Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Industrial Oils: Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.Air Bags: Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Seat Belts: Restraining belts fastened to the frame of automobiles, aircraft, or other vehicles, and strapped around the person occupying the seat in the car or plane, intended to prevent the person from being thrown forward or out of the vehicle in case of sudden deceleration.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Accident Prevention: Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Mechanics: The branch of physics which deals with the motions of material bodies, including kinematics, dynamics, and statics. When the laws of mechanics are applied to living structures, as to the locomotor system, it is referred to as BIOMECHANICAL PHENOMENA. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.New MexicoAutomobile Driver Examination: Government required written and driving test given to individuals prior to obtaining an operator's license.Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.AcroleinSafety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Thoracic Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.MichiganEquipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.United States

*  Patent US6308813 - Fluid controlled interlock mechanism and method - Google Patents

Magnet assembly 130 is preferably mounted to a fixed point, such as the frame of the automobile. If magnet assembly 130 shown ... It should be understood that although use of the interlock mechanism in an automobile is shown and described, the interlock ... For example, deactivation of an automobile security system may be required. If each of these conditions is met, then the ... One application of the interlocking mechanism just described is in an automobile gear shift. As shown in FIG. 3, tubular ...
google.com.au/patents/US6308813

*  Customer Stories | Dell Puerto Rico

Mikuni drives automobile industry innovation by designing fuel-efficient engines 01 Dec 2016 ... 58.com increases average business process speed to drive growth 01 Dec 2016 ...
dell.com/learn/pr/en/prcorp1/viewall/customer-stories?page=5&pageSize=10

*  Ability and fitness to drive of Parkinson's disease patients.

The authors review reports in the literature on the fitness and ability to drive of neurosurgical patients and subjects ... Automobile Driving / legislation & jurisprudence, psychology*, statistics & numerical data. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. ... The authors review reports in the literature on the fitness and ability to drive of neurosurgical patients and subjects ... 17470236 - Poor recognition of the uk minimum driving vision standard by motorists attending optom.... 21942156 - Factors ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Ability-fitness-to-drive-Parkinsons/10713896.html

*  Obstetric aspects of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

14718014 - Fetal heart rate and uterine contraction during automobile driving.. 9539504 - The effect of uterine contractions on ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Obstetric-aspects-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy/20638984.html

*  Matthew P Reed - Research Output - The University of Michigan

Statistical Models for Predicting Automobile Driving Postures for Men and Women Including Effects of Age. Park, J., Ebert, S. M ... Development of an Optimization Method for Locating the Pelvis in an Automobile Seat. Park, J., Ebert, S. M., Reed, M. P. & ... A statistical model including age to predict passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles. Park, J., Ebert, S. M., Reed ...
https://experts.umich.edu/en/persons/matthew-p-reed/publications/

*  Male Infertility and Its Causes in Human

... automobile driving time per day [11], air pollution [12], regional differences in residential population density [13], mumps [ ...
https://hindawi.com/journals/au/2012/384520/

*  Patent US5916181 - Head gear for detecting head motion and providing an indication of head movement - Google Patents

... automobile driving and aircraft piloting. ... Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More ». Sign ... Drive to the speaker can be provided by one (or more) of the programmable I/O pins of the processor. The speaker is preferably ... Many automobile accidents are caused when the driver falls asleep at the wheel or when the driver is distracted and looks away ... For example, certain movements of an automobile driver's head indicate that the driver has fallen asleep at the wheel or is not ...
google.com.au/patents/US5916181

*  What's happening in Japan right now?: 2月 2013

6) Automobile drive map by HONDA (default off). 7) Phone service map (default off)- red represents areas where mobile phones ...
fumijp.blogspot.com/2013/02/

*  Mary Ritcherson, prisoner of the war on drugs

On June 1, 1988, David was pulled over while driving Mary's automobile. His sister, Lisa, was in the car with him, and she ... He moved in with her and often drove her car. Unbeknownst to Mary or David, he was already under surveillance. ...
november.org/thewall/ritcherson_mary.html

*  Chapter 317. Allergies, Anaphylaxis, and Systemic Mastocytosis | Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18e |...

... including reduced eye-hand coordination and impaired automobile driving skills. Their anticholinergic (muscarinic) effects ...
accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=331§ionid=40727118

*  Dem's tweet spikes the ball on health care, draws ire - CNN Political Ticker - CNN.com Blogs

Bob...Put your thinking cap on Bob.....Driving an automobile is a "choice" If you choose not to drive and ride the bus instead ... guess what?.......you don' t pay for insurance! But, if you choose to drive, guess what again?....you must have insurance.... ...
politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com/2012/06/28/dems-tweet-spikes-the-ball-on-health-care-draws-ire/comment-page-11/

*  Recurrent prostate cancer | definition of Recurrent prostate cancer by Medical dictionary

Avoid strenuous exercise, heavy lifting, and driving an automobile until the physician allows. ... Building 31, Room 10A31 31 Center Drive, MSC 2580, Bethesda, MD 20892-2580. (800) 4-CANCER. http://cancernet.nci.nih.gov. ...
https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Recurrent prostate cancer

*  Drive | Define Drive at Dictionary.com

... to drive away the flies; to drive back an attacking army; to drive a person to desperation. See more. ... Drive definition, to send, expel, or otherwise cause to move by force or compulsion: ... 2, 15. Drive, ride are used interchangeably to mean traveling in an automobile or, formerly, in a horse-drawn vehicle. These ... verb drives, driving, drove (drəʊv), driven (ˈdrɪvən) 1. to push, propel, or be pushed or propelled ...
dictionary.com/browse/drive?qsrc=2446

*  What Are The Other Symptoms Of Alzheimer's Disease -- Other Than Memory Loss? - ABC News

This often comes up when operating appliances, having difficulty knowing how to do that, driving an automobile and trying to ...
abcnews.go.com/Health/AlzheimersQuestions/story?id=7401870

*  471 F2d 923 United States v. Alexander | OpenJurist

Alexander, Murdock, and Frazier fled to Alexander's automobile and drove off rapidly in the wrong direction on a oneway street ... Alexander was driving, and as the car drove off, Murdock fired three more shots from the window of the car, at the door of the ... suggested that Alexander was aiding and abetting because he drove the automobile during the joint flight. This was obvious ... After dinner, they drove to Washington, arriving about midnight, still wearing their formal dress white uniforms. They stopped ...
https://openjurist.org/471/f2d/923/united-states-v-alexander

*  Patent US6748225 - Method and system for the determination of location by retail signage and ... - Google Patents

... directions are incongruous with the notion of driving an automobile with both hands on the wheel and both eyes on the road. ... The driving directions provided by these online mapping sites have their limitations. The driving directions are typically ... To plot a driving route, the computer(s) at these mapping sites calculate the longitude and latitude of the starting point and ... The driving directions provided by the mapping algorithms attempt to address this problem by providing specific and detailed ...
google.ca/patents/US6748225

*  Difference between revisions of "Glossary" - LackaWiki

... driving automobiles, and wearing short skirts.[37] Ivy is a flapper. ... local.aaca.org/bntc/slang/slang.htm Struggle Buggy defined at the Antique Automobile Club of America],/ref, Rocky in particular ... local.aaca.org/bntc/slang/slang.htm Struggle Buggy defined at the Antique Automobile Club of America],/ref, Rocky in particular ...
lackadaisycats.com/wiki/index.php?title=Glossary&diff=2935&oldid=2825

*  Patente US20080027347 - Minimally Invasive Monitoring Methods - Google Patentes

... are often significantly limited in their ability to work in many industries and usually cannot legally drive an automobile. An ... The EEG data may thereafter be stored in memory 72, such as a hard drive, RAM, permanent or removable Flash Memory, or the like ... B squeda Im genes Maps Play YouTube Noticias Gmail Drive M s » ... for detecting neural signals and using neural signals to drive ...
google.es/patents/US20080027347?hl=es&dq=flatulence

*  Front Sight Firearms Training Institute

If you are the type of person who never settles for good enough or second best... If you choose the automobile you drive based ...
https://frontsight.com/diamond-membership.asp

*  CEU pdf 164 by Brett Johnson - issuu

forthcoming). For instance, a person who uses heavily on weekends may be at risk of driving an automobile while high. A chronic ... An outline of research studies to examine the effects of cannabis on driving skills and actual driving performance. In: The ... Driving a vehicle ____5b. Taking care of children ____5c. Operating dangerous equipment or heavy machinery ____5d. Working on a ... Smiley A. Marijuana: On road and driving simulator studies. In: Kalant, H.; Corrigall, W.; Hall, W.; and Smart, R. eds. The ...
https://issuu.com/ceunits/docs/ceu_pdf_164

*  Electro-Shock Therapy - The Atlantic

... fed up with being eclipsed by Toyota and the Prius-is out to reinvent the automobile, and itself. ... Electric drive is as old as the automobile itself. Anyone who has ridden in a golf cart has experienced it. Compared with the ... The engine's sole job will be to drive a generator, whose sole job will be to maintain the battery's charge-not to drive the ... The group proposed a plug-in that would drive at least 10 miles on a charge. It would be a cool, stylish, high-tech car, ...
https://theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2008/07/electro-shock-therapy/306871/

Moline Automobile Company: The Moline Automobile Company (1904 - 1919) was an American brass era automobile manufacturer in Moline, Illinois known for the Moline-Knight.Tema Motorway: The Tema Motorway is a highway that links Tema to Accra—capital of Ghana. It was the only motorway in Ghana.ISO 39001: The ISO 39001 "Road Traffic Safety Management" is an ISO standard for a management system (similar to ISO 9000) for road traffic safety. The implementation of the standard is supposed to put the organizations, that provide the system "road traffic", into the position to improve the traffic safety and to reduce by that the number of persons killed or severely injured in road traffic.Mycobacterium immunogenum: ATCC 700505Airbag dermatitis: Airbag dermatitis (also known as an "Airbag burn") is caused skin irritation and trauma secondary to the deployment of airbags.Fold and thrust belt: A fold and thrust belt is a series of mountainous foothills adjacent to an orogenic belt, which forms due to contractional tectonics. Fold and thrust belts commonly form in the forelands adjacent to major orogens as deformation propagates outwards.Gasoline gallon equivalent: Gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) or gasoline-equivalent gallon (GEG) is the amount of alternative fuel it takes to equal the energy content of one liquid gallon of gasoline. GGE allows consumers to compare the energy content of competing fuels against a commonly known fuel—gasoline.Exhaust gasStatute Law (Repeals) Act 1993: The Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1993 (c 50) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.Pocket petList of truck types: This List of truck types is intended to classify trucks and to provide links to articles on the various types. The three main classifications for road truck by weight are light trucks, medium trucks, and heavy trucks.Eye injuryTwist compression tester: The Twist Compression Tester ("TCT") is a hydraulically operated bench-top apparatus used to evaluate the level of friction and/or wear between two materials under lubricated or non-lubricated conditions.Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: The U.S.Sludge incineration: Sludge incineration (German: Klärschlammverbrennung, Chinese: 污泥焚烧发电) is a type of incineration process that generates thermal energy from sewage sludge produced in sewage treatment plants. The process is in operation in Germany where Klärschlammverbrennung GmbH in Hamburg incinerates 1.Indoor air pollution in developing nations: Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a significant form of indoor air pollution (IAP) that is little known to those in the developed world.Albuquerque IsotopesSinger BantamBlunt splenic trauma: Blunt splenic trauma occurs when a significant impact to the spleen from some outside source (i.e.P-AnisidineCinnamaldehydeVessel safety survey: Vessel safety surveys are important during the life of a vessel for better safety and security. These controls are directed by the classification societies and are very different (safety equipment, security, hoist, dock survey).Benzo(k)fluorantheneHuman factors and ergonomics: Human factors and ergonomics (HF&E), also known as comfort design, functional design, and user-friendly systems,Ergonomics in Thesaurus.com is the practice of designing products, systems or processes to take proper account of the interaction between them and the people who use them.Metallurgy: Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers.Pacific ElectricMichigan State University College of Nursing: The Michigan State University College of Nursing is the nursing college at Michigan State University. It is located on the southeastern side of campus in East Lansing, Michigan, USA.Beta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.Aerosolization: Aerosolization is the process or act of converting some physical substance into the form of particles small and light enough to be carried on the air i.e.National Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report is a weekly epidemiological digest for the United States published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is the main vehicle for publishing public health information and recommendations that have been received by the CDC from state health departments.Air pollution: Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into Earth's atmosphere, causing diseases, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, or the natural or built environment. Air pollution may come from anthropogenic or natural sources.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,

(1/1390) Do housing tenure and car access predict health because they are simply markers of income or self esteem? A Scottish study.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate relations between health (using a range of measures) and housing tenure or car access; and to test the hypothesis that observed relations between these asset based measures and health are simply because they are markers for income or self esteem. DESIGN: Analysis of data from second wave of data collection of West of Scotland Twenty-07 study, collected in 1991 by face to face interviews conducted by nurse interviewers. SETTING: The Central Clydeside Conurbation, in the West of Scotland. SUBJECTS: 785 people (354 men, 431 women) in their late 30s, and 718 people (358 men, 359 women) in their late 50s, participants in a longitudinal study. MEASURES: General Health Questionnaire scores, respiratory function, waist/hip ratio, number of longstanding illnesses, number of symptoms in the last month, and systolic blood pressure; household income adjusted for household size and composition; Rosenberg self esteem score; housing tenure and care access. RESULTS: On bivariate analysis, all the health measures were significantly associated with housing tenure, and all except waist/hip ratio with car access; all except waist/hip ratio were related to income, and all except systolic blood pressure were related to self esteem. In models controlling for age, sex, and their interaction, neither waist/hip ratio nor systolic blood pressure remained significantly associated with tenure or care access. Significant relations with all the remaining health measures persisted after further controlling for income or self esteem. CONCLUSIONS: Housing tenure and car access may not only be related to health because they are markers for income or psychological traits; they may also have some directly health promoting or damaging effects. More research is needed to establish mechanisms by which they may influence health, and to determine the policy implications of their association with health.  (+info)

(2/1390) Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution--comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress.

Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) and of 2-amino-apidic semialdehyde (AAS) in plasma proteins (56.7 pmol/mg protein) were observed in bus drivers working in the central part of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, significantly higher levels of AAS in hemoglobin (55.8 pmol/mg protein), malondialdehyde in plasma (0. 96 nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/ microg albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative correlations were observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adduct and PAH-albumin levels (p = 0.005), and between DNA adduct and [gamma]-glutamyl semialdehyde (GGS) in hemoglobin (p = 0.11). Highly significant correlations were found between PAH-albumin adducts and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and GGS in hemoglobin (p = 0.001). Significant correlations were also observed between urinary 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.002). The influence of the glutatione S-transferase (GST) M1 deletion on the correlation between the biomarkers was studied in the combined group. A significant negative correlation was only observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.02) and between DNA adduct and urinary mutagenic activity (p = 0.02) in the GSTM1 null group, but not in the workers who were homozygotes or heterozygotes for GSTM1. Our results indicate that some of the selected biomarkers can be used to distinguish between high and low exposure to environmental genotoxins.  (+info)

(3/1390) Urban-rural comparisons of drink-driving behaviour among late teens: a preliminary investigation.

A preliminary study was conducted to examine the nature and extent of urban-rural differences in self-reported drinking and driving among youths in Western Australia. A total of 102 youths aged 17, 18 and 19 years were surveyed via a random street sampling technique about their alcohol consumption and drink-driving behaviour. Analyses indicated that urban youths had a significantly higher level of self-reported drink-driving behaviour than their rural counterparts. Males indicated a higher level of self-reported drink-driving behaviour than females. This article also provides a review and summary of youth drink-driving literature with special focus on urban-rural comparisons.  (+info)

(4/1390) Considerations in pharmaceutical conversion: focus on antihistamines.

The practice of pharmaceutical conversion, which encompasses three types of drug interchange (generic, brand, and therapeutic substitution), is increasing in managed care settings. Pharmaceutical conversion has numerous implications for managed care organizations, their healthcare providers, and their customers. Although drug cost may be a driving consideration in pharmaceutical conversion, a number of other considerations are of equal or greater importance in the decision-making process may affect the overall cost of patient care. Among these considerations are clinical, psychosocial, and safety issues; patient adherence; patient satisfaction; and legal implications of pharmaceutical conversion. Patient-centered care must always remain central to decisions about pharmaceutical conversion. This article discusses the issues related to, and implications of, pharmaceutical conversion utilizing the antihistamines class of drugs as the case situation.  (+info)

(5/1390) Simple reaction time, duration of driving and sleep deprivation in young versus old automobile drivers.

Car accidents are one of the major causes of death in modern society and sleepiness is identified as one major risk factor. The purposes of the present study were: (1) to relate the sleep loss and driving time to a performance indicator and (2) to identify risk factors of performance decrement. We investigated 294 drivers (age < 30 years, n = 100; age > or = 30 years, n = 194) who drove into a rest stop area. All were asked to fill out a questionnaire about the drive and previous sleep/wake pattern, and to carry out a 10 min, simple reaction time (RT) test. The level of performance is identified by the 10% slowest RTs. Multiple regression analysis, with the mean of the 10% Slowest RTs as the dependent variable, showed that age, duration of drive, and duration (shortness) of previous breaks were the main predictors. Our study suggests that public awareness may need to be raised with respect excessive length of driving, especially in young drivers.  (+info)

(6/1390) A survey of attitudes and knowledge of geriatricians to driving in elderly patients.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the attitudes of consultant members of the British Geriatrics Society to elderly patients driving motor vehicles. DESIGN: An anonymous postal survey assessing knowledge and attitudes to driving in elderly people. A standardized questionnaire was used and five case histories were offered for interpretation. SETTING: The study was co-ordinated from a teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: The 709 consultant members of the British Geriatrics Society. Four hundred and eighteen responses were obtained, which represents a 59% response rate. RESULTS: 275 Respondents (68%) correctly realised that a person aged 70 had a duty to inform the Driving and Vehicle Licensing Authority (DVLA) about their eligibility to drive. The remainder did not. Most (315; 75%) believed that the overall responsibility for informing the DVLA was with the patient. If a patient was incapable of understanding advice on driving because of advanced dementia, 346 (83%) would breach patient confidentiality and inform the authority directly. Where a patient was fully capable of understanding medical advice but ignored it, 72% of geriatricians would have legitimately breached patient confidentiality and informed the DVLA. Most geriatricians (88%) saw their main role as one of providing advice on driving to patients and their families. Enforcing DVLA regulations was not seen as an appropriate function, unless the patient was a danger to themselves or other drivers. CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide variation in knowledge of driving regulations and attitudes to driving in elderly patients. Better education of geriatricians should improve awareness of when elderly drivers can safely continue to drive.  (+info)

(7/1390) The effects of age and alcohol intoxication on simulated driving performance, awareness and self-restraint.

AIMS: To investigate whether, compared with middle-aged men (aged 30-50), older men (age > or =60) (i) perform more poorly on a driving simulator and (ii) are more sensitive to the effects of ethanol in terms of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and driving performance, but more aware of their driving difficulties, and therefore exercise better driving judgement. METHODS: 14 Healthy middle-aged men (mean age 36 years) were compared with 14 healthy older men (mean age 69 years) on an interactive driving simulator, while sober and while legally intoxicated (BAC >80 mg/dl). RESULTS: Older age was associated with poorer driving performance on the simulator. While sober, older men exhibited more improper braking, slower driving, greater speed variability, fewer appropriate full stops and more crashes, and spent more time executing left turns (across oncoming traffic); all values < or =0.02. BACs > or =80 mg/dl were associated with impaired driving, with more inappropriate braking, fewer appropriate full stops and more time executing left turns (all values > or =0.02) and trends towards more speed variability, more low speed collisions and more wrong turns (values <0.1). However, similar ethanol consumption did not produce higher peak BAC or more driving impairments in older drivers. While there were no differences between age groups in terms of awareness of intoxication or driving difficulties, older men were unwilling to drive while legally intoxicated because of fear of physical injury, whereas middle-aged men were more likely to avoid driving when intoxicated due to fear of legal ramifications. CONCLUSION: While both age and legal intoxication affected driving performance, older men were no more sensitive to ethanol in terms of peak BACs, driving performance or awareness/judgement than middle-aged men.  (+info)

(8/1390) Drinking and driving among US high school seniors, 1984-1997.

OBJECTIVES: This article reports the prevalence of, and trends in, driving after drinking and riding in a car with a driver who has been drinking among American high school seniors, based on data from more than a decade (1984-1997) of annual national surveys. METHODS: Logistic regressions were used to assess the effects of demographic factors (gender, region of country, population density, parental education, and race/ethnicity) and selected "lifestyle" factors (religious commitment, high school grades, truancy, illicit drug use, evenings out per week, and miles driven per week). RESULTS: Rates of adolescent driving after drinking and riding with a driver who had been drinking declined significantly from the mid-1980s to the early or mid-1990s, but the declines have not continued in recent years. Rates of driving or riding after drinking were higher among high school seniors who are male. White, living in the western and northeastern regions of the United States, and living in rural areas. Truancy, number of evenings out, and illicit drug use all related significantly positively with the dependent variables, whereas grade point average and religious commitment had a negative relationship. Miles driven per week related positively to driving after drinking.  (+info)



short


  • The study sample comprised 173 men and 31 women (average age 70.6 and 74.2 years, respectively) of whom 51, for various reasons, still drove (albeit only short distances). (biomedsearch.com)