Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Asperger Syndrome: A disorder beginning in childhood whose essential features are persistent impairment in reciprocal social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. These symptoms may limit or impair everyday functioning. (From DSM-5)Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Irritable Mood: Abnormal or excessive excitability with easily triggered anger, annoyance, or impatience.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.

*  So today DS was diagnosed with 'Autistic Spectrum Disorder' What now? | Mumsnet Discussion

So today DS was diagnosed with 'Autistic Spectrum Disorder' What now?. (9 Posts) ...

*  ֥å : The Teaching Assistant's Guide to Autistic Spectrum Disorders - Ann Cartwright - 9780826498120 : ??

The Teaching Assistant's Guide to Autistic Spectrum Disorders - Ann Cartwright - ?? ?ι?? ϳ?? ֥å ǡ ????????̵?? ?? ?? ˡֳ?? ѡ ݥ ?ȡ ... ȥ The Teaching Assistant's Guide to Autistic Spectrum Disorders TEACHING ASSISTANTS GT AUTISTI(Teaching Assistants) ... The Teaching Assistant's Guide to Autistic Spectrum Disorders TEACHING ASSISTANTS GT AUTISTI Teaching Assistants Ann Cartwright ... A practical guide that will enable Teaching Assistants to understand the difficulties experienced by children on the Autistic ...

*  What If You Had an Autistic Disorder and Didn't Know It? Tim Page's Memoir of Growing Up With Undiagnosed Asperger's Syndrome, ...

What If You Had an Autistic Disorder and Didn't Know It? Tim Page's Memoir of Growing Up With Undiagnosed Asperger's Syndrome ... what it's like to have his autistic disorder and not know it. And nothing in her review conflicts with what I know about Tim, ...

*  Prenatal exposure to sodium valproate is associated with increased risk of childhood autism and autistic spectrum disorder |...

Prenatal exposure to sodium valproate is associated with increased risk of childhood autism and autistic spectrum disorder ... Prenatal exposure to sodium valproate is associated with increased risk of childhood autism and autistic spectrum disorder ...

*  Nature, recreation and sports / Games / Trivia / Best Selling | Feedbooks

101 Interesting Facts on Autistic Spectrum Disorder. by Kevin Snelgrove Does a member of your family have Autistic Spectrum ... Disorder (ASD) or is someone close to you showing signs of being affected by it? Do you know what traits to look out for and ...

*  Autism, Brain Development Disorder: How Brothers and Sisters can Cope with Autistic Family Members

How Brothers and Sisters can Cope with Autistic Family Members When a family atom is diagnosed with autism, there is a expanded ... These signs all begin before a child is three years old.[2] The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) also include related conditions ... Sometimes, having an autistic sibling forces one to " amplify up " and alter to high. There can body a heavy-duty emotional ... In some cases, the sibling may equable try to impaired the autistic brother or playmate in an exertion to drain him from the ...

*  Online Graduate Certificate Programs in Education in Salt Lake City

Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) - Online Graduate Certificate. Serve those with autism in a variety of settings, including ... Autism Spectrum Disorder Certificate. A standalone Autism Spectrum Disorder certificate is offered from George Mason University ... For those who possess a Master's degree and are only interested in the courses specifically focused on autism disorders. ... online program prepares professionals and family members to work with children and adults with autism spectrum disorders in ...

*  Evidence for overlapping genetic influences on autistic and ADHD behaviours in a community twin sample - Ronald - 2008 -...

Background: High levels of clinical comorbidity have been reported between autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention ... in obsessive-compulsive disorder part of an autistic phenotype?, CNS Spectrums, 2017, 22, 01, 41. CrossRef ... and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2017, 47, 6, 1595. CrossRef ... Neuropsychological Performance of Egyptian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ...

*  Making Sense of Autistic Spectrum Disorders by James Coplan M.D. |

... one of the world's leading experts on early child development gives caregivers of children on the autistic... ... Making Sense of Autistic Spectrum Disorders. Create the Brightest Future for Your Child with the Best Treatment Options. By ... With the information contained in Making Sense of Autistic Spectrum Disorders, parents of newly diagnosed children will find ... "I highly recommend this book for families whose child has an autistic spectrum disorder, and it will also prove helpful for ...

*  A Pilot Study of Daytrana TM in Children With Autism Co-Morbid for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms -...

Autistic Disorder. Disease. Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity. Hyperkinesis. Pathologic Processes. Child ... Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Mental Disorders. Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders. Dyskinesias. Neurologic ... A Pilot Study of Daytrana TM in Children With Autism Co-Morbid for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms. ... Change in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale - IV (ADHD-RS-IV) Total Score From Baseline to 8-week Follow-up ...

*  Autist's Corner: Autism, Alexithymia and Empathy

A final analysis was conducted to investigate a possible concern with respect to the current study: that alexithymia scores are a proxy for symptom severity in autism spectrum conditions. If true, the present findings could be explained by hypothesizing that controlling for degree of alexithymia before testing for group differences in empathy causes all variance due to autism spectrum condition symptom severity to be removed. This would result in a spurious null result and a false conclusion of there being no empathy deficit in autism spectrum conditions after controlling for alexithymia. Such a possibility is made plausible by the inclusion of participants who, despite having received a clinical diagnosis of autism or Asperger's syndrome, do not meet ADOS-G cut-off [criteria] in the sample of individuals with autism spectrum conditions. These individuals may raise the mean empathic brain response in the autism spectrum condition group and mask any differences in empathy due to diagnosis of an ...

*  "The effects of autistic disorder on siblings: A case study" by Jill Lynne La Clair

This dissertation explores the effects of Autistic Disorder on siblings. Diagnostic criteria and etiological theories of Autistic Disorder are presented and an overview of the impact this chronic disorder has on families is offered. Specific effects of an autistic child's special needs on a family during various phases of the life cycle are examined. Parental stressors, including the negative effects of the autistic child's behaviors, experiences with professionals and societal reaction, are discussed. Parental coping methods employed to decrease such negative effects of Autistic Disorder are reviewed. An in-depth exploration of the effects of a child with a disability, more specifically a child with autism, on a normally developing sibling is completed. A clinical case was presented to illustrate the impact of an autistic child on a family ...

*  Towards an understanding of the mechanisms of weak central coherence effects: experiments in visual configural learning and...

The weak central coherence hypothesis of Frith is one of the most prominent theories concerning the abnormal performance of individuals with autism on tasks that involve local and global processing. Individuals with autism often outperform matched nonautistic individuals on tasks in which success depends upon processing of local features, and underperform on tasks that require global processing. We review those studies that have been unable to identify the locus of the mechanisms that may be responsible for weak central coherence effects and those that show that local processing is enhanced in autism but not at the expense of global processing. In the light of these studies, we propose that the mechanisms which can give rise to 'weak central coherence' effects may be perceptual. More specifically, we propose that perception operates to enhance the representation of individual perceptual features but that this does not impact adversely on representations that involve integration of features. ...

*  Stigma, social comparison and self-esteem in transition age adolescent individuals with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and...

Background: Young people who have intellectual disabilities (ID) or Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may experience stigma which can lead to them developing negative views about themselves. However, it has been shown that individuals with ID can mediate the impact of stigma through the comparisons they make with other people. People with ASD might have difficulty making these "social comparisons" because of their social cognitive difficulties. The current study explores whether a group of young people with ASD who do not have an ID or borderline/mild ID, recognise and report experiences of stigma similarly, whether they have similar levels of self-esteem, and whether individuals with ASD make social comparisons in a similar way to individuals with borderline/mild ID. Method: A group of young people with ASD, without learning disability, and a group with borderline/mild ID were recruited. Measures of stigma, self-esteem and social comparison were completed with participants. ...

*  Relationship-Based Early Intervention Approach to Autistic Spectrum Disorders: The Developmental, Individual Difference,...

Relationship-based approaches are part of a broader category of developmental approaches that help children with autistic spectrum disorders and related special needs conditions. Based on a modern understanding of human development, these approaches recognize the importance of relationships; interactions with primary caregivers, therapists, and peers; and individual differences in infants' and children's ability to process sensations and plan actions. This chapter describes the Developmental, Individual-Difference, Relationship-Based Floortime Model (DIR Model), which systematizes an understanding of the child and his family and culture, including diagnostic profiles. It also presents studies that support the DIR Model and other related research findings.

*  Genes Associated with Autism Are Surprisingly Large - Scientific American - Discussion on Topix

Where is your study that says autism is genetic? what number of autism cases do they relate to genetics? Why is it less than 15% of all autism cases only be explained with best genetic analysis. Did you ever had a genetic epidemic? When is soon that you are refering to for your autism genetic explanation. Its been 15 years of genetic studies with 0 results. stop barking and show results. the whole human genome is already sequenced but no autism genes. they can tell of all foetus malformation with genetic analysis, but when it comes to autism there is no genetic basis, only coincidences. otherwise with the population tested similarities would have been already divulged ...

*  Alarming study: People with autism are dying younger

The study was carried out by researchers in Sweden at the Karolinska Institue, who examined health records from 27,000 autistic adults. Comparing them with records from 2.5 million people from the general population, they uncovered a shocking reality - people on the autism spectrum died more than 30 years earlier than the average person.. The average age of death for people with autism in the study was just 39. The records indicated that the leading cause of death was epilepsy. Researchers still don't have a solid lead on the link between autism and deaths caused by epilepsy, and the charity has called for an increase in funding to investigate.. The chief executive of Autistica, John Spiers, said that the disparity between mortality rates between people with ASD was "shameful." ASD affects different people in different ways, and science's understanding of the disorder is woefully inadequate to promptly address such a statistic. ...

*  Genetic Analysis Links Autism to Missing Brain Structure - Autism Science Foundation

Published November 14, 2013 in Simons Foundation Autism Research Institute The largest genetic analysis yet conducted of people lacking a brain structure called the corpus callosum shows that the condition shares many risk factors with autism. The study was published PLoS Genetics. The corpus callosum is the thick bundle of nerve fibers that connects the two hemispheres of the brain. People lacking this structure, a condition called agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), often have social impairments, and roughly one-third of adults meet diagnostic criteria for autism. Children with autism seem to have a smaller corpus callosum than controls do.. Filed under: Autism News, Autism Research, Autism Science, Brain Development, featured, Genetics. ...

*  KinderStart - Child Development : Special Needs Child : Diagnosis/Warning Signs

Although the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments for autistic individuals, it may also prove useful for other purposes. One such possible purpose is diagnosis. Since the ATEC is a simple one-page form that can be copied freely (it is not copyrighted) and can be scored immediately at no cost at our web site, it might be very useful as a diagnostic tool--IF it turns out that ATEC scores differentiate autistic children from their normal, non-autistic siblings; other normal, non-autistic children; and non-autistic children diagnosed with AD/HD, dyslexia, ADD, mental retardation, etc, From Autism. ...

*  Developing a Learning Environment Which Supports Children With Profound Autistic Spectrum Disorder to Engage as Effective...

To date, research studies and first-hand accounts have combined to provide compelling evidence that individuals with autism experience an array of social and sensory-perceptual impairments which impact upon their ability to succeed within traditional educational environments. This study employed evidence-based research to develop a learning environment which supports students with profound autism to engage as effective learners. The research was carried out at a special school for students with severe and complex learning needs. The Mosaic approach (Clark & Moss, 2001) was utilised to enable students and practitioners to co-construct an evidence-base for the design of their new school. By combining participatory action research including observation of student behaviour and engagement, with a grounded theory study incorporating surveys with significant adults, and specifically adapted methods of obtaining direct student voice, this research identified a wide range of issues which require ...

*  Bernadette Roe, University Certificate in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) - University of Birmingham

Bernadette says she gained confidence doing this course; it improved her computer skills and she learned such a lot about Autism which is invaluable in her work practice. Plus she gained promotion in her work place

*  Vaccines, Brain Development and Autism - Dr. Russell Blaylock MD | Vaccination Information Network

1.Money J et al. Autism and autoimmune disease: A family study. J Autism Child Schizophr 1971; 1: 146-160.. 2.Comi A. et al. Familial clustering of autoimmune disorders and evaluation of medical risk factors in autism. J Child Neurology 1999; 14: 388-394.. 3.Sweetwen TL et al. Increased prevalence of familial autoimmunity in probands with pervasive developmental disorders. Pediatrics 2003: 112: 420.. 4.Creen LA et al. Maternal autoimmune disease, asthma and allergies, and childhood autism spectrum disorders: a case-control study. Arch Pediatr 2005;159: 151-157.. 5.Dalton P et al. Maternal antibodies associated with autism and language disorders. Ann Neurol 2003;53: 533-537.. 6.Singh VK, Rivas WH. Prevalence of serum antibodies to caudate nucleus in autistic children. Neuroscience Lett 2004; 355: 53-56.. 7.Singh VK et al. Antibodies to myelin basic protein in children with autistic behavior. Brain Behavior ...

*  Dr. Johanna Lake | Developmental Disabilities and Mental Health Lab

Lake, J.K., Cardy, S., & Humphreys, K.R. (2010). Animacy and word order in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 1161-1164.. Lake, J.K., Balogh, R., & Lunsky, Y. Polypharmacy profiles and predictors among adults with autism spectrum disorders (2012). Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6, 1142-1149.. Lake, J.K., Perry, A., & Lunsky, Y. (2014). Mental health services for adolescents and adults with high functioning autism spectrum disorder: Underserved and overlooked. Autism Research and Treatment, Article ID 502420 Balogh, R., Lake, J.K., Lin, E., Wilton, D., & Lunsky, Y. (2014). Disparities in diabetes prevalence and preventable hospitalizations in persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities: A population study. Diabetic Medicine. doi: 10.1111/dme.12573. Lunsky, Y., Lake, J.K., Durbin, J., Perry, A., Bullock, H, ...

*  Somewhere On The Spectrum: Autism is a DISORDER, NOT a "culture" or "shared language!"

Autism is a NOT a "culture." Autism Spectrum disorders are a SERIOUS neurological, biological disability that PRESENT SERIOUIS CHALLENGES in communication, socialization, understanding, perception, perspective, and other similar areas. Autistic individuals may have one or more learning disabilities. Other Autistic people have a cognitive disability ("Mental Retardation") in one or more basic skills (i.e. arithmetic, reading, writing, spelling, et cetera. ...

*  Bartholomew Cubbins on Autism: Verbal Notes from an Autism Conference Part 1: BC on Autism Ep 29

I found your notes very interesting. I'm painting my computer room this weekend and listened in the background so I didn't pay attention to the name of the scientist you spoke about in the beginning. When he spoke about some generalities, he mentioned that he felt that no language before 3 was autism, some language was PDD-NOS, and a lot of language before 3 the individual was likely to lose their diagnosis. I hadn't heard this before. Most people with Asperger's as I know it have a lot of language before 3, but don't lose their diagnosis. What is the difference between speech and language? I'm not sure but I would like to find out more about what he was speaking to ...

*  Community Partners, Inc. - Maine's trusted hometown partner for people with intellectual and other developmental disabilities...

As we approach our 50th anniversary, learn about our history and role in the creation of the community- based service system for people with developmental disabilities in Maine that contributed to the end of the institutional era. ...

*  Factor structure, reliability and criterion validity of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): A study in Dutch population and...

Factor structure, reliability and criterion validity of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): A study in Dutch population and patient groups ...

*  KinderStart - Child Development : Autism

Discusses the autistic spectrum disorders (or Pervasive Developmental Disorders) including everything you need to know about diagnosis, treatment, early intervention, special education, legal issues, and how to find local support groups ...

*  Autism: Helping you understand the disorder - Mayo Clinic Health System

Autism is one of a group of serious developmental problems called autism spectrum disorders that appear in early childhood - usually before age 3. Though symptoms and severity vary, all autism spectrum disorders affect a child's ability to communicate and interact with others. The number of children diagnosed with autism appears to be rising. It's not clear whether this is due to better detection and reporting of autism or a real increase in the number of cases or both. Children with autism generally have problems in three crucial areas of development: social interaction, language and behavior. Some children show signs of autism in early infancy. Other children may develop normally for the first few months or years of life, but then suddenly become withdrawn or aggressive or lose language skills they've already acquired. Signs. Though each child with autism is likely to have a unique pattern of behavior, these are some common autism signs: Social skills ...

*  FDA, Prozac, & Children with Autism

Neuropharm Group plc (AIM: NPH), a speciality pharmaceutical company focused on neurodevelopmental disorders, is pleased to announce that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Fast Track designation for Neuropharm's program to develop NPL-2008 in the treatment of Autism Disorder.. NPL-2008, a new orally disintegrating tablet of low-dose fluoxetine, is currently in Phase III development for the treatment of the core symptom of repetitive behaviours in patients five years of age or older with Autistic Disorder.. On its website,, FDA states: "Because fast track products are intended to treat serious or life-threatening conditions and must demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs for such conditions, an NDA for a product in a fast track development program ordinarily will be eligible for priority review and FDA may consider for review, portions of a marketing application before the complete NDA is ...

*  Pre-publication scientific findings - Autism Science Foundation

These are findings reported to us by grantees at the end of their funding period. These are too early for publication and have not been peer reviewed, but they wanted to share them with the community. Remember, they are preliminary and are meant to show you progress with the science and shouldn't be compared to those that have been seen and reviewed by other scientists.. Social Behaviors. Researchers studied reciprocal social behavior and eye-gaze at facial features (i.e., looking at the eyes or mouth) in children with William's Syndrome (WS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and typical development (TD). Children with WS had less reciprocal social behavior than TD children, but more than children with ASD. Eye-tracking data revealed that younger children with WS (3 to 26 month old) had higher levels of looking at eyes than the TD children or children with ASD. Older WS children (2.5 and 3.5 years of age) showed increases in mouth looking, which coincides with the delayed timing of language ...

*  IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Epigenetic Findings in Autism: New Perspectives for Therapy | HTML

Autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by dysfunctions in social interactions, communications, restricted interests, and repetitive stereotypic behaviors. Despite extensive genetic and biological research, significant controversy surrounds our understanding of the specific mechanisms of their pathogenesis. However, accumulating evidence points to the involvement of epigenetic modifications as foundational in creating ASD pathophysiology. Epigenetic modifications or the alteration of DNA transcription via variations in DNA methylation and histone modifications but without alterations in the DNA sequence, affect gene regulation. These alterations in gene expression, obtained through DNA methylation and/or histone modifications, result from transcriptional regulatory influences of environmental factors, such as nutritional deficiencies, various toxicants, immunological effects, and pharmaceuticals. As such these ...

*  Autist's Corner: June 2011

I don't doubt that some autistics do experience this, but that's never been my reality. For me social impairments aren't as much of a big deal as other autism-related impairments, and of the social issues that I have, I wouldn't put "being seen as a jerk" anywhere near the top of the list. In fact, on the occasions that I do have this problem, it's for completely different reasons than what is commonly described. Sometimes I do, yes, act jerky and even cruel-but that's usually when I'm in the middle of a meltdown or on the verge of one. This is quite different from what JER and a lot of other autism-related material describes. (Of course in JER's case, I'm pretty sure that a big reason why he is often perceived as a jerk is because he is one. His first book makes this abundantly clear. Hey, autistics can be not-nice people, too.) I've said some pretty blunt and possibly inappropriate things, to be sure, but the people who I interact with on a regular basis know that I'm no ...

*  Toys'R'Us Campaign to Benefit Autism Speaks | Raving Toy Maniac

Toys"R"Us®, U.S. Helps "Shine A Light For Autism" During Sixth Annual Fundraising Campaign to Benefit Autism Speaks. WAYNE, N.J., March 1, 2012 -- Toys"R"Us, Inc. today announced the launch of its two month in-store fundraising campaign to benefit Autism Speaks, the world's leading autism science and advocacy organization. Now through Monday, April 30, monetary donations will be collected at all Toys"R"Us® and Babies"R"Us® stores and online at The company is increasing its focus on autism awareness, unveiling a new theme, "Shine A Light For Autism." The campaign incorporates aspects of the Autism Speaks "Light It Up Blue" initiative, in which prominent buildings and landmarks around the world are lighted blue to commemorate World Autism Awareness Day on April 2. The Toys"R"Us campaign offers some fun, simple ideas to help people "go blue" to demonstrate their concern for a disorder that impacts thousands children and families. To help "Shine A Light For Autism," ...

*  Autist's Corner: Autism-Related Gene Spotlight: CNTNAP2

Caspr2 sits in the membrane of the axon in its juxtaparanodal region (which means, "the region right next to the region next to the node" in ScienceSpeak), where its cytoplasmic domain (the part of a membrane-spanning protein that's inside the cell) links up with potassium ion channels prior to their insertion in the membrane, and directs them to insert adjacent to the complex of adhesion proteins including Caspr2. This ensures that the potassium channels all cluster together in the juxtaparanodal region, rather than distribute themselves more or less evenly along the axon, as they would do without guidance from the adhesion proteins. ...

Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of special education. The editors-in-chief are Alisa K.Luke Jackson (author): Luke Christopher Jackson (born 18 August 1988) is the author of Freaks, Geeks, and Asperger Syndrome: A User Guide to Adolescence which was published 15th august 2002, a book penned from first-hand experience about his life with Asperger syndrome. He is also the author of "A User Guide to Cf/Gf Diet for Autism,Asperger Syndrome and ADHD" which was published in 2001.Relationship Development Intervention: Relationship Development Intervention (RDI) is a trademarked proprietary treatment program for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), based on the belief that the development of dynamic intelligence is the key to improving the quality of life for individuals with autism. The program's core philosophy is that individuals with autism can participate in authentic emotional relationships if they are exposed to them in a gradual, systematic way.Disequilibrium (medicine): Disequilibrium}}Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Bipolar disorderMental disorderSocial anxiety disorder

(1/2366) Oculomotor evidence for neocortical systems but not cerebellar dysfunction in autism.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the functional integrity of cerebellar and frontal systems in autism using oculomotor paradigms. BACKGROUND: Cerebellar and neocortical systems models of autism have been proposed. Courchesne and colleagues have argued that cognitive deficits such as shifting attention disturbances result from dysfunction of vermal lobules VI and VII. Such a vermal deficit should be associated with dysmetric saccadic eye movements because of the major role these areas play in guiding the motor precision of saccades. In contrast, neocortical models of autism predict intact saccade metrics, but impairments on tasks requiring the higher cognitive control of saccades. METHODS: A total of 26 rigorously diagnosed nonmentally retarded autistic subjects and 26 matched healthy control subjects were assessed with a visually guided saccade task and two volitional saccade tasks, the oculomotor delayed-response task and the antisaccade task. RESULTS: Metrics and dynamics of the visually guided saccades were normal in autistic subjects, documenting the absence of disturbances in cerebellar vermal lobules VI and VII and in automatic shifts of visual attention. Deficits were demonstrated on both volitional saccade tasks, indicating dysfunction in the circuitry of prefrontal cortex and its connections with the parietal cortex, and associated cognitive impairments in spatial working memory and in the ability to voluntarily suppress context-inappropriate responses. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate intrinsic neocortical, not cerebellar, dysfunction in autism, and parallel deficits in higher order cognitive mechanisms and not in elementary attentional and sensorimotor systems in autism.  (+info)

(2/2366) Genome-wide scan for autism susceptibility genes. Paris Autism Research International Sibpair Study.

Family and twin studies have suggested a genetic component in autism. We performed a genome-wide screen with 264 microsatellites markers in 51 multiplex families, using non-parametric linkage methods. Families were recruited by a collaborative group including clinicians from Sweden, France, Norway, the USA, Italy, Austria and Belgium. Using two-point and multipoint affected sib-pair analyses, 11 regions gave nominal P -values of 0.05 or lower. Four of these regions overlapped with regions on chromosomes 2q, 7q, 16p and 19p identified by the first genome-wide scan of autism performed by the International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium. Another of our potential susceptibility regions overlapped with the 15q11-q13 region identified in previous candidate gene studies. Our study revealed six additional regions on chromosomes 4q, 5p, 6q, 10q, 18q and Xp. We found that the most significant multipoint linkage was close to marker D6S283 (maximum lod score = 2.23, P = 0.0013).  (+info)

(3/2366) Clarifying an ambiguous functional analysis with matched and mismatched extinction procedures.

Results of functional analysis were ambiguous in suggesting that self-injurious behavior (SIB) was maintained by escape, sensory reinforcement, or both. To help clarify these results, we compared escape extinction, sensory extinction, and the combined treatments. Sensory extinction proved to be a necessary and sufficient treatment, whereas escape extinction failed to decrease SIB. These analyses helped to clarify the function of SIB and to identify an effective and efficient treatment.  (+info)

(4/2366) Is integer arithmetic fundamental to mental processing?: the mind's secret arithmetic.

Unlike the ability to acquire our native language, we struggle to learn multiplication and division. It may then come as a surprise that the mental machinery for performing lightning-fast integer arithmetic calculations could be within us all even though it cannot be readily accessed, nor do we have any idea of its primary function. We are led to this provocative hypothesis by analysing the extraordinary skills of autistic savants. In our view such individuals have privileged access to lower levels of information not normally available through introspection.  (+info)

(5/2366) Etiology of infantile autism: a review of recent advances in genetic and neurobiological research.

The etiology of autism is complex, and in most cases the underlying pathologic mechanisms are unknown. Autism is a hetereogeneous disorder, diagnosed subjectively on the basis of a large number of criteria. Recent research has investigated genetics, in utero insults and brain function as well as neurochemical and immunological factors. On the basis of family and twin studies, there appears to be a genetic basis for a wide "autistic syndrome." About a quarter of cases of autism are associated with genetic disorders such as fragile X syndrome or with infectious diseases such as congenital rubella. Genetic studies have shown an association between autism markers of brain development such as 3 markers of the c-Harvey-ros oncogene and the homeobox gene EN2. In some cases, autism is associated with insults early in gestation, including thalidomide embryopathy. Autism may arise from abnormal central nervous system functioning, since most autistic patients have indications of brain dysfunction, and about half of them have abnormal electroencephalograms. Similarly, the pattern of evoked response potentials and conduction time is altered in autistic children. There is substantial evidence from neuroimaging studies that dysfunctions in the cerebellum and possibly the temporal lobe and association cortex occur in autistic symptoms. Neurochemical studies have investigated the role of serotonin, epinephrine and norepinephrine, since levels of these neurotransmitters are altered in autism, although other hypotheses implicate overactive brain opioid systems and changes in oxytocin neurotransmission. Autoimmunity may also play a role; antibodies against myelin basic protein are often found in children with autism, who also have increased eosinophil and basophil response to IgE-mediated reactions. In summary, the prevailing view is that autism is caused by a pathophysiologic process arising from the interaction of an early environmental insult and a genetic predisposition.  (+info)

(6/2366) Heterogeneity and the genetics of autism.

The objective of this review is to summarize recent data on the genetics of autism, highlight the evidence for genetic heterogeneity and extend the implications of these findings for the identification of susceptibility genes in this disorder. Family studies have shown that autism runs in families and twin studies indicate that the basis of that familial aggregation is genetic. As a result the prospects for the identification of susceptibility genes using either linkage or association studies are quite good. However, recent evidence is accumulating suggesting that the disorder is genetically heterogeneous; higher functioning individuals with autism may arise from separate genetic mechanisms that lower functioning ones. If true, this will make the detection of linkage and association much more difficult.  (+info)

(7/2366) The puzzle of autism: an ophthalmologic contribution.

PURPOSE: A previous study of 86 thalidomide-affected subjects with ophthalmic manifestations revealed the unexpected finding of autism in 4 of the 5 severely retarded individuals. The subjects had anomalies associated with an early gestational effect of thalidomide, including facial nerve palsy and incomitant strabismus. Because autism has been observed in a few cases of Mobius sequence (Mobius syndrome), a condition characterized by involvement of the sixth and seventh cranial nerves, the similarity to early thalidomide embryopathy suggested a relation between cranial nerve involvement and autism. The present study was undertaken to further evaluate the association of autism with patients manifesting findings of Mobius syndrome. METHODS: A prospective study of 25 Swedish patients with Mobius sequence was conducted. The patients had a complete multidisciplinary evaluation, including ophthalmologic and psychiatric examinations and standard testing for autism. Findings associated with autism were compared with the ocular and systemic anomalies of the 4 thalidomide-affected subjects. RESULTS: In the Mobius group 6 patients had autism, achieving the criteria for autism according to all the diagnostic manuals that were used. One patient showed autistic-like conditions meeting fewer numbers of the criteria. A few were too young to be meeting evaluated. Incomitant strabismus ranging from primary abduction defects alone to a horizontal gaze paresis pattern was noted in these patients, in addition to characteristic findings of seventh nerve paresis. Aberrant lacrimation was observed in many cases, especially often associated with autism. CONCLUSION: The common group of anomalies noted in both cases of thalidomide embryopathy and Mobius sequence suggests that brain-stem damage probably early in embryogenesis can sometimes be associated with autism.  (+info)

(8/2366) Spatial attention deficits in patients with acquired or developmental cerebellar abnormality.

Recent imaging and clinical studies have challenged the concept that the functional role of the cerebellum is exclusively in the motor domain. We present evidence of slowed covert orienting of visuospatial attention in patients with developmental cerebellar abnormality (patients with autism, a disorder in which at least 90% of all postmortem cases reported to date have Purkinje neuron loss), and in patients with cerebellar damage acquired from tumor or stroke. In spatial cuing tasks, normal control subjects across a wide age range were able to orient attention within 100 msec of an attention-directing cue. Patients with cerebellar damage showed little evidence of having oriented attention after 100 msec but did show the effects of attention orienting after 800-1200 msec. These effects were demonstrated in a task in which results were independent of the motor response. In this task, smaller cerebellar vermal lobules VI-VII (from magnetic resonance imaging) were associated with greater attention-orienting deficits. Although eye movements may also be disrupted in patients with cerebellar damage, abnormal gaze shifting cannot explain the timing and nature of the attention-orienting deficits reported here. These data may be consistent with evidence from animal models that suggest damage to the cerebellum disrupts both the spatial encoding of a location for an attentional shift and the subsequent gaze shift. These data are also consistent with a model of cerebellar function in which the cerebellum supports a broad spectrum of brain systems involved in both nonmotor and motor function.  (+info)


  • Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. (
  • [ 2 ] The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) also include related conditions with milder signs and symptoms. (
  • [ 3 ] Few children with autism live independently after reaching adulthood, but some become successful, [ 8 ] and an autistic culture has developed, with some seeking a cure and others believing that autism is a condition rather than a disorder. (
  • When a family atom is diagnosed with autism, there is a expanded amount of dirt teaching parents how to cope with an autistic child, and there is and clue for parents about dealing with an autistic child ' s at variance behaviors. (
  • He helps you understand for yourself where your child may be on the spectrum that includes autism, Asperger Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified. (
  • This is an open-label study of the efficacy of Daytrana (methylphenidate transdermal system) for the treatment of attention and behavioral symptoms in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. (
  • The researchers hypothesize that Daytrana is a safe and effective medication for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders who have symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. (
  • The objective of this study is to evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of memantine in the treatment of pediatric patients with autism, Asperger's Disorder or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). (
  • This clinical study was a 48-week, multicenter, multinational, open-label extension study in pediatric outpatients with autism, Asperger's Disorder, or PDD-NOS conducted at 106 study centers. (
  • This 11-week study will examine the safety and effectiveness of the medication donepezil ( Aricept® ) compared to placebo for treating cognitive deficits in children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. (
  • Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have impaired communication, problems with social interaction, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. (
  • to identify risk indices for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in 6 to 24 month old infants who have an older sibling with ASD or infants who have an older neurotypical sibling. (
  • Researchers at the University of Washington want to learn more about the benefits of early monitoring and intervention for younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). (
  • Participants include families with a child who has been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder or typical development and a younger sibling 12 months old or younger. (
  • Autism spectrum disorders ( ASD ) are developmental disabilities characterized by impaired social interaction and repetitive and/or stereotypical behaviors. (
  • To compare behavioral and other characteristics among children who have autism spectrum disorders and high, low, or normal cholesterol levels. (
  • Pilot work suggests that some individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have very low blood cholesterol levels. (
  • Sessions will involve social skills training and education about autism to increase acceptance of autistic peers. (
  • The child will be screened by an Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (MCHAT) interview at 18 months of age, and by a questionnaire, the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavioral Inventory (PDDBI) at 3 years of age to determine whether the child has developed autism or not. (
  • This investigation will focus on two areas: 1) early communication impairments as predictors of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and later developmental delays, and 2) the relationship between communication and evidence of CNS function (sleep, EEG) and structure (MRI DTI and volumetrics) in young children at risk for ASD. (
  • Approximately 1 in 110 children fulfills the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) as defined by delayed or abnormal social interaction, language as used in social communication, and/or restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. (


  • So today DS was diagnosed with 'Autistic Spectrum Disorder' What now? (
  • A practical guide that will enable Teaching Assistants to understand the difficulties experienced by children on the Autistic Spectrum. (
  • Does a member of your family have Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or is someone close to you showing signs of being affected by it? (
  • High levels of clinical comorbidity have been reported between autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (
  • Making Sense of Autistic Spectrum Disorders by James Coplan M.D. (
  • In this authoritative and empowering book, one of the world's leading experts on early child development gives caregivers of children on the autistic spectrum the knowledge they need to navigate the complex maze of symptoms, diagnoses, tests, and treatment options that await them. (
  • For more than thirty years, James Coplan, M.D., has been helping families cope with the challenges posed by autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). (
  • I highly recommend this book for families whose child has an autistic spectrum disorder, and it will also prove helpful for therapists, educators, and providers who want to learn more about ASD. (
  • An engaging guide for both professionals and parents, written authoritatively from a most important perspective on children with autistic spectrum disorders. (
  • With the information contained in Making Sense of Autistic Spectrum Disorders , parents of newly diagnosed children will find this journey easier and may also enjoy the magical moments that are part of raising a child on the spectrum. (
  • Central Auditory Processing Disorder is a general term used to describe a spectrum of various areas of auditory processing dysfunction. (


  • While most research has attempted to treat the behavioral deficits commonly associated with ASD, few studies have attempted to improve the core features of this disorder. (
  • First, half of individuals with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) meet the behavioral criteria for autistic disorder (Tierney et al, 2001), and three quarters have some type of ASD (Sikora et al, 2006). (


  • The following tips can help children cope with an autistic sibling. (
  • One tip for siblings to cope with their autistic brother or comrade is to acquisition a device pack. (
  • The information provided here includes resources and information on how to help and cope with central auditory processing disorder . (


  • Teachers will be asked to complete a questionnaire describing the autistic child and his or her interaction with peers. (


  • Further, they may jewel their peers constantly japing them about having an autistic sibling, which can surpass to larger stress. (
  • Sessions will involve educating the peers of autistic children to increase their acceptance of their autistic peers. (
  • The second intervention involves educating the peers of autistic children to increase their acceptance of their autistic peers. (


  • This study takes an individual differences approach to determine the degree of phenotypic and aetiological overlap between autistic traits and ADHD behaviours in the general population. (
  • Significant correlations were found between autistic and ADHD traits in the general population (.54 for parent data, .51 for teacher data). (
  • 50, indicating a moderate degree of overlap in genetic influences on autistic and ADHD traits, both throughout the general population and at the quantitative extreme. (
  • These results suggest there are some common genetic influences operating across autistic traits and ADHD behaviours throughout normal variation and at the extreme. (


  • Sometimes parents are thence involved in preparing themselves and their autistic child for the transition ahead that they overpass that their other children itch and deal with the untrained locus. (
  • It is important for parents to be understanding towards their children ' s needs for attention, whether they are autistic or not. (
  • Sessions will focus on improving the social skills of autistic children. (
  • Children will be randomly assigned to one of four interventions that comprise all autistic children, all nonautistic children, or a mixed group of both. (
  • The first intervention focuses on improving the social skills of autistic children. (
  • The autistic children will complete a friendship survey, clinical global impressions scales, and a battery of neuropsychiatric tests. (


  • Repeatedly, siblings of an autistic child may stroke the untouched locality extremely. (


  • Characteristics of the autistic child will be assessed through an interview that evaluates intelligence quotient (IQ), language skills, and social interaction. (


  • However, there are fewer learning kit for those who hold an autistic sibling, equivalent though this is a exact draining setting for brothers and sisters of an autistic child. (
  • They may caress primitive by parents or doubting of the autistic child who is at once recipient increased attention. (


  • In some cases, the sibling may equable try to impaired the autistic brother or playmate in an exertion to drain him from the family environment. (


  • Sometimes, having an autistic sibling forces one to " amplify up " and alter to high. (
  • Sometimes called a receptive language disorder. (


  • Further, conscious with an autistic sibling can open eyes one to appear as increased ajar about more person ' s differences. (


  • When a person has central auditory processing disorder ( CAPD ) the part of the brain that translates what the ear delivers does not function properly. (


  • This example shows how a person with auditory processing disorder perceives what is being said. (


  • There can body a heavy-duty emotional adulation to the autistic sibling and a ululate crave to place him or her safe in all situations. (


  • This lens gives information and resources about Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD). (