Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Attitude to Death: Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Euthanasia: The act or practice of killing or allowing death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Intention: What a person has in mind to do or bring about.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Gift Giving: The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Patients: Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures.Social Distance: The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.United StatesAwareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Great BritainDentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Religion: A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Suicide, Assisted: Provision (by a physician or other health professional, or by a family member or friend) of support and/or means that gives a patient the power to terminate his or her own life. (from APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed).Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Organizational Culture: Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values, which are subject to change, are reflected in the day to day management of the organization.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Complementary Therapies: Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Trust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.General Practitioners: Physicians whose practice is not restricted to a specific field of MEDICINE.Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.Schools: Educational institutions.Men: Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.EnglandRisk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Patient Participation: Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Body Image: Individuals' concept of their own bodies.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Geriatrics: The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Patient Rights: Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Clergy: Persons ordained for religious duties, who serve as leaders and perform religious services.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.TurkeySocial Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Euthanasia, Active: The act or practice of killing for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person or animal from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Surrogate Mothers: Women who allow themselves to be impregnated with the understanding that the offspring are to be given over to the parents who have commissioned the surrogate.Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Infection Control, Dental: Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.Gender Identity: A person's concept of self as being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent, based in part on physical characteristics, parental responses, and psychological and social pressures. It is the internal experience of gender role.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Physicians, Women: Women licensed to practice medicine.IndiaDangerous Behavior: Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Circumcision, Female: A general term encompassing three types of excision of the external female genitalia - Sunna, clitoridectomy, and infibulation. It is associated with severe health risks and has been declared illegal in many places, but continues to be widely practiced in a number of countries, particularly in Africa.Advance Directives: Declarations by patients, made in advance of a situation in which they may be incompetent to decide about their own care, stating their treatment preferences or authorizing a third party to make decisions for them. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Professional Misconduct: Violation of laws, regulations, or professional standards.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Ethics, Nursing: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of nurses themselves, their patients, and their fellow practitioners, as well as their actions in the care of patients and in relations with their families.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.CaliforniaEmpathy: An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)Inservice Training: On the job training programs for personnel carried out within an institution or agency. It includes orientation programs.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Physicians, Primary Care: Providers of initial care for patients. These PHYSICIANS refer patients when appropriate for secondary or specialist care.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Voluntary Programs: Programs in which participation is not required.Universal Precautions: Prudent standard preventive measures to be taken by professional and other health personnel in contact with persons afflicted with a communicable disease, to avoid contracting the disease by contagion or infection. Precautions are especially applicable in the diagnosis and care of AIDS patients.Terminal Care: Medical and nursing care of patients in the terminal stage of an illness.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Reproductive Behavior: Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Students, Health Occupations: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program in the health occupations.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Refusal to Treat: Refusal of the health professional to initiate or continue treatment of a patient or group of patients. The refusal can be based on any reason. The concept is differentiated from PATIENT REFUSAL OF TREATMENT see TREATMENT REFUSAL which originates with the patient and not the health professional.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Women's Rights: The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.Social Identification: The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.Literature, Modern

Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Public opinion on nuclear issues: Public opinion on nuclear issues is the aggregate of attitudes or beliefs held by the adult population concerning nuclear power, nuclear weapons and uranium mining.Samuel Bard (physician): Samuel Bard (April 1, 1742 – May 24, 1821) was an American physician. He founded the first medical school in New York.Leiden International Medical Student ConferencePride and Prejudice and Zombies: Dawn of the Dreadfuls: Pride and Prejudice and Zombies: Dawn of the Dreadfuls (2010) is a parody novel by Steve Hockensmith. It is a prequel to Seth Grahame-Smith's 2009 novel Pride and Prejudice and Zombies, focusing on "the early life and training of Elizabeth Bennet, heroine of the earlier Pride and Prejudice and Zombies as she strove to become a gifted zombie hunter, with some mishaps in her early romantic encounters also included.Cigarette smoking among college students: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.Voluntary euthanasia: Voluntary euthanasia is the practice of ending a life in a painless manner. Voluntary euthanasia (VE) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) have been the focus of great controversy in recent years.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Richard Wells (nurse): Richard J. Wells CBE, RN, FRCN (1950–1993) was a British nurse, nursing adviser and health care administrator.Syllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.Parent structure: In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.Swadeshi Jagaran Manch: The Swadeshi Jagaran Manch or SJM is an economic wing of Sangh Parivar that again took the tool of Swadeshi advocated in India before its independence to destabilize the British Empire. SJM took to the promotion of Swadeshi (indigenous) industries and culture as a dote against LPG.Essex School of discourse analysis: The Essex School constitutes a variety of discourse analysis, one that combines theoretical sophistication – mainly due to its reliance on the post-structuralist and psychoanalytic traditions and, in particular, on the work of Lacan, Foucault, Barthes, Derrida, etc. – with analytical precision, since it focuses predominantly on an in-depth analysis of political discourses in late modernity.Social stigma of obesity: The social stigma of obesity has created negative psychosocial impacts and has caused disadvantages for overweight and obese people. The social stigma often spans one's entire life, starting from a young age and lasting into adulthood.Gift registry: A gift registry is a particular type of wish list.Antenor Orrego Private UniversityThe Final Decision: The Final Decision is an episode from season 1 of the animated TV series X-Men Animated Series.Okurigana: are kana] suffixes following [[kanji stems in Japanese written words. They serve two purposes: to inflect adjectives and verbs, and to force a particular kanji to mean a specific idea and be read a certain way.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Cross-cultural psychiatry: Cross-cultural psychiatry, transcultural psychiatry, or cultural psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry concerned with the cultural context of mental disorders and the challenges of addressing ethnic diversity in psychiatric services. It emerged as a coherent field from several strands of work, including surveys of the prevalence and form of disorders in different cultures or countries; the study of migrant populations and ethnic diversity within countries; and analysis of psychiatry itself as a cultural product.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Continuous flash suppression: Continuous flash suppression (CFS) is an adapted version of the original flash suppression method. In CFS, the first eye is presented with a static stimulus, such as a schematic face, while the second eye is presented with a series of rapidly changing stimuli.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Mark Siegler: Mark Siegler (born June 20, 1941) is an American physician who specializes in internal medicine. He is the Lindy Bergman Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Surgery at the University of Chicago.Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory: Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication, developed by Geert Hofstede. It describes the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis.WOW Worship: Orange: [ Allmusic review]Immaculate perception: The expression immaculate perception has been used in various senses by various philosophers.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Daesun Jinrihoe: Daesun Jinrihoe (Also transliterated as Daesunjinrihoe, Daesun Chillihoe, Taesunchillihoe, Daesoonjinrihoe, Daesoon Jinrihoe and Taesŏn Chillihoe) is a Korean new religious movement, founded in April 1969 by Park Han-gyeong (박한경) (1918–96). It is a splinter of the syncretic religion founded by Gang Il-Sun (1871–1909, also known as Chungsan Kang).Standard evaluation frameworkFritz Heider: Fritz Heider (February 19, 1896 – January 2, 1988)American Psychologist., "Fritz Heider (1896 - 1988)".Yamtuan Besar: Yamtuan Besar, also known as Yang di-Pertuan Besar, is the royal title of the ruler of the Malaysian state of Negeri Sembilan. The ruler of Negeri Sembilan is selected by a council of ruling chiefs in the state, or the datuk-datuk undang.KamaladalamSociety for Old Age Rational Suicide: The Society for Old Age Rational Suicide (SOARS) is a group based in the United Kingdom concerned with choice at the end of life. It was established on December 10, 2009 (Human Rights Day) by Dr.John Studd (gynaecologist): John Winston Studd (born 4 March 1940) is a British gynaecologist and an academic and medical historian.Medical intuitive: A medical intuitive is an alternative medicine practitioner who claims to use their self-described intuitive abilities to find the cause of a physical or emotional condition. Other terms for such a person include medical clairvoyant, medical psychic or intuitive counselor.History of communication studies: Various aspects of communication have been the subject of study since ancient times, and the approach eventually developed into the academic discipline known today as communication studies.Online patient education: Online Patient Education also known as Online Patient Engagement is a method of providing medical information and education to patients using Learning Management Systems delivered through the Internet.Evaluation of bariatric Centers of Excellence Web sites for functionality and efficacy.Nigerian Ports Authority: The Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) is a federal government agency that governs and operates the ports of Nigeria. The major ports controlled by the NPA include: the Lagos Port Complex and Tin Can Island Port in Lagos; Calabar Port, Delta Port, Rivers Port at Port Harcourt, and Onne Port.DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research: Divya Jyoti (DJ) College of Dental Sciences and Research is a dental college located in Modinagar in the nagar panchayat of Niwari in Ghaziabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The founder and chairman is Ajit Singh Jassar.Humanitarian crisis: A humanitarian crisis (or "humanitarian disaster") is defined as a singular event or a series of events that are threatening in terms of health, safety or well being of a community or large group of people."What Is a Humanitarian Crisis", Humanitarian Coalition, Retrieved on 6 May 2013.Bio Base EuropeThe Ayurvedic Trust: The Ayurvedic Trust (AVT), founded in 1950, is a health-related trust in India. It is headquartered at Coimbatore, the second largest city of Tamil Nadu in India.Eating Disorder Inventory: The Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) is a self-report questionnaire used to assess the presence of eating disorders, (a) Anorexia Nervosa both restricting and binge-eating/purging type; (b) Bulimia Nervosa; and (c) Eating disorder not otherwise specified including Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The original questionnaire consisted of 64 questions, divided into eight subscales.University Hospital Centre Zagreb: The University Hospital Centre (sometimes also Clinical Hospital Centre, ) in Zagreb, Croatia, is the largest hospital in Croatia and the teaching hospital of the University of Zagreb. It serves most of Central and Northern Croatia for specialist and acute medical procedures.St. Vrain Valley School DistrictMotivations for joining the Special OlympicsBritish Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases: The British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases is a system of diagnostic codes used for pediatrics.

(1/2094) Do students' attitudes toward women change during medical school?

BACKGROUND: Medical school has historically reinforced traditional views of women. This cohort study follows implementation of a revitalized curriculum and examines students' attitudes toward women on entry into an Ontario medical school, and 3 years later. METHODS: Of the 75 students entering first year at Queen's University medical school 70 completed the initial survey in September 1994 and 54 were resurveyed in May 1997. First-year students at 2 other Ontario medical schools were also surveyed in 1994, and these 166 respondents formed a comparison group. Changes in responses to statements about sex-role stereotypes, willingness to control decision-making of female patients, and conceptualization of women as "other" or "abnormal" because they are women were examined. Responses from the comparison group were used to indicate whether the Queen's group was representative. RESULTS: Attitudinal differences between the primary group and the comparison group were not significant. After 3 years of medical education students were somewhat less accepting of sex-role stereotypes and less controlling in the doctor-patient encounter. They continued, however, to equate adults with men and to see women as "not adult" or "other." Female students began and remained somewhat more open-minded in all areas studied. INTERPRETATION: A predicted trend toward conservatism was not seen as students became older, more aware and closer to completion of medical training, although they continued to equate adults with male and to see women as "other." Findings may validate new curricular approaches and increased attention to gender issues in the academic environment.  (+info)

(2/2094) Predictors of crop diversification: a survey of tobacco farmers in North Carolina (USA).

OBJECTIVE: To assess the attitudes and behaviours of North Carolina tobacco farmers around crop diversification. DESIGN: Cross-sectional telephone survey. PARTICIPANTS: Active tobacco farmers in 14 North Carolina counties (n = 1236), interviewed between January and April 1997 (91% response rate). OUTCOME MEASURES: Interest in, experience with, and perceived barriers to diversification. RESULTS: Most farmers (95%) grew/raised a commodity other than tobacco (mean = 2.8). A total of 60% of farmers expressed interest in trying other on-farm activities to supplement their tobacco and 60% reported taking action in the past year around supplementation. Younger age and college education were positively associated with interest. College education, off-farm income, and larger farm size were associated with the number of actions taken. For perceived external barriers to diversification, use of tobacco, percent income from tobacco, lack of college education, and younger age were most strongly associated with the number of barriers. For internal barriers (personal factors), percent income from tobacco, use of tobacco, and lack of college education were most strongly associated with the number of barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Most farmers were involved in diverse operations and expressed interest in continuing to diversify, although the breadth of diversification was narrow. Farmers noted many barriers to diversifying. If conventional production and marketing techniques are employed for non-tobacco alternatives, these alternatives may not provide the sustainable profitability that tobacco has afforded. Competition from foreign tobacco growers is the primary threat to the future of American growers and tobacco dependent communities.  (+info)

(3/2094) Factors related to choosing oral contraception at age 15.

This report aims to identify factors which are related to use of oral contraceptives at an early age. A self-administered questionnaire was completed at schools in 1988 and 1992 in southern and western Finland (N = 1339). Sexually experienced girls (mean age 15.8 years) who had answered the question concerning their oral contraceptive use were included (N = 389). Logistic regression analysis was used to compare oral contraceptive users (N = 121) with the group of non-users. Total number of coital experiences was associated with oral contraceptive use: the odds ratio for those having at least 10 coital experiences was 6.30 compared with those with only one intercourse. The proportion was 73% among oral contraceptive users and 30% among non-users. Girls using oral contraceptives perceived more often (67%) that parents accept their sexual relationship (30% among non-users). Oral contraceptive users were less afraid of getting pregnant (9% compared with 31% among non-users) and felt more often that sex was very important in their life (31 and 13%, respectively). Other factors that entered the model were age at menarche, having a steady partner and frequency of disco visits. When a young girl asks for oral contraceptives, she is probably at true risk of pregnancy, and regular contraception should be considered both in view of effective prevention of pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases.  (+info)

(4/2094) Measuring intermediate outcomes of violence prevention programs targeting African-American male youth: an exploratory assessment of the psychometric properties of six psychosocial measures.

This study examined the psychometric properties of six psychosocial measures that may be useful indicators of intermediate outcomes of violence prevention programs targeting African-American male youth. Baseline and 6 month follow-up survey data are used from 223 African-American male 12-16 year olds participating in a violence prevention program evaluation study. The constructs of interest are beliefs supporting aggression, aggressive conflict-resolution style, hostility, ethnic identity, self-esteem and hopelessness. Each construct is measured as a multi-item scale. Exploratory factor analysis results provided limited support for the unidimensionality of these scales, thus suggesting that further scale development is warranted. Reliability coefficients for the scales ranged from 0.55 to 0.80. Bivariate analyses with baseline data indicate that all six measures have construct and criterion-related validity, as they are associated with each other and with four behavioral criteria in the expected directions. Predictive validity was also demonstrated for beliefs supporting aggression, aggressive conflict-resolution style, hostility and hopelessness which were associated with weapon-carrying behaviors measured in the 6 month follow-up survey both before and after controlling for corresponding behaviors measured in the baseline survey.  (+info)

(5/2094) The effects of a participative programme on Irish pupils' attitudes to HIV/AIDS.

The study is concerned with a general humanistic approach to health (lifeskills) education and its application to the specific issue of HIV/AIDS in the Republic of Ireland. A programme of five classroom sessions, structured to encourage active participation, was administered to an experimental group of 20 participants (10 male and 10 female). There was an equivalent control group. Attitudes towards 10 AIDS-related person concepts were measured before and after the programme using semantic differential rating scales. Highly significant differences were found between groups in post-programme attitudes to the concepts. There were no gender differences. It is concluded that this participative programme strongly influences AIDS-related attitudes, and, in particular, promotes compassion towards those with HIV/AIDS.  (+info)

(6/2094) Understanding HIV-related risk among persons with a severe and persistent mental illness: insights from qualitative inquiry.

We conducted focus groups with 36 men and women who were receiving treatment for a severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) to learn more about the social context of their intimate relationships and the psychological antecedents of their sexual decision-making. Qualitative analysis of focus group transcripts indicated that a) sexual activity tended to be unplanned and occurred in social networks where HIV risk may be elevated, b) HIV-related knowledge was superficial and insufficient to guide safer sexual behavior, c) participants' HIV risk perception was often based upon factors unrelated to their sexual behaviors, and d) communication skills for HIV risk reduction were poor. We discuss how qualitative methods yielded insights not readily available through quantitative approaches and offer recommendations for HIV risk assessment and prevention among persons with an SPMI.  (+info)

(7/2094) What do general practice receptionists think and feel about their work?

BACKGROUND: Although there is some published work acknowledging that the general practice receptionist's role is both important and difficult, receptionists' own views have rarely been sought. AIM: To explore general practice receptionists' ideas and feelings about their work. METHOD: A questionnaire was distributed to all 150 receptionists in a representative sample of 26 practices in the area covered by Leeds family health services authority. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a representative group of 20 receptionists selected from the questionnaire sample. RESULTS: All responders were women, 60% were over 40 years old, and about half had been in the post for more than five years; four-fifths worked part-time. They had chosen the job because it dovetailed with the rest of their lives. Responders derived satisfaction from helping patients, meeting people, having good relationships with colleagues, and doing varied work. Sources of stress included difficult patients, work pressure, problems finding appointments for patients, and feeling caught between doctors' and patients' demands. Responders' experiences and views of training were diverse. Practice managers were important in making them feel consulted and supported. All had a sense of teamwork with colleagues, but many did not perceive the whole practice as a team. Many felt doctors failed to appreciate the pressure and complexity of their work. CONCLUSIONS: Receptionists' work is complex, demanding and intense, involving a high level of commitment to patients, colleagues, and the practice. Recommendations include improved appointment systems, a positive role for practice managers in relation to reception staff, and individual planning of receptionists' training. Effective teamwork among receptionists should be recognized and developed. General practitioners (GPs) are recommended to develop a greater understanding of receptionists' work.  (+info)

(8/2094) Subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects of cumulative doses of opioid mu agonists in healthy volunteers.

The subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects of three opioid mu-receptor agonists were studied in healthy volunteers using a cumulative-dosing procedure. Sixteen volunteers with no history of drug abuse received i.v. injections of saline (SAL), morphine (MOR), hydromorphone (HM), or meperidine (MEP) in a randomized double-blind crossover design. Subjects received 1 injection/h for the first 4 h, and a 3-h recovery period followed. SAL was injected first during each session, then SAL or increasing doses of each drug were administered every hour for the next 3 h. The absolute doses per injection were MOR: 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/70 kg; HM: 0.33, 0.65, and 1.3 mg/70 kg; and MEP: 17.5, 35, and 70 mg/70 kg. These injections resulted in cumulative doses of MOR: 2.5, 7.5, and 17.5; HM: 0.33, 0.98, and 2.28; and MEP: 17.5, 52.5, and 122.5 mg/70 kg. Subjects completed mood forms and psychomotor tests, and physiological measures were recorded at various times after each injection and during recovery. MEP tended to produce the most intense effects immediately after drug injection, which dissipated rapidly. MOR produced the mildest effects but was associated with unpleasant side effects during recovery and after the session. HM's effects were stronger than MOR's, and the recovery from HM was slower than with MEP. None of the opioids produced consistent effects that are typically associated with abuse liability. Orderly dose-response functions suggested that our cumulative-dosing procedure is an efficient way of determining dose-response functions for multiple opioids within the same subjects within the same study.  (+info)



negative attitudes


  • Knee pain in osteoarthritis can be worsened by sleep disturbance or negative attitudes, according to a recent study published in the Arthritis Care and Research journal. (medindia.net)

toward


  • To unlock new insights we commissioned the social research company TNS BMRB to research current public attitudes, awareness, interest and engagement toward chemistry in the UK. (rsc.org)
  • On Friday, 20 June, in Belfast, Northern Ireland, the Multinational Study of Attitudes toward Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities was presented as part of the 2003 Scientific Symposium, held in association with the 2003 Special Olympics World Summer Games. (specialolympics.org)
  • While the results of this survey were not surprising to those of us who have experience working and/or living with individuals with intellectual disabilities, we're encouraged by the very telling results that those who had an involvement with Special Olympics had better attitudes toward individuals with intellectual disabilities," said the Chairman of Special Olympics, Timothy Shriver. (specialolympics.org)
  • Our greatest hope is that this study will serve as the catalyst for a real and lasting change in the public's attitudes toward the inclusion of individuals with intellectual disabilities in every aspect of society in every country on the planet. (specialolympics.org)
  • The goal of the Multinational Study of Attitudes toward Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities was to document the social acceptance level of individuals with intellectual disabilities worldwide. (specialolympics.org)
  • The results are encouraging because they suggest that experience with earplugs can lead to sustained positive attitudes toward the devices, which has the potential to reduce the chance of future hearing loss and tinnitus in this at-risk group of music venue patrons. (lww.com)
  • Importantly, after trying them out for a week, students rated the earplugs as more comfortable than they had at first, suggesting that attitudes toward earplugs can improve with experience. (lww.com)
  • 1. Describe how your attitude toward public administration and public administrators has changed. (brainmass.com)
  • Attitude toward public administration is explained in a structured manner in this response. (brainmass.com)

describe


  • A second finding, that may not be surprising to parents of teen-agers, is that teens are not very accurate in perceiving their parents' attitudes and that, when asked to describe their communications about sex, what the teen-agers said they heard often contradicted what their parents reported they said. (latimes.com)

Towards


  • My attitude towards public administration and public administrators has changed. (brainmass.com)
  • My attitude has become positive towards both. (brainmass.com)
  • focus, safety and positive attitude towards handling of any work as public administrator . (brainmass.com)

decades


  • In this lively introduction, Peter Garrett draws upon research carried out over recent decades in order to discuss such attitudes and the implications they have for our use of language, for social advantage or discrimination, and for social identity. (ebooks.com)

Language


  • Language attitudes and language ideologies permeate our daily lives. (ebooks.com)

public


  • achievement scores through attitude survey References Atlanta Public Schools (2013). (brainmass.com)

lead


results


  • Thus, country-to-country comparisons are unlikely to give an accurate representation of the true attitudes behind the results. (specialolympics.org)

Survey


  • Dear Student, Thank you for completing this short Post Survey to assess your attitude/interests in science. (surveymonkey.com)