

*  QoS-Aware Real-Time Composition Algorithms for Service-Based Applications - IEEE Journals & Magazine

... aware service composition in distributed systems with real-time and fault-tolerance requirements. ...

*  A high dynamic range CMOS image sensor design based on two-frame composition - IEEE Conference Publication

In this paper, we present a CMOS image sensor design with a high dynamic range. This feature is achieved by a two-frame scheme, in which an image is captur

*  COMPOSITION COMPRISING POLYOXYALKYLENE-BASED POLYMER COMPOSITION - Patent application

Patent application title: COMPOSITION COMPRISING POLYOXYALKYLENE-BASED POLYMER COMPOSITION. Inventors: Jeffrey Scott Dupont ( ... Fabric care compositions. Top Inventors for class "Cleaning compositions for solid surfaces, auxiliary compositions therefor, ... Measuring of Solid Parts of Polymer Composition, [0122] The polymer composition (polymer composition 1.0 g+water 3.0 g) was ... composition. 4. A laundry detergent or cleaning composition according to claim 1 wherein the detergent or composition further ...

*  Effects of Increased, Egg-Based Protein Intake on Muscle Composition, - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Effects of Increased, Egg-Based Protein Intake on Muscle Composition, (S25). This study has been completed. ... Effects of Increased, Egg-Based Protein Intake on Muscle Composition, Metabolic Health and Systemic Inflammation in Obese, ... to assess the effect of a diet-controlled nutrition program utilizing an egg-based higher protein diet on muscle composition ...

*  Indian Patents. 255299:'COMPOSITION BASED ON SUBSTITUTED 1,3-DIPHENYLPROP-2-EN-1-ONE DERIVATIVES'

4. Composition as claimed in any one of the previous claims, wherein X1 is a G1-R1 group.. 5. Composition as claimed in any one ... COMPOSITION BASED ON SUBSTITUTED 1,3-DIPHENYLPROP-2-EN-1-ONE DERIVATIVES'. ... or of a pharmaceutical composition such as defined hereinabove.. The pharmaceutical compositions according to the invention ... 6. Composition as claimed in any one of the previous claims, wherein X4 represents OC(CH3)2COOR6, R6 being such as defined in ...

*  Patent US5981073 - Compounds based on dibenzoylresorcinol, and related compositions and articles - Google Patents

The coating compositions may be applied to various substrates, e.g., thermoplastics, to afford a selection of enhanced ... The described compounds are very useful as UV light absorbers and may be used to form improved coating compositions which ... Novel dibenzoylresorcinol-based compounds are disclosed wherein the dibenzoylresorcinol is bonded to the residue of either an ... The coating compositions usually comprise at least about 1% by weight of the dibenzoylresorcinol-based compounds described ...

*  Curable epoxy resin composition cured with a mannich base - Patent # 5688876 - PatentGenius

... a specific Mannich base as essential components, with the amount of the Mannich base (II) being 1 to 50 parts by weight per 100 ... A curable epoxy resin composition comprising (I) an epoxy resin having more than one epoxy groups per one molecule, and (II) ... Curing compositions (Vw-1) to (Vw-3) for water-based epoxy resins were prepared by the use of the Mannich base (II-a) prepared ... The water-based curable epoxy resin composition wasspread on a glass plate as thin as 1 mm to be a film thickness of 30 .mu.m, ...

*  Patent US4371517 - Composition for treating fibrous materials, based on cationic and anionic ... - Google Patents

These compositions contain at least one cationic polymer, at least one anionic polymer, at least one alkali metal salt and at ... The invention provides compositions intended for the treatment of fibrous materials. ... Cosmetic composition based on nonionic surfactants and cationic or amphoteric substantive polymers and its use as a dyeing or ... Composition intended for the treatment of keratin fibres, based on a cationic polymer and an anionic polymer containing ...

Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.DNA demethylation: DNA demethylation is the process of removal of a methyl group from nucleotides in DNA. DNA demethylation could be passive or active.Base pair: Base pairs (unit: bp), which form between specific nucleobases (also termed nitrogenous bases), are the building blocks of the DNA double helix and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA and RNA. Dictated by specific hydrogen bonding patterns, Watson-Crick base pairs (guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine) allow the DNA helix to maintain a regular helical structure that is subtly dependent on its nucleotide sequence.Hyperchromicity: Hyperchromicity is the increase of absorbance (optical density) of a material. The most famous example is the hyperchromicity of DNA that occurs when the DNA duplex is denatured.Isochore (genetics): In genetics, an isochore is a large region of DNA (greater than 300 kb) with a high degree uniformity in guanine (G) and cytosine (C): G-DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Codon Adaptation Index: The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI) is the most widespread technique for analyzing Codon usage bias. As opposed to other measures of codon usage bias, such as the 'effective number of codons' (Nc), which measure deviation from a uniform bias (null hypothesis), CAI measures the deviation of a given protein coding gene sequence with respect to a reference set of genes.Coles PhillipsBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Buoyant density ultracentrifugation: Buoyant density centrifugation uses the concept of buoyancy to separate molecules in solution. Usually a caesium chloride (CsCl) solution is used, but in the general case it's usually approximately the same density as the molecules that are to be centrifuged.Nucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.NTP binding site: An NTP binding site is a type of binding site found in nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinases, N can be adenosine or guanosine. A P-loop is one of the structural motifs common for nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding sites, it interacts with the bound nucleotide's phosphoryl groups.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.Heptadecanoic acidTRNA (adenine57-N1/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase: TRNA (adenine57-N1/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase (, TrmI, PabTrmI, AqTrmI, MtTrmI) is an enzyme with system name S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA (adenine57/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionAcidomonas: Acidomonas is a genus in the phylum Proteobacteria (Bacteria). The genus contains single species, namely A.Transfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.YjdF RNA motifExogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Evolution of cells: Evolution of cells refers to the evolutionary origin and subsequent evolutionary development of cells. Cells first emerged at least 3.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Fishpaper: Fish paper or fishpaper is a strong, flexible, fibrous dielectric paper. It resists moderate heat and mechanical injury, and is often used for wrapping coils and insulating stove-top parts.Proteinogenic amino acid: Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation. There are 23 proteinogenic amino acids in prokaryotes (including N-Formylmethionine, mainly used to initiate protein synthesis and often removed afterward), but only 21 are encoded by the nuclear genes of eukaryotes.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Cytophaga: Cytophaga is a genus of Gram-negative, gliding, rod-shaped bacteria.Abscription: During normal transcription, RNA polymerase transcribes a number of short nonproductive oligonucleotides, and this process is called abortive transcription. The trapped RNAPs have been named abscriptases and the synthesis of specific length oligonucleotides called abscription.Schiff baseSilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)ThymineCarex firma: Carex firma is a species of sedge that grows in the mountains of southern and central Europe.List of sequenced eukaryotic genomesNarcissus (wrestler): Narcissus was a Roman athlete,Cassius Dio, Roman History, Book LXXII, pg. 117.Microdensitometer: A microdensitometer is an optical instrument used to measure optical densities in the microscopic domain.J.T-box leaderMT-RNR2: Mitochondrially encoded 16S RNA (often abbreviated as 16S) is a mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that in humans is encoded by the MT-RNR2 gene. The MT-RNR2 gene also encodes the Humanin polypeptide that has been the target of Alzheimer's disease research.Genetic variation: right|thumbChromatographic response function: Chromatographic response function, often abbreviated to CRF, is a coefficient which measures the quality of the separation in the result of a chromatography.Fecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.Tritium illumination: Tritium illumination is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light. Tritium emits electrons through beta decay, and, when they interact with a phosphor material, fluorescent light is created, a process called radioluminescence.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Uracil in DNA: DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms.Selection (relational algebra): In relational algebra, a selection (sometimes called a restriction to avoid confusion with SQL's use of SELECT) is a unary operation written asHEPN domain: In molecular biology, the HEPN domain (higher eukaryotes and prokaryotes nucleotide-binding domain) is a region of approximately 110 amino acids found in the C terminus of sacsin, a chaperonin implicated in an early-onset neurodegenerative disease in human, and in many bacterial and archaea proteins. There are three classes of proteins with HEPN domains:CpG OligodeoxynucleotideElectrophoresis (disambiguation): Electrophoresis is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Caesium bromideAndrew Dickson WhiteMargaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.CS-BLASTIntron: right|thumbnail|270px|Representation of intron and [[exons within a simple gene containing a single intron.]]Low-voltage electron microscope: Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. While the low voltage electron microscopy technique will never replace conventional high voltage electron microscopes, it is quickly becoming appreciated for many different disciplines.Polynucleotide: A polynucleotide molecule is a biopolymer composed of 13 or more nucleotide monomers covalently bonded in a chain. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) are examples of polynucleotides with distinct biological function.PhospholipidBeef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Direct repeat: Direct repeats are a type of genetic sequence that consists of two or more repeats of a specific sequence.Archaeosine synthase: Archaeosine synthase (, ArcS, TgtA2, MJ1022 (gene), glutamine:preQ0-tRNA amidinotransferase) is an enzyme with system name L-glutamine:7-cyano-7-carbaguanine aminotransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionC4H7N3O3Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.NADH-QPelagibacter ubique: Pelagibacter, with the single species P. ubique, was isolated in 2002 and given a specific name, although it has not yet been validly published according to the bacteriological code.Corynebacterium amycolatum: Corynebacterium amycolatum is a Gram-positive, nonspore-forming, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacillus capable of fermentation with propionic acid as the major end product of its glucose metabolism. One of its best known relatives is Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative agent of diphtheria.Ribonuclease T2: Ribonuclease T2 (, ribonuclease II, base-non-specific ribonuclease, nonbase-specific RNase, RNase (non-base specific), non-base specific ribonuclease, nonspecific RNase, RNase Ms, RNase M, RNase II, Escherichia coli ribonuclease II, ribonucleate nucleotido-2'-transferase (cyclizing), acid ribonuclease, RNAase CL, Escherichia coli ribonuclease I' ribonuclease PP2, ribonuclease N2, ribonuclease M, acid RNase, ribonnuclease (non-base specific), ribonuclease (non-base specific), RNase T2, ribonuclease PP3, ribonucleate 3'-oligonucleotide hydrolase, ribonuclease U4) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionClearing factor: In centrifugation the clearing factor or k factor represents the relative pelleting efficiency of a given centrifuge rotor at maximum rotation speed. It can be used to estimate the time t (in hours) required for sedimentation of a fraction with a known sedimentation coefficient s (in svedbergs):

(1/7084) Diversity of rhizobia associated with Amorpha fruticosa isolated from Chinese soils and description of Mesorhizobium amorphae sp. nov.

Fifty-five Chinese isolates from nodules of Amorpha fruticosa were characterized and compared with the type strains of the species and genera of bacteria which form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with leguminous host plants. A polyphasic approach, which included RFLP of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), DNA-DNA hybridization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, electrophoretic plasmid profiles, cross-nodulation and a phenotypic study, was used in the comparative analysis. The isolates originated from several different sites in China and they varied in their phenotypic and genetic characteristics. The majority of the isolates had moderate to slow growth rates, produced acid on YMA and harboured a 930 kb symbiotic plasmid (pSym). Five different RFLP patterns were identified among the 16S rRNA genes of all the isolates. Isolates grouped by PCR-RFLP of the 16S rRNA genes were also separated into groups by variation in MLEE profiles and by DNA-DNA hybridization. A representative isolate from each of these DNA homology groups had a separate position in a phylogenetic tree as determined from sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA genes. A new species, Mesorhizobium amorphae, is proposed for the majority of the isolates, which belonged to a moderately slow- to slow-growing, acid-producing group based upon their distinct phylogenetic position, their unique electrophoretic type, their low DNA homology with reference strains representing the species within the genus Mesorhizobium and their distinct phenotypic features. Strain ACCC 19665 was chosen as the type strain for M. amorphae sp. nov.  (+info)

(2/7084) Taxonomic relationships of the [Pasteurella] haemolytica complex as evaluated by DNA-DNA hybridizations and 16S rRNA sequencing with proposal of Mannheimia haemolytica gen. nov., comb. nov., Mannheimia granulomatis comb. nov., Mannheimia glucosida sp. nov., Mannheimia ruminalis sp. nov. and Mannheimia varigena sp. nov.

The present paper presents the conclusions of a polyphasic investigation of the taxonomy of the trehalose-negative [Pasteurella] haemolytica complex. Clusters previously identified by ribotyping and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) have been evaluated by 16S rRNA sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridizations. Results obtained by the different techniques were highly related and indicated that the [P.] haemolytica complex contains distinct genetic and phenotypic groups. At least seven species were outlined, five of which were named. We refrained in formal naming of more groups until additional strains are characterized. Five 16S rRNA clusters were identified corresponding to distinct lineages previously outlined by MEE. Within 16S rRNA cluster I two distinct genotypic groups have been outlined in addition to [P.] haemolytica sensu stricto (biogroup 1). Each of the clusters II, III, IV and V represent at least one new species. The investigations underline that [P.] haemolytica sensu stricto only contains strains that do not ferment L-arabinose even though they are referred to as 'biotype A' of [P.] haemolytica. The five 16S rRNA clusters identified had a common root relative to the other species within the family Pasteurellaceae, and the overall sequence similarity among these five clusters was higher than what is observed within the existing genera of the family. The allocation of the trehalose-negative [P.] haemolytica complex to a new genus seems to be indicated. Based on the polyphasic investigation performed a new genus Mannheimia is proposed for the trehalose-negative [P.] haemolytica complex. At the present stage two previously named species are transferred to this new genus and three new species are described. [P.] haemolytica is reclassified as Mannheimia haemolytica comb. nov., whereas Pasteurella granulomatis, Bisgaard taxon 20 and [P.] haemolytica biovar 3J are reclassified and combined in the species Mannheimia granulomatis comb. nov. Mannheimia glucosida sp. nov. corresponds to [P.] haemolytica biogroups 3A-3H and the beta-glucosidase and meso-inositol-positive strains of [P.] haemolytica biogroup 9. All typable strains within M. glucosida belong to serotype 11. Mannheimia ruminalis sp. nov. consists of strains previously classified as Bisgaard taxon 18 and [P.] haemolytica biogroup 8D. Finally, Mannheimia varigena sp. nov. includes [P.] haemolytica biogroup 6 as well as Bisgaard taxon 15 and Bisgaard taxon 36. The type strains are NCTC 9380T (M. haemolytica), ATCC 49244T (M. granulomatis), CCUG 38457T = P925T (M. glucosida), CCUG 38470T = HPA92T (M. ruminalis) and CCUG 38462T = 177T (M. varigena).  (+info)

(3/7084) Proposal to transfer Halococcus turkmenicus, Halobacterium trapanicum JCM 9743 and strain GSL-11 to Haloterrigena turkmenica gen. nov., comb. nov.

The 16S rRNA gene sequences of Halococcus saccharolyticus and Halococcus salifodinae were closely related (94.5-94.7% similarity) to that of Halococcus morrhuae, the type species of the genus Halococcus. However, Halococcus turkmenicus was distinct from the other members of this genus, with low 16S rRNA similarities when compared to Halococcus morrhuae (88.7%). On the basis of phylogenetic tree reconstruction, detection of signature bases and DNA-DNA hybridization data, it is proposed to transfer Halococcus turkmenicus to a novel genus, Haloterrigena, as Haloterrigena turkmenica gen. nov., comb. nov., and to accommodate Halobacterium trapanicum JCM 9743 and strain GSL-11 in the same species. On the basis of morphological, cultural and 16S rRNA sequence data, it is also proposed that the culture collection strains of Halobacterium trapanicum NCIMB 767, ATCC 43102 and JCM 8979 should be renamed as Halococcus sp.  (+info)

(4/7084) Actinobacillus succinogenes sp. nov., a novel succinic-acid-producing strain from the bovine rumen.

Strain 130ZT was isolated from the bovine rumen. It is a facultatively anaerobic, pleomorphic, Gram-negative rod. It exhibits a 'Morse code' form of morphology, which is characteristic of the genus Actinobacillus. Strain 130ZT is a capnophilic, osmotolerant succinogen that utilizes a broad range of sugars. It accumulates high concentrations of succinic acid (> 70 g l-1). Strain 130ZT is positive for catalase, oxidase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-galactosidase, but does not produce indole or urease. Acid but no gas is produced from D-glucose and D-fructose. 16S rRNA sequence analysis places strain 130ZT within the family Pasteurellaceae; the most closely related members of the family Pasteurellaceae have 16S rRNA similarities of 95.5% or less with strain 130ZT. Strain 130ZT was compared with Actinobacillus lignieresii and the related Bisgaard Taxa 6 and 10. Based upon morphological and biochemical properties, strain 130ZT is most similar to members of the genus Actinobacillus within the family Pasteurellaceae. It is proposed that strain 130ZT be classified as a new species, Actinobacillus succinogenes. The type strain of Actinobacillus succinogenes sp. nov. is ATCC 55618T.  (+info)

(5/7084) Anaerobic oxidation of o-xylene, m-xylene, and homologous alkylbenzenes by new types of sulfate-reducing bacteria.

Various alkylbenzenes were depleted during growth of an anaerobic, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with crude oil as the only source of organic substrates. From this culture, two new types of mesophilic, rod-shaped sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains oXyS1 and mXyS1, were isolated with o-xylene and m-xylene, respectively, as organic substrates. Sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates affiliated with known completely oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria of the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Strain oXyS1 showed the highest similarities to Desulfobacterium cetonicum and Desulfosarcina variabilis (similarity values, 98.4 and 98.7%, respectively). Strain mXyS1 was less closely related to known species, the closest relative being Desulfococcus multivorans (similarity value, 86.9%). Complete mineralization of o-xylene and m-xylene was demonstrated in quantitative growth experiments. Strain oXyS1 was able to utilize toluene, o-ethyltoluene, benzoate, and o-methylbenzoate in addition to o-xylene. Strain mXyS1 oxidized toluene, m-ethyltoluene, m-isoproyltoluene, benzoate, and m-methylbenzoate in addition to m-xylene. Strain oXyS1 did not utilize m-alkyltoluenes, whereas strain mXyS1 did not utilize o-alkyltoluenes. Like the enrichment culture, both isolates grew anaerobically on crude oil with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide.  (+info)

(6/7084) Comparison of flagellin genes from clinical and environmental Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important opportunistic pathogen, was isolated from environmental samples and compared to clinically derived strains. While P. aeruginosa was isolated readily from an experimental mushroom-growing unit, it was found only rarely in other environmental samples. A flagellin gene PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the isolates revealed that environmental and clinical P. aeruginosa strains are not readily distinguishable. The variation in the central regions of the flagellin genes of seven of the isolates was investigated further. The strains used included two strains with type a genes (998 bp), four strains with type b genes (1,258 bp), and one strain, K979, with a novel flagellin gene (2,199 bp). The route by which flagellin gene variation has occurred in P. aeruginosa is discussed.  (+info)

(7/7084) A computer-driven approach to PCR-based differential screening, alternative to differential display.

MOTIVATION: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based RNA fingerprinting is a powerful tool for the isolation of differentially expressed genes in studies of neoplasia, differentiation or development. Arbitrarily primed RNA fingerprinting is capable of targeting coding regions of genes, as opposed to differential display techniques, which target 3' non-coding cDNA. In order to be of general use and to permit a systematic survey of differential gene expression, RNA fingerprinting has to be standardized and a number of highly efficient and selective arbitrary primers must be identified. RESULTS: We have applied a rational approach to generate a representative panel of high-efficiency oligonucleotides for RNA fingerprinting studies, which display marked affinity for coding portions of known genes and, as shown by preliminary results, of novel ones. The choice of oligonucleotides was driven by computer simulations of RNA fingerprinting reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR experiments, performed on two custom-generated, non-redundant nucleotide databases, each containing the complete collection of deposited human or murine cDNAs. The simulation approach and experimental protocol proposed here permit the efficient isolation of coding cDNA fragments from differentially expressed genes. AVAILABILITY: Freely available on request from the authors. CONTACT: fesce.riccardo@hsr.it  (+info)

(8/7084) Hypermutation in Ig V genes from mice deficient in the MLH1 mismatch repair protein.

During somatic hypermutation of Ig V genes, mismatched nucleotide substitutions become candidates for removal by the DNA mismatch repair pathway. Previous studies have shown that V genes from mice deficient for the MSH2 and PMS2 mismatch repair proteins have frequencies of mutation that are comparable with those from wild-type (wt) mice; however, the pattern of mutation is altered. Because the absence of MSH2 and PMS2 produced different mutational spectra, we examined the role of another protein involved in mismatch repair, MLH1, on the frequency and pattern of hypermutation. MLH1-deficient mice were immunized with oxazolone Ag, and splenic B cells were analyzed for mutations in their V kappa Ox1 light chain genes. Although the frequency of mutation in MLH1-deficient mice was twofold lower than in wt mice, the pattern of mutation in Mlh1-/- clones was similar to wt clones. These findings suggest that the MLH1 protein has no direct effect on the mutational spectrum.  (+info)



relates

  • The invention relates to an alloy composition possessing improved properties of mechanical resistance. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The invention also relates to the process for preparing this composition and the use of these compositions for the manufacture of films intended for the paper market and for packages made from biodegradable plastic. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This invention relates to a base composition capable of increasing the percutaneous absorption of drugs, to a pharmaceutical composition for external use in which said base composition is used, and to a method of promoting the percutaneous absorption of drugs. (google.com.au)
  • more specifically, it relates to bioadhesive compositions comprising collagen crosslinked using a multifunctionally activated synthetic hydrophilic polymer, as well as methods of using such compositions to effect adhesion between a first surface and a second surface, wherein at least one of the first and second surfaces is preferably a native tissue surface. (google.fr)
  • The invention relates to medicine, hepatology and pharmacology and can be used for producing and using a pharmaceutical composition based on a hepatoprotector and a prebiotic for treating and preventing liver diseases which are caused by lipid-cholesterol exchange and selected from the following group: cholelitiasis mainly with cholesterol stones, alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, biliary cirrhosis, cholesterol imbibition gallbladder and drug-induced and toxic liver damage. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • It furthermore relates to a licking element with such a composition, a process for the production of such a licking element as well as its application. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The present invention relates to shampoo compositions. (specialchem.com)
  • In particular, the invention relates to shampoo compositions, which are substantially free of silicone conditioning agents. (specialchem.com)

comprises

  • A composition capable of promoting the skin permeation or percutaneous absorption of a drug, which comprises a lower alcohol and at least one member of the group consisting of a saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon containing 5 to 20 carbon atoms, which may optionally be halogen-substituted, a monohydric. (google.com.au)
  • 2. A composition according to claim 1, wherein said adjuvant comprises said (1). (google.com.au)
  • A particularly preferred composition comprises. (google.fr)
  • A particularly preferred composition comprises fibrillar collagen, a fiber disassembly agent, and a multifunctionally activated synthetic hydrophilic polymer. (google.fr)
  • 2. The pharmaceutical composition according to claim 1, wherein the hepatoprotector further comprises amino acids. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The pharmaceutical composition according to claim 1, wherein the hepatoprotector further comprises active components of milk thistle plant extracts. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. The pharmaceutical composition according to claim 1, wherein the hepatoprotector further comprises other bile acids or bile acid salts. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 7. The pharmaceutical composition according to claim 1, wherein the prebiotic further comprises fructooligosaccharides. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. The composition of claim 1, wherein said composition comprises a first polypeptide molecule containing said first antigenic domain and a second polypeptide molecule containing said second antigenic domain. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 7. The composition of claim 6, wherein each of said first and second polypeptides comprises a GP5 transmembrane domain. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 11. The composition of claim 10, wherein said composition comprises from two to four PRRSV isolates, two of which comprise said first and second domains. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 2. The silicone-based gel of claim 1, wherein the silicone-based gel further comprises at least approximately 50% silicone or silicone variant. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 3. The silicone-based gel of claim 2, wherein the glucocorticoid comprises fluticasone, and the antihistamine comprises loratadine. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 5. The silicone-based gel of claim 4, wherein the nerve depressant comprises gabapentin. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 10. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 7 , which further comprises a cytokine. (google.com)
  • 12. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 1 , which comprises more than one peptide, each of which binds to different MHC-subtypes of said individual to be treated. (google.com)
  • 13. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 1 , wherein said composition comprises one or more peptides which are derived from a naturally occurring immunogenic protein or tumor antigen, or a cellular breakdown product thereof. (google.com)
  • 3. A laundry detergent or cleaning composition according to claim 1 wherein the detergent or cleaning composition comprises from about 1% to about 20% by weight of the hydrophobic group-containing copolymer composition. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 4. A laundry detergent or cleaning composition according to claim 1 wherein the detergent or composition further comprises a surfactant system. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 6. A laundry detergent or cleaning composition according to claim 4 wherein the surfactant system comprises C 8 -C 18 linear alkyl sulfonate surfactant. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 7. A laundry detergent or cleaning composition according claim 4 wherein the surfactant system further comprises one or more co-surfactants selected from the group consisting of nonionic surfactants, cationic surfactants, anionic surfactants, and mixtures thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)

invention

  • Purpose] The purpose of the present invention is to produce a polymer composition with an improved dispersibility for lime soap when used as a detergent and to provide a method for production of the same. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The present invention pertains to a polyoxyalkylene-based polymer composition and to a method for production of same. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The present invention further pertains to a polyoxyalkylene-based polymer composition polymerized without a solvent or in the presence of a small amount of the solvent, and to a method for production of same. (patentsencyclopedia.com)

pharmaceutical composition

  • The pharmaceutical composition is administered by mouth and contains a hepatoprotector and a prebiotic taken, as an active agent, in therapeutically effective doses. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. The pharmaceutical composition according to claim 5, wherein the bile acids or bile acid salts are selected from the group consisting of chenodesoxycholic acid (CDCA), desoxycholic acid (DCA), lithochloic acid (LCA), taurodesoxycholic acid (TDCA), hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA), taurocholic acid (TCA), glycochloic acid (GCA), and combinations thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 11. The pharmaceutical composition according to claim 1, wherein the prebiotic is lactulose in a ratio of 1:2 by mass of pure substances. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Pharmaceutical composition containing at least one peptide or protein (fragment) with an immunomodulatory activity together with an adjuvant. (google.com)
  • 2. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 1 , wherein said MHC molecule is an MHC-I molecule. (google.com)
  • 4. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 1 , wherein said peptides are derived from a protein of a pathogenic agent. (google.com)
  • 5. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 4 , wherein said pathogenic agent is a bacterium. (google.com)
  • 8. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 7 , wherein said tumor antigen is expressed by said individual to be treated. (google.com)
  • 9. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 7 , wherein said tumor antigen is a melanoma antigen. (google.com)
  • 15. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 1 , wherein said peptide is an antagonist of a peptide which is derived from a protein which causes an autoimmune disease. (google.com)
  • 16. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 1 , wherein said peptide is negatively charged. (google.com)
  • 2. A pharmaceutical composition according to claim 1, wherein the composition is a microemulsion or a nano-sized emulsion. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 3. A pharmaceutical composition according to claim 1, wherein the propylene carbonate is water-miscible. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 5. A pharmaceutical composition according to claim 1, wherein the at least one oil is selected from the group consisting of alkyl, dialkyl, trialkyl, acyl, diacyl, triacyl, monoglycerides, diglycerides and triglycerides of mono- di- or tri-carboxylic acids selected from the group consisting of saturated mono- di- or tri-carboxylic acids and mono- or di- or tri-carboxylic acids containing ethylenic unsaturation. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 6. A pharmaceutical composition according to claim 1, wherein the at least one oil or source of fatty acid is selected from amides, ethoxylated fats, mineral oil, petrolatum, vegetable oil, animal fats, and polyols. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 8. A pharmaceutical composition according to claim 1, further comprising at least one muco-adhesive. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 9. A pharmaceutical composition according to claim 8, wherein the at least one muco-adhesive is selected from acrylic polymers, polysaccharides, cellulose derivatives, cationized polymers, proteins, glycoproteins, and lectins. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 14. A pharmaceutical composition according to claim 13, wherein the at least one surfactant is selected from ionic or non-ionic surfactants. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 15. A pharmaceutical composition according to claim 13, wherein the at least one surfactant is selected from bile salts and their derivatives thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)

protein

  • The disclosure is based in part on the use of two or more peptide domains, each with a different sequence, from the PRRSV GP5 protein ectodomain. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • This study is designed to assess the effect of a diet-controlled nutrition program utilizing an egg-based higher protein diet on muscle composition and size, and indices of metabolic health and markers of systemic inflammation in older men and women who are slightly overweight. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The gene responsible for coding the crotamine protein is labeled as Crt-p1 and its base pair sequence length is about 1.1kbp or 1100 bp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies indicate that long-term diet is strongly associated with the gut microbiome composition-those who eat plenty of protein and animal fats have predominantly Bacteroides bacteria, while for those who consume more carbohydrates the Prevotella species dominate. (wikipedia.org)
  • These states include the genetic sequence (ancestral sequence reconstruction), the amino acid sequence of a protein, the composition of a genome (e.g., gene order), a measurable characteristic of an organism (phenotype), and the geographic range of an ancestral population or species (ancestral range reconstruction). (wikipedia.org)

preparations

  • Traditional European and Indian medicines acknowledge the power of galenical preparations, based on blessed thistle leaves and blessed thistle flowering tops, in curing anorexia, flatulence, dyspepsia, digestion problems and loss of appetite. (syl.com)

substantially

  • 5. A composition comprising fibrillar collagen, a biocompatible alcohol, and a multifunctionally activated synthetic hydrophilic polymer, wherein the biocompatible alcohol is present in an amount sufficient to render the collagen substantially nonfibrillar at pH 7, and wherein the collagen and synthetic polymer covalently bind to form a collagen--synthetic polymer conjugate. (google.fr)

genome

  • Genome size and base c. (oup.com)
  • The genome is a linear positive sense ssRNA ranging in size from 9000-12000 bases/nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alignment to a reference genome allows the programs to identify base pairs within the genome that are methylated. (wikipedia.org)

polymer

  • The composition contains a starch, which is preferably plasticised, and a polymer which acts as coupling agent which is chosen from the group consisting of polyolefins modified by chemical functional groups which are active towards the hydroxyl functional groups of starch. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Generally, the composition also contains a thermoplastic polymer. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Polymer base blend compositions containing destructurized starch. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 16. A composition, comprising a starch and a polymer acting as coupling agent, selected from the group consisting of polyethylene modified by grafting maleic anhydride, and terpolymers containing units derived from maleic anhydride, the ratio of the dynamic modulus of elasticity G' of said composition to the dissipative modulus G" of said composition being greater than 1.6. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The compositions comprise collagen crosslinked using a multifunctionally activated synthetic hydrophilic polymer. (google.fr)
  • 3. The composition of claim 1, wherein the multifunctionally activated synthetic hydrophilic polymer is a multifunctionally activated polyethylene glycol. (google.fr)

Algorithms

  • he writes programs and algorithms that can analyse existing music and create new compositions in the style of the original input music. (wikipedia.org)

accordance with claim

  • 2. A photocopolymerizable composition in accordance with claim 1, wherein said first organic material is selected from the group consisting of cycloaliphatic epoxides, glycidyl esters, glycidyl ethers, epoxy novolaks, aliphatic epoxides, polymers and copolymers of acrylic acid esters of glycidol and copolymerizable vinyl compounds, and epoxidized polyalkadienes. (google.com)
  • 9. Licking element in accordance with claim 8, further comprising a biodegradable protective layer, which is arranged on the top of the licking element, in particular a starch-based foil. (patentsencyclopedia.com)

transdermal

  • 0% by weight of the silicone-based gel, the second active ingredient comprising antihistamine, wherein the topical application of the silicone-based gel allows for transdermal administration of the first and second active ingredients simultaneously. (patentsencyclopedia.com)

claim

  • 2. The composition according to claim 1, wherein the G'/G" ratio is greater than 1.7. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The composition according to claim 1, wherein the starch is plasticised with a plasticiser selected from the group consisting of glycerine, diglycerine, polyglycerine, sorbitol, a polyol and mixtures thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. The composition according to claim 1, further comprising a polyethylene. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. The composition according to claim 1, wherein the starch used is destructurized or pregelatinised. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. The composition according to claim 1, wherein the starch contains more than 70% by weight of amylopectin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. The composition according to claim 5, wherein the starch used contains up to about 50% by weight of plasticiser expressed relative to the total weight of the starch and the plasticiser. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 9. A biodegradable film comprising a composition according to claim 1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. The composition of claim 1, wherein the fiber disassembly agent is a biocompatible alcohol selected from the group consisting of glycerol and propylene glycol. (google.fr)
  • 4. The composition of claim 3, wherein the multifunctionally activated polyethylene glycol is selected from the group consisting of difunctionally activated SG-PEG and difunctionally activated SE-PEG. (google.fr)
  • 8. The composition of claim 6, wherein at least one of said first and second polypeptides is membrane bound or membrane associated. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 9. The composition of claim 6, wherein at least one of said first and second polypeptides is associated with a PRRSV viral particle. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 10. The composition of claim 9, wherein said viral particle is a virion. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 13. The composition of claim 6, further comprising one or more additional polypeptides comprising a conserved GP5 motif covalently linked to an HV-2 hypervariable region wherein said one or more additional polypeptides contains a HV-2 hypervariable region different from said first and second polypeptides. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 14. A method of preparing a composition according to claim 6, said method comprisingidentifying or selecting a first polypeptide molecule containing said first domain and a second polypeptide molecule containing said second domain, andcombining said first and second polypeptides to form a composition. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 2. Sealing and adhesive compositions as claimed in claim 1, comprising alkoxysilane-terminated polyurethanes in quantities of 20 to 50%, by weight, diurethanes in quantities of 5 to 50% by weight, and, optionally, other additives in quantities of 0 to 75% by weight, based on the particular composition. (google.com)
  • 4. Sealing and adhesive compositions as claimed in claim 3, wherein the alkoxysilane-terminated polyurethanes have been produced by reaction of alkoxysilanes with NCO-terminated polyurethane prepolymers having an average NCO functionality of at least 2 obtained OH-terminated polyol mixtures and diisocyanates. (google.com)
  • 6. Sealing and adhesive compositions as claimed in claim 5, wherein the NCO-terminated polyurethane prepolymers have been produced from linear OH-terminated polyol mixtures which contain polypropylene glycol having a number average molecular weight of 1000 to 6000. (google.com)
  • 11. A pharmaceutical micro-emulsion composition according to claim 10, wherein the at least one gelling agent is selected from cationized guar gum, cellulose derivatives, acrylic polymers, polysaccharides, lipids, proteins, and polyhydroxy compounds. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 2. A laundry detergent or cleaning composition according to claim 1 wherein the laundry detergent or cleaning composition is selected from the group consisting of liquid laundry detergent compositions, solid laundry detergent compositions, hard surface cleaning compositions, liquid hand dishwashing compositions, solid automatic dishwashing compositions, liquid automatic dishwashing compositions, and tab/unit dose form automatic dishwashing compositions. (patentsencyclopedia.com)

manufacture

  • By the 1960s, US manufacturers had switched to butadiene-based synthetic rubber, as it was cheaper to manufacture. (wikipedia.org)

hydroxyl

  • Photocopolymerizable compositions are described which contain epoxides, organic material with hydroxyl functionality, and a photosensitive aromatic sulfonium or iodonium salt of a halogen-containing complex ion. (google.com)

interact

  • Like other MUDs, it was an online realm that allowed people to interact in real time by connecting to a central server, assuming a virtual identity within that realm, "teleporting" (in other words, transporting your character) or "walking" to virtual rooms, and holding text-based conversations with others who had entered the same virtual room. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its computing model is concurrent, based on active objects which interact via syntax controlled dialogs. (wikipedia.org)

compositional

  • Fast-paced life style, along with the expansion of middle-class consumers and digitization-based new consumerism, prompts the need for compositional offering. (wikipedia.org)
  • The above three elements reinforce one another, reflecting the faces of composition at the product level (compositional offering), market level (compositional competition), and organizational level (compositional capability). (wikipedia.org)
  • His compositional aesthetics are broad and somewhat different in every piece - many compositions feature wholly unique notational systems that the composer himself has invented. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zonnon uses a compositional inheritance model based on aggregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Originally contrasted with "pure" elektronische Musik (based solely on the production and manipulation of electronically produced sounds rather than recorded sounds), the theoretical basis of musique concrète as a compositional practice was developed by Pierre Schaeffer, beginning in the early 1940s. (wikipedia.org)

methods

  • Methods are disclosed for using the compositions to effect the attachment of a native tissue to the surface of another native tissue, a non-native tissue, or a synthetic implant. (google.fr)
  • The disclosure includes compositions and methods for the production of an immune response against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus, or PRRSV. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Compositions and methods comprising polypeptides containing the two or more domains, or nucleic acids encoding them, are described. (patentsencyclopedia.com)

silicone

  • Preferably, a silicone-based gel may be provided as a base composition and may have a non-zero percentage of silicone or silicone variant. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The silicone-based gel may include a combination of fluticasone, loratadine, and gabapentin. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The silicone-based gel may also have one or more local anesthetics, such as prilocaine and/or lidocaine. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 0% by weight of the silicone-based gel. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 0% by weight of the silicone-based gel, the fourth active ingredient comprising a muscle relaxant, an anticonvulsant, or a NSAID (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug). (patentsencyclopedia.com)

species

  • Flow cytometry measurements with two staining techniques, PI and DAPI, were used to estimate 2C values and base composition (AT/GC ratio) in 390 samples from 54 wild populations of the two natural hybrids and their parental species. (oup.com)

plasticizers

  • Described are moisture-curing sealing and/or adhesive compositions based on alkoxysilane-terminated polyurethanes and containing diurethanes as plasticizers. (google.com)
  • Table 2: Common Ingredients in the Formulation of Modern Chewing Gum Gum base is made of polymers, plasticizers, and resins. (wikipedia.org)

composer

  • In the same period the American composer Henry Cowell, in referring to the projects of Nikolai Lopatnikoff, believed that "there was a wide field open for the composition of music for phonographic discs. (wikipedia.org)

suitable

  • Prior to service composition, the most important issue in finding suitable candidate services samples is their compliance with non-functional requirements. (ac.ir)

synthetic

  • Collagen-based compositions useful in the attachment of tissues, or the attachment of tissues to synthetic implant materials, are disclosed. (google.fr)

special

  • The view cautions though that composition-generated advantages are temporary in nature and that composition itself mandates special skills in distinctively identifying, leveraging, and combining open or existing resources inside and outside the firm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Special medically potent blessed thistle composition has brought the plant under cultivation and made it the product of commerce. (syl.com)

method

  • For this purpose, modified graph coloring method to filter the data before compositions in large-scale data is used which decreases selected services set. (ac.ir)
  • Also described is a method of preparing the moisture-curing sealing and/or adhesive compositions and their use as joint sealants. (google.com)
  • citation needed] Cope is the inventor of US Patent #7696426 Recombinant Music Composition Algorithm and Method of Using the Same. (wikipedia.org)

computer-based

  • Most recently, all of his original compositions have been written in collaboration with the computer-based on an input of his earlier works. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can feature sounds derived from recordings of musical instruments, the human voice, and the natural environment as well as those created using synthesizers and computer-based digital signal processing. (wikipedia.org)

form

  • Milton Babbitt - quoted in Welsh, "The Music of Stuart Saunders Smith") Stuart Saunders Smith has done very important and unique work in the fields of open-form composition and jazz. (wikipedia.org)

process

  • DNA fragments of 40-220 base pair are representative of the majority of promoter sequences and CpG islands Bisulfite conversion: The DNA fragments are then bisulfite converted, which is a process that deaminates unmethylated cytosine into a uracil. (wikipedia.org)

present

  • and wherein said photoinitiator is present in said composition in an amount of about 0.1 to 30 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of combined first and second organic materials. (google.com)

unit

  • The first two are instantiated at runtime, the third is a compile time unit of abstraction, and the fourth is a unit of composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a unit of reuse and composition that is aggregated into the state space of an object (or module), either at compile time or at runtime. (wikipedia.org)

automatic

  • Automatic Service Composition Based on Graph Coloring', Journal of Advances in Computer Research , 9(2), pp. 91-102. (ac.ir)
  • This paper provides an approach for automatic quality-aware service composition as well as the users' preferences in achieving the optimum composition results. (ac.ir)

view

  • The composition-based view (CBV) was recently developed by Luo and Child (2015). (wikipedia.org)
  • The CBV complements some existing theories such as resource-based view (RBV), resource management view, and dynamic capability - to create novel insights into the survival of firms that do not possess such strategic assets as original technologies and brands. (wikipedia.org)
  • This view is based in part on the degenerate genetic code, in which sequences of three nucleotides (codons) may differ and yet encode the same amino acid (GCC and GCA both encode alanine, for example). (wikipedia.org)

content

  • Two natural hybrids, Narcissus × alentejanus (2 n = 19) and N. × perezlarae (2 n = 29), originated by one progenitor ( N. cavanillesii , 2 n = 28) and two others ( N. serotinus , 2 n = 10 and N. miniatus , 2 n = 30, respectively) allow us to study how DNA content and composition varies in such hybrids. (oup.com)

application

  • The application of KPL algorithm in this study provided some proper solutions to the user so that these solutions can be used instead of the best composition if necessary. (ac.ir)
  • The documented chemical composition of blessed thistle, the profound studies of its effects and numerous in vivo and in vitro experiments have provided scientific grounding for the most adequate application of the curative powers of blessed thistle leaves and blessed thistle flowering tops. (syl.com)

properties

  • These properties can be tailored by controlling the base-glass composition and by controlled heat treatment/crystallization of base glass. (wikipedia.org)

natural

  • The Aztec, as well as the ancient Maya before them, used chicle, a natural tree gum, as a base for making a gum-like substance and to stick objects together in everyday use. (wikipedia.org)

pair

  • This results in a non-random base pair composition. (wikipedia.org)

important

  • There are three important concepts or notions that constitute composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of Schaeffer's practice was informed by encounters with voice actors, and microphone usage and radiophonic art played an important part in inspiring and consolidating Schaeffer's conception of sound-based composition (Dack 1994, 3-11). (wikipedia.org)

service

  • Service composition provides new components by using an interactive model to accelerate the programs. (ac.ir)
  • Recently, numerous studies have been done to reduce the search time in finding a service composition. (ac.ir)

particularly

  • The composition is particularly intended for use as a vaccine, e.g. as a tumour vaccine. (google.com)

types

  • citation needed] His subsequent Emily Howell program models musical creativity based on the types of creativity outlined by Margaret Boden in her book The Creative Mind: Myths and Mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)

Music

  • 1992. "A Computer Model of Music Composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • An Expert System for Computer-Assisted Music Composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • He studied harmony, counterpoint, and arranging at the Berklee School of Music in 1966, and continued his percussion and composition studies at the Hartt College of Music (1967-1972) and the University of Illinois at Urbana (1973-1977). (wikipedia.org)
  • He specialized in folk-music based compositions. (wikipedia.org)
  • His works are based on Dominican folk music, usually merengue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In opposition to the way he later recorded soundtrack music - watching the filmed material, then composing to it - in this instance he simply recorded a suite of generic tunes (based on the wildlife theme of the project, but not having access to it) and left it to the film editors to splice-in whatever they needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the late 1960s onward, and particularity in France, the term acousmatic music (musique acousmatique) started to be used in reference to fixed media compositions that utilized both musique concrète based techniques and live sound spatialisation. (wikipedia.org)

model

  • Its conceptual model is based on objects, definitions, implementations and modules. (wikipedia.org)

made

  • Blessed thistle composition is also made use of in cholagogic and gastrointestinal medicals, which prove its effectiveness. (syl.com)