Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Saturn: The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Hyperbaric Oxygenation: The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Mars: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Evolution, Planetary: Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Argon: Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Planets: Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Biogenesis: The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.Jupiter: The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrocarbons, Acyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Meteoroids: Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Moon: The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Astronomical Phenomena: Aggregates of matter in outer space, such as stars, planets, comets, etc. and the properties and processes they undergo.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Pentanes: Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Vacuum: A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.Sulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.Steam: Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)HydrocarbonsSmog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.AcetyleneOzone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Serratia liquefaciens: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus SERRATIA found in plants and the DIGESTIVE TRACT of rodents. It is the most prevalent Serratia species in the natural environment.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Urticaceae: The nettles plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. Many have stinging hairs on stems and leaves. Flowers are small and greenish in leaf axils. The fruit is dry and one-seeded.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.Minor Planets: Small solar system planetary bodies including asteroids. Most asteroids are found within the gap lying between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.Peracetic Acid: A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.Dry Ice: A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.Neptune: The eighth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its two natural satellites are Nereid and Triton.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)FiresClimatic Processes: Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Oil and Gas Fields: Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Dental Casting Technique: The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Metal Ceramic Alloys: The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Mucor: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Sarcina: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria whose organisms divide in three perpendicular planes and occur in packets of eight or more cells. It has been isolated from soil, grains, and clinical specimens.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Carnobacterium: A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family CARNOBACTERIACEAE. They are tolerant to freezing/thawing and high pressure and able to grow at low temperatures.Food Storage: Keeping food for later consumption.Incubators: Insulated enclosures in which temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, reproduction, or metabolic reactions.Peptones: Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)Campylobacter fetus: A species of bacteria present in man and many kinds of animals and birds, often causing infertility and/or abortion.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Sulfur Isotopes: Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Carbon Compounds, Inorganic: Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.PhotochemistryPolycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Hemiterpenes: The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Betula: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.Electronic Waste: Discarded electronic devices containing valuable and sometimes hazardous materials such as LEAD, NICKEL, CADMIUM, and MERCURY. (from http://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/materials/ecycling/faq.htm#impact accessed 4/25/2010)Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Gram-Positive Rods: A large group of rod-shaped bacteria that retains the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Sulfonium Compounds: Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Fumigation: The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Iron Compounds: Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Streptococcus mitis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Rumex: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that contains patientosides and other naphthalene glycosides.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Chemical Terrorism: The use of chemical agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of nerve agents, blood agents, blister agents, and choking agents (NOXAE).Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Decompression: Decompression external to the body, most often the slow lessening of external pressure on the whole body (especially in caisson workers, deep sea divers, and persons who ascend to great heights) to prevent DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS. It includes also sudden accidental decompression, but not surgical (local) decompression or decompression applied through body openings.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Bacteroidaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.Lichens: Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Chemical Hazard Release: Uncontrolled release of a chemical from its containment that either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a chemical hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Metmyoglobin: Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Suicidegirls Lyrics - AtmosphereLyrics to Suicidegirls by Atmosphere: [Voice messages from upset girlfriends] / Hey you fucking asshole / Hi Sean, I just got ...
A Fresh Atmosphere for Balancing Both Mind and BodyYou are here: Home / Living Healthy / Health/Fitness / A Fresh Atmosphere for Balancing Both Mind and Body ... A Fresh Atmosphere for Balancing Both Mind and Body. September 24, 2009. by ModernMom Staff Leave a Comment ...
Nitrous oxide | Italian Climate Observatory "Ottavio Vittori" @ Monte CimoneIn troposphere, N2O absorbs terrestrial thermal radiation and thus contributes to greenhouse warming of the atmosphere. On a ...
Comparison between analytical models to simulate pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere on Environmental XPRTArticle Comparison between analytical models to simulate pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere. We present a numerical and ... No comments were found for Comparison between analytical models to simulate pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere. Be the ... Comparison between analytical models to simulate pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere. 0 ...
Modelling Atmospheric Concentrations of Particulate Matter Model Climate Sensitivity of Ecosystems and Feedbacks for Region...Atmospheric dispersion modelling refers to the mathematical description of contaminant transport in the atmosphere. Each ... In the setting of the modelling of the scattering of the pollutants in the atmosphere it remains to try to solve the equation ... The modelling of the scattering of the pollutants in the atmosphere is based on the resolution of an equation to the partial ... The main objective of this work is to calculate the condition of dispersion and diffusion of pollutants en atmosphere for case ...
Rolls-Royce - Pseudo-Strategic atmosphere | GlassdoorAbility to work independently and take on projects that are meaningful to the business. Training organization that invests in employees. Good locations (VA and Indy)
DualbladeX - AtmosphereYou are not logged in. If you sign up for an account, you can gain additional voting power over time, allowing your vote to have an even greater impact on submission scores! ...
Business Friendly for Atmosphere for Commercials... . Contact Us. open Contact Samsung layer We'll help you find the right ... A key factor in any business' success is creating a comfortable and business friendly atmosphere in which to meet and work with ...
Biological Processes Within Atmospheric Aerosols, viXra.org e-Print archive, viXra:1402.0172A surprisingly high fraction of sunlight is absorbed during transit of the Earth's lower atmosphere. One third to one half of ...
Injecting Sulfate Particles Into Stratosphere Won't Fully Offset Climate Change - RedorbitThe lower atmosphere already contains tiny sulfate and sea salt particles, called aerosols, that reflect energy from the sun ... Later this century, you would not be able to recreate present-day Earth just by adding sulfate aerosols to the atmosphere," ... They also found that injecting sulfate particles into the atmosphere might even suppress temperature increases in the tropics ... such as removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or directing the sun's heat away from Earth - to help offset rising ...
DiVA - SøkeresultatA chemical transport model of the atmosphere (GEOS-Chem-TOMAS) was driven with those BVOC emissions to quantify the effects on ... Combustion-derived soot or black carbon (BC) in the atmosphere has a strong influence on both climate and human health. In ... These results show that, in regions of the atmosphere near amine sources, both amines and sulphur dioxide should be considered ... Molecular understanding of sulphuric acid-amine particle nucleation in the atmosphere2013Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, Vol ...
Atmosphere Tickets... are now available at affordable rates on our website. Buy yours now and be a part of one of the biggest rap ... ATMOSPHERE NEWS AND UPDATES. Atmosphere Announce Welcome to California Tour American hip hop duo Atmosphere will kick off a ... Atmosphere Tickets. Atmosphere Tickets. Success and fame come naturally when a band has talent of such a huge magnitude like ... Q:How do i get cheap tickets atmosphere san diego online?. A:All you got to do is go to Atmosphere Tickets page on our site, ...
Extraction and Characterization of Surfactants from Atmospheric Aerosols | ProtocolEkström, S., et al. A possible role of ground-based microorganisms on cloud formation in the atmosphere. Biogeosci. 7, 387-394 ... Jimenez, J. L., et al. Evolution of Organic Aerosols in the Atmosphere. Science. 326, 1525-1529 (2009). ... The method for collecting aerosol samples on filters in the atmosphere will not be explained here but numerous descriptions can ... Clouds are essential in the Earth's atmosphere, for the hydrology of most environments and ecosystems, and for the climate ...
Free AtmosphereIts nice but it belongs in Ambient not cinematic. Although it may be used for a film or such that doesn't define it as cinematic, this is definitely a ambient piece. Good job though. ...
Wit's End: December 2012So even if rain and snow levels remain the same, the atmosphere will inexorably pull that moisture away from the soil and trees ... Normally ropes of water molecules are pulled up from the soil and roots by the atmosphere, moving through very small channels ... "Ground-level ozone is formed in the atmosphere by nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the presence of sunlight. ... He finally got a sympathetic hearing from Ken Jucks, manager for the agency's Upper Atmosphere Research Program. Together, they ...
Colorado State University scientist simplifies aerosols for modelingThe atmosphere contains many different kinds of aerosols such as dust and sulfate as well as organic aerosols. These organic ... "What we're really trying to get at is the composition - what's in the atmosphere, how is it changing and where does it have an ... The large number of tiny organic aerosols floating in the atmosphere - emitted from tailpipes and trees alike - share enough ... The longer aerosols have been in the atmosphere, the more their composition has been altered- a process called oxidation. ...
Primer Lyrics AtmosphereAtmosphere - Primer Lyrics. Hey Daly, Get the fuck away from my sister you punk motherfocker. (intro) I do... I do... I do... ... Atmosphere Lyrics provided by SongLyrics.com. Note: When you embed the widget in your site, it will match your site's styles ( ...
Urban and indoor aerosols and health effectsAtmosphere modelling. Atmospheric Mass Spectrometry. Radar meteorology. Urban meteorology. Urban and indoor aerosols and health ...
Atmosphere - WikipediaAtmosphere, rhymesayers.com. Atmosphere su Myspace, myspace.com. LyricsQuest: liriche degli Atmosphere, lyricsquest.com. Twin ... L'unico album degli Atmosphere che contiene produzioni ospiti è The Lucy Ford: The Atmosphere EP, che include Jel e Moodswing 9 ... OHHLA.com archivio liriche (Atmosphere), ohhla.com. OHHLA.com archivio liriche (Slug), ohhla.com. Atmosphere and Collaborations ... Disambiguazione - Se stai cercando altri significati, vedi Atmosphere (disambigua). Gli Atmosphere sono un gruppo hip hop ...
Atmosphere - WikipediaConsultado em 18 de abril de 2008 PArada da Billboard Atmosphere no Myspace Atmosphere na Rhymesayers Entertainment Atmosphere ... Atmosphere é uma dupla de hip hop norte-americana fundada em 1993 em Minneapolis, nos Estados Unidos. Uma de suas canções, " ...
Atmosphere... : Minecraftreddit: the front page of the internet
Alien Life Atmosphere | HuffPostAlien Life Atmosphere
Atmosphere (groupe) - WikipediaPour les articles homonymes, voir Atmosphère. Atmosphere Atmosphere en concert à Houston, en 2006. Atmosphere est un groupe de ... Cette même année, Atmosphere entame trois tournées à part en Europe et en Amérique du Nord. Atmosphere planifie la sortie de ... a et b (en) « Atmosphere To Release Family Sign », Hip Hop Galaxy, 4 février 2011 (consulté le 9 mai 2014). ↑ (en) « Atmosphere ... Free Atmosphere Ep "Leak At Will" - Myspace-Blog , Van Atmosphere », Blogs.myspace.com, 5 novembre 2004 (consulté le 7 octobre ...
Digital Atmosphere - WikipediaDigital Atmosphere é uma demo tape sem edição comercial da banda portuguesa The Gift, lançada em 1997. Dream with someone Else` ...
Stratosphere: The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere. It is stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down.Saturn A-1: Saturn A-1, studied in 1959, was projected to be the first version of Saturn I and was to be used if necessary before the S-IV liquid hydrogen second stage became available. The first stage, proposed for the Juno V rocket, but finally used for the first Saturn rocket, would propel the Saturn A-1 into space, with the first stage of a Titan I missile continuing the flight and finally, a Centaur C high-energy double-engine third stage could perform a small burn to send a payload into its final orbit, or it can perform a big burn to take a payload out of Earth orbit to other planets.Shiva crater: The Shiva Crater is a geologic structure, which is hypothesized by Sankar ChatterjeeChatterjee, S. (1997) Multiple impacts at the KT boundary and the death of the dinosaurs.Paleoproterozoic: The Paleoproterozoic (; also Palaeoproterozoic) is the first of the three sub-divisions (eras) of the Proterozoic occurring (2.5–1.Richard A Neubauer: Richard Allen Neubauer (16 January 1924–11 June 2007), was a physician known for his work in the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy.Robotic spacecraft: 250px|right|thumb|An artist's interpretation of the [[MESSENGER spacecraft at Mercury]]Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter: [Martian hemispheres by MOLA.jpg|right|thumb|260px|MOLA topographic images of the two hemispheres of Mars.Air sensitivity: Air sensitivity is a term used, particularly in chemistry, to denote the reactivity of chemical compounds with some constituent of air. Most often, reactions occur with atmospheric oxygen (O2) or water vapor (H2O),Handling and Storage of Air-Sensitive Reagents, Technical Bulletin AL-134, Sigma-Aldrich although reactions with the other constituents of air such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen (N2) are also possible.List of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsAtmospheric-pressure laser ionization: Atmospheric pressure laser ionization is an atmospheric pressure ionization method for mass spectrometry (MS). Laser light in the UV range is used to ionize molecules in a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) process.Lunar magma ocean: According to the giant impact hypothesis a large amount of energy was liberated in the formation of the Moon and it is predicted that as a result a large portion of the Moon was once completely molten, forming a lunar magma ocean. Evidence for the magma ocean hypothesis comes from the highly anorthositic compositions of the crust in the lunar highlands, as well as the existence of rocks with a high concentration of the geochemical component referred to as KREEP.Carbon chauvinism: Carbon chauvinism is a neologism meant to disparage the assumption that the chemical processes of hypothetical extraterrestrial life must be constructed primarily from carbon (organic compounds) because carbon's chemical and thermodynamic properties render it far superior to all other elements.Arteriovenous oxygen difference: The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.Primordial soup: "Primordial soup" is a term introduced by the Soviet biologist Alexander Oparin. In 1924, he proposed a theory of the origin of life on Earth through the transformation, during the gradual chemical evolution of molecules that contain carbon in the primordial soup.Self-heating food packaging: Self-heating food packaging (SHFP) is active packaging with the ability to heat food contents without external heat sources or power. Packets typically use an exothermic chemical reaction.Argon–argon dating: Argon–argon (or 40Ar/39Ar) dating is a radiometric dating method invented to supersede potassium-argon (K/Ar) dating in accuracy. The older method required splitting samples into two for separate potassium and argon measurements, while the newer method requires only one rock fragment or mineral grain and uses a single measurement of argon isotopes.Volumetric heat capacity: Volumetric heat capacity (VHC), also termed volume-specific heat capacity, describes the ability of a given volume of a substance to store internal energy while undergoing a given temperature change, but without undergoing a phase transition. It is different from specific heat capacity in that the VHC is a 'per unit volume' measure of the relationship between thermal energy and temperature of a material, while the specific heat is a 'per unit mass' measure (or occasionally per molar quantity of the material).Circumbinary planet: A circumbinary planet is a planet that orbits two stars instead of one.High-speed door: High-speed doors are door systems, mainly used in industrial applications. They are technical enhancements of the generally known sectional doors, PVC fabric doors or roller shutters.Primordial sandwich: The concept of the primordial sandwich was proposed by the chemist Günter Wächtershäuser to describe the possible origins of the first cell membranes, and, therefore, the first cell.Ganymede (moon)P-AnisidineMcIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar: McIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar is an instrument used in the production of an anaerobic environment. This method of anaerobiosis as others is used to culture bacteria which die or fail to grow in presence of oxygen (anaerobes).Atmospheric methane: Atmospheric methane is the methane present in Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric methane concentrations are of interest due to methane's impact on climate change, as it is one of the most potent greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere.List of Antarctic ice streams: This is a list of Antarctic ice streams.Hydrogen gas porosity: Hydrogen gas porosity is an aluminium casting defect under the form of a porosity or void in an aluminium casting caused by a high level of hydrogen gas (H2) dissolved in the aluminium at liquid phase. Because the solubility of hydrogen in solid aluminium is much smaller than in liquid aluminium, when the aluminium freezes, the dissolved hydrogen gas creates porosity in solid aluminium.Nitrogen deficiencyAerosolization: Aerosolization is the process or act of converting some physical substance into the form of particles small and light enough to be carried on the air i.e.Submillimetre astronomy: Submillimetre astronomy or submillimeter astronomy (see spelling differences) is the branch of observational astronomy that is conducted at submillimetre wavelengths (i.e.Acid Rain Retirement Fund: The Acid Rain Retirement Fund (A.R.Human impact on the nitrogen cycleObligate aerobe: 300px|thumb|Aerobic and anaerobic [[bacteria can be identified by growing them in test tubes of thioglycollate broth: 1: Obligate aerobes need oxygen because they cannot ferment or respire anaerobically. They gather at the top of the tube where the oxygen concentration is highest.Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning: Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning (31 March 1817–18 November 1861), one of the most prolific women artists in India, was the wife of Charles Canning, 1st Earl Canning. Two portfolios in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London contain some three hundred and fifty watercolours by her, the result of four major tours in India.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightSan Bernardino Valley: The San Bernardino Valley is a valley in Southern California. It lies at the south base of the Transverse Ranges.IPCC Second Assessment Report: The Second Assessment Report (SAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 1996, is an assessment of the then available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change. It was superseded by the Third Assessment Report (TAR) in 2001.THC-O-phosphateCarbon–carbon bond: A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. The most common form is the single bond: a bond composed of two electrons, one from each of the two atoms.List of largest volcanic eruptions: In a volcanic eruption, lava, tephra (volcanic bombs, lapilli, and ash), and various gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure. While many eruptions only pose dangers to the immediately surrounding area, Earth's largest eruptions can have a major regional or even global impact, with some affecting the climate and contributing to mass extinctions.Supramolecular assembly: thumbnail|200px|An example of a supramolecular assembly reported by Atwood and coworkers in Science 2005, 309, 2037.Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.HumidifierChondrule: Chondrules in the chondrite Grassland|200px|thumb|Chondrules in the chondrite Grassland. A millimeter scale is shown.Snow pea: The snow pea (Pisum sativum var. saccharatum) is a legume, more specifically a variety of pea eaten whole in its pod while still unripe.Phlogiston theory: The phlogiston theory is an obsolete scientific theory that postulated that a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion. The name comes from the Ancient Greek [phlogistón (burning up), from φλόξ] phlóx (flame).Anoxic event: Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area. During some of these events, euxinia develops - euxinia refers to anoxic waters that contain hydrogen sulfide.Outline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:NAME (dispersion model): The NAME atmospheric pollution dispersion model Air Quality Programme and Progress, Met Office Scientific Advisory Committee (MOSAC), November 11–12, 2004Met Office "Specialised forecasts"Met Office "NWP Gazette", 3rd Quarter, 1996Met Office "NWP Gazette", December 2000 was first developed by the UK's Met Office in 1986 after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, which demonstrated the need for a method that could predict the spread and deposition of radioactive gases or material released into the atmosphere.Moonlight: [22-12-47-moonlight.jpg|thumb|A photograph taken by moonlight with an exposure time of fifty minutes.Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Nitrogen trichlorideSupernova Early Warning System: The SuperNova Early Warning System (SNEWS) is a network of neutrino detectors designed to give early warning to astronomers in the event of a supernova in the Milky Way Galaxy, our home galaxy, or a nearby galaxy such as the Large Magellanic Cloud or the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy. Enormous numbers of neutrinos are produced in the core of a red giant star as it collapses on itself.Index of geology articles: This is a list of all articles related to geology that cannot be readily placed on the following subtopic pages:Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Pentane interference: Pentane interference or syn-pentane interaction is the steric hindrance that the two terminal methyl groups experience in one of the chemical conformations of n-pentane. The possible conformations are combinations of anti conformations and gauche conformations and are anti-anti, anti-gauche+, gauche+ - gauche+ and gauche+ - gauche− of which the last one is especially energetically unfavorable.Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy: Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VAB) is a minimally invasive procedure (Biopsy) to help in the diagnosis of breast cancer. VAB is characterized by single insertion, acquisition of contiguous and larger tissue samples, and directional sample capability.Carbonyl sulfideIndex of steam energy articles: * portable engineUnsaturated hydrocarbon: Unsaturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that have double or triple covalent bonds between adjacent carbon atoms. Those with at least one carbon to carbon double bond are called alkenes and those with at least one carbon to carbon triple bond are called alkynes.Donora Smog Museum: Donora Smog Museum features a collection of archival materials documenting the Donora Smog of 1948, an air inversion of smog containing fluorine that killed 20 people in Donora, Pennsylvania, United States, a mill town 20 miles south of Pittsburgh on the Monongahela River.Ammonium cyanidePrinomastatCarbon fixation: Carbon fixation or сarbon assimilation refers to the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms. The most prominent example is photosynthesis, although chemosynthesis is another form of carbon fixation that can take place in the absence of sunlight.Breath carbon monoxide: Breath carbon monoxide is the level of carbon monoxide in a person's exhalation. It can be measured in a breath carbon monoxide test, generally by using a carbon monoxide breath monitor (breath CO monitor), such as for motivation and education for smoking cessation and also as a clinical aid in assessing carbon monoxide poisoning.EcosystemNatron: Natron is a naturally occurring mixture of sodium carbonate decahydrate (Na2CO3·10H2O, a kind of soda ash) and about 17% sodium bicarbonate (also called baking soda, NaHCO3) along with small quantities of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate. Natron is white to colourless when pure, varying to gray or yellow with impurities.Exogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Citizen Weather Observer Program: The Citizen Weather Observer Program (CWOP) is a network of privately owned electronic weather stations concentrated in the United States but also located in over 150 countries. Network participation allows volunteers with computerized weather stations to send automated surface weather observations to the National Weather Service (NWS) by way of the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS).Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray: In astroparticle physics, an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) is a cosmic ray particle with a kinetic energy greater than eV, far beyond both its rest mass and energies typical of other cosmic ray particles.Outline of organic chemistry: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to organic chemistry:Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Briquette: A briquette (or briquet) is a compressed block of coal dust"briquette, n. 2.PhenylacetyleneOzone Action Day: An Ozone Action Day, which can be declared by a local municipality, county or state, is observed at certain times during the summer months, when weather conditions (such as heat, humidity, and air stagnation) run the risk of causing health problems.Deep chlorophyll maximum: A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) is a subsurface maximum in the concentration of chlorophyll in the ocean or a lake. A DCM is not always present--sometimes there is more chlorophyll at the surface than at any greater depth--but it is a common feature of most aquatic ecosystems.Helium-3Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek [phōs, "light", and σύνθεσις], synthesis, "putting together".List of geological phenomena: A geological phenomenon is a phenomenon which is explained by or sheds light on the science of geology.Nitrous oxide and oxygen: A mix of nitrous oxide 50% and oxygen 50% is a medical analgesic gas, commonly known as Entonox (a registered trademark of BOC) or Nitronox, or colloquially as "gas and air", and is frequently used in pre-hospital care, childbirth and emergency medicine situations by medical professionals such as doctors, nurses, midwives and paramedics.To Kau Wan: To Kau Wan () is a bay on the north shore of northeast Lantau Island, Hong Kong. Contaminated soil from Penny's Bay was transferred here for thermal desorption to separate the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC) along with cement immobilization of metal contamination from Penny's Bay.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Autosensitization dermatitisIndustrial waste: Industrial waste is the waste produced by industrial activity which includes any material that is rendered useless during a manufacturing process such as that of factories, mills, and mining operations. It has existed since the start of the Industrial Revolution.Replica plating: 350px|right|thumb|[[Negative selection (artificial selection)|Negative selection through replica plating to screen for ampicillin sensitive colonies]]List of glaciers in the Antarctic: A-H: This is a list of glaciers in the Antarctic with a name starting with the letters A–H. This list does not include ice sheets, ice caps or ice fields, such as the Antarctic ice sheet, but includes glacial features that are defined by their flow, rather than general bodies of ice.Meanings of minor planet names: 154001–155000: ==List of minor planets==Performic acidList of cooling baths: This page contains a list of cooling bath mixtures.Nearly Neptune: Nearly Neptune is a juvenile science fiction novel, the twelfth in Hugh Walters' Chris Godfrey of U.N.Nankai Trough gas hydrate site: Nankai Methane Hydrate Site (or Japanese Methane Hydrate R&D Program at Nankai, Nankai Trough Methane Hydrate Site) is located in the Nankai Trough, Japan.National Fire Academy: The National Fire Academy (NFA)National Fire Academy Mission Accessed: 6/12/2012 is one of two schools in the United States operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) at the National Emergency Training Center (NETC) in Emmitsburg, Maryland. Operated and governed by the United States Fire Administration (USFA) as part of the U.
(1/768) Passive exchanges during water vapour absorption in mealworms (Tenebrio molitor): a new approach to studying the phenomenon.
The weights of single mealworms were continuously recorded at 20 degrees C during exposure to periods of constant humidity and to abrupt changes in atmospheric vapour pressure. Two exchange stages were recognized in each animal. Weight changes were either limited to slow losses, suggesting transpiration through the external cuticle, or showed more rapid humidity-dependent gains as well as losses. Rapid exchanges indicated that water was gained or lost through permeable barriers, from a fluid compartmet of significantly lower vapour pressure than the haemolymph, equivalent to about 90% R.H. Weight gains and losses during humidity changes provided evidence of a significant, passively exchanging fluid compartment located between the exchange surface and absorbing mechanism. Weight changes in faecal pellets following their elimination provide further support for a rectal site of atmospheric absorption. (+info)
(2/768) Volatile anaesthetics and the atmosphere: atmospheric lifetimes and atmospheric effects of halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, desflurane and sevoflurane.
The atmospheric lifetimes of the halogenated anaesthetics halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, desflurane and sevoflurane with respect to reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH.) and UV photolysis have been determined from observations of OH. reaction kinetics and UV absorption spectra. Rate coefficients for the reaction with OH radicals for all halogenated anaesthetics investigated ranged from 0.44 to 2.7 x 10(-14) cm3 molec-1 s-1. Halothane, enflurane and isoflurane showed distinct UV absorption in the range 200-350 nm. In contrast, no absorption in this wavelength range was detected for desflurane or sevoflurane. The total atmospheric lifetimes, as derived from both OH. reactivity and photolysis, were 4.0-21.4 yr. It has been calculated that up to 20% of anaesthetics enter the stratosphere. As a result of chlorine and bromine content, the ozone depletion potential (ODP) relative to chlorofluorocarbon CFC-11 varies between 0 and 1.56, leading to a contribution to the total ozone depletion in the stratosphere of approximately 1% for halothane and 0.02% for enflurane and isoflurane. Estimates of the greenhouse warming potential (GWP) relative to CFC-12 yield values of 0.02-0.14, resulting in a relative contribution to global warming of all volatile anaesthetics of approximately 0.03%. The stratospheric impact of halothane, isoflurane and enflurane and their influence on ozone depletion is of increasing importance because of decreasing chlorofluorocarbons globally. However, the influence of volatile anaesthetics on greenhouse warming is small. (+info)
(3/768) Effects of in vitro atmospheric ammonia exposure on recovery rate and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of bovine neutrophils and bronchoalveolar macrophages.
The effects of atmospheric ammonia, a major pollutant in animal confinement facilities, on bovine neutrophils and bronchoalveolar macrophages were evaluated in vitro. Ammonia exposure at concentrations 50, 100 and 200 ppm for one hour impaired recovery rates of neutrophils dose-dependently but enhanced their chemiluminescence activity per cell at lower concentrations (50 and 100 ppm). Macrophages were resistant to the exposure. Their recovery rates and chemiluminescence remained unaffected even at 200 ppm exposure. The present results suggest that ammonia exposure is unfavorable for bovine neutrophils in vitro, and probably in vivo also, in light of causing cell damage and triggering wider inflammatory responses. (+info)
(4/768) Galileo imaging of atmospheric emissions from Io.
The Galileo spacecraft has detected diffuse optical emissions from Io in high-resolution images acquired while the satellite was eclipsed by Jupiter. Three distinct components make up Io's visible emissions. Bright blue glows of more than 300 kilorayleighs emanate from volcanic plumes, probably due to electron impact on molecular sulfur dioxide. Weaker red emissions, possibly due to atomic oxygen, are seen along the limbs, brighter on the pole closest to the plasma torus. A faint green glow appears concentrated on the night side of Io, possibly produced by atomic sodium. Io's disk-averaged emission diminishes with time after entering eclipse, whereas the localized blue glows brighten instead. (+info)
(5/768) Archean molecular fossils and the early rise of eukaryotes.
Molecular fossils of biological lipids are preserved in 2700-million-year-old shales from the Pilbara Craton, Australia. Sequential extraction of adjacent samples shows that these hydrocarbon biomarkers are indigenous and syngenetic to the Archean shales, greatly extending the known geological range of such molecules. The presence of abundant 2alpha-methylhopanes, which are characteristic of cyanobacteria, indicates that oxygenic photosynthesis evolved well before the atmosphere became oxidizing. The presence of steranes, particularly cholestane and its 28- to 30-carbon analogs, provides persuasive evidence for the existence of eukaryotes 500 million to 1 billion years before the extant fossil record indicates that the lineage arose. (+info)
(6/768) Increased summertime UV radiation in New Zealand in response to ozone loss.
Long-term decreases in summertime ozone over Lauder, New Zealand (45 degrees S), are shown to have led to substantial increases in peak ultraviolet (UV) radiation intensities. In the summer of 1998-99, the peak sunburning UV radiation was about 12 percent more than in the first years of the decade. Larger increases were seen for DNA-damaging UV radiation and plant-damaging UV radiation, whereas UV-A (315 to 400 nanometers) radiation, which is insensitive to ozone, showed no increase, in agreement with model calculations. These results provide strong evidence of human-induced increases in UV radiation, in a region where baseline levels of UV radiation were already relatively high. (+info)
(7/768) Climate change as a regulator of tectonics on Venus.
Tectonics, volcanism, and climate on Venus may be strongly coupled. Large excursions in surface temperature predicted to follow a global or near-global volcanic event diffuse into the interior and introduce thermal stresses of a magnitude sufficient to influence widespread tectonic deformation. This sequence of events accounts for the timing and many of the characteristics of deformation in the ridged plains of Venus, the most widely preserved volcanic terrain on the planet. (+info)
(8/768) The gravity field of Mars: results from Mars Global Surveyor.
Observations of the gravity field of Mars reveal a planet that has responded differently in its northern and southern hemispheres to major impacts and volcanic processes. The rough, elevated southern hemisphere has a relatively featureless gravitational signature indicating a state of near-isostatic compensation, whereas the smooth, low northern plains display a wider range of gravitational anomalies that indicates a thinner but stronger surface layer than in the south. The northern hemisphere shows evidence for buried impact basins, although none large enough to explain the hemispheric elevation difference. The gravitational potential signature of Tharsis is approximately axisymmetric and contains the Tharsis Montes but not the Olympus Mons or Alba Patera volcanoes. The gravity signature of Valles Marineris extends into Chryse and provides an estimate of material removed by early fluvial activity. (+info)
- LP, 12-track album Sad Clown Bad Dub II, fans favorite Lucy Ford: The Atmosphere EPs, as well as the sensational Happy Clown Bad Dub 8 / Fun EP. (excite.com)
- 1997 Lucy Ford: The Atmosphere EPs - 2001 God Loves Ugly - 2002 Seven's Travels - 2003 Headshots: SE7EN - 2004 You Can't Imagine How Much Fun We're Having - 2005 When Life Gives You Lemons, You Paint That Shit Gold - 2008 The Family Sign - 2011 Southsiders - 2014 Overcast! (wikipedia.org)
- En 2001, les deux EPs, Ford et Lucy, sont mélangés et publiés sous un album intitulé Lucy Ford: The Atmosphere EPs. (wikipedia.org)
- With Slug rapping for the band, Atmosphere released their first collection of work in collaboration with Black Hole, Musab, Phull Surkle, Ant and The Abtract Pack. (excite.com)
- Atmosphere, especially Slug the rapper, has a typical style of lyrics that he uses in most of his songs. (excite.com)
- Gli Atmosphere sono un gruppo hip hop statunitense, formato da: Slug, Sept Sev Seven (all'anagrafe Sean Daley): Prima che si formassero gli Atmosphere a Rochester, Minnesota, Slug era membro di un gruppo conosciuto come The Rhymesayers Collective, assieme a Stress (Siddiq Ali) e Spawn (Derek Turner). (wikipedia.org)
- Ogni nastro della serie contiene le prove di un componente del gruppo, e nel nastro numero 7 si trova un tour de force di Slug, vero genio lirico dietro le pubblicazioni del gruppo Atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
- Some important LPs and EPs that Atmosphere produced included Overcast! (excite.com)
- Disambiguazione - Se stai cercando altri significati, vedi Atmosphere (disambigua). (wikipedia.org)
- Più tardi il gruppo cambiò nome in Urban Atmosphere conquistando una qualche notorietà presso l'underground, il gruppo successivamente si legò saldamente con Ant (Anthony Davis) cominciando una collaborazione musicale. (wikipedia.org)
- Mr. Dibbs (ufficialmente non fa parte del gruppo) è il DJ degli Atmosphere nei tour. (wikipedia.org)
- He treated the fans with Leak At Will in 2009 and To All My Friends, Blood Makes The Blade Holy: The Atmosphere EP's that were released in years 1997, 2000, 2001, 2006, 2007, 2007, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010 respectively. (excite.com)
- Ils jouent initialement sous le nom de groupe de Mental Subjects, avant de changer pour A Rhythmic Culture, puis finalement en Urban Atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
- Digital Atmosphere é uma demo tape sem edição comercial da banda portuguesa The Gift, lançada em 1997. (wikipedia.org)
- Atmosphere planifie la sortie de son deuxième album, God Loves Ugly, le 11 juin 2002, mais reporte la date à cause d'un problème d'édition sonore. (wikipedia.org)
- The album was a huge success, and it was for the popularity and remarkable business this album did that Atmosphere was known to public outside their hometown. (excite.com)
- Ant (all'anagrafe Anthony Davis): produce il suo primo album intitolato Comparison, per Musab (precedentemente conosciuto come Beyond), ha contribuito a tutti gli album degli Atmosphere ed ha anche prodotto basi per gli album di diversi membri dell'etichetta Rhymesayers Entertainment. (wikipedia.org)
- L'unico album degli Atmosphere che contiene produzioni ospiti è The Lucy Ford: The Atmosphere EP, che include Jel e Moodswing 9. (wikipedia.org)
- Un mélange d'EP, compilé en un album intitulé To All My Friends, Blood Makes the Blade Holy: The Atmosphere EP's est publié en septembre 2010. (wikipedia.org)
- Atmosphere revient avec son premier album studio en trois ans. (wikipedia.org)
- High quality Atmosphere inspired Stickers by independent artists and designers from around the world. (redbubble.com)
- For people who love music, especially rap music and hip hop, Atmosphere tickets provide a great opportunity to witness some of the greatest songs of this genre by singers who really know their job! (excite.com)
- Success and fame come naturally when a band has talent of such a huge magnitude like Atmosphere. (excite.com)
- yo pinchy, wanna go to the atmosphere show at target center this sunday? (urbandictionary.com)
- Entre les sorties de When Life Gives You Lemons et To All My Friends, Atmosphere publie un autre EP grauit en 2009, Leak At Will, qui comprend sept chansons. (wikipedia.org)
- Atmosphere Visual Effects News, su atmosphere-vfx.com. (wikipedia.org)
- American hip hop duo Atmosphere will kick off a summer tour across California in support of their record 'Fishing Blues. (excite.com)