Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Asthma, Occupational: Asthma attacks caused, triggered, or exacerbated by OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Adrenal Cortex HormonesHypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Leukotriene Antagonists: A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Status Asthmaticus: A sudden intense and continuous aggravation of a state of asthma, marked by dyspnea to the point of exhaustion and collapse and not responding to the usual therapeutic efforts.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Pyroglyphidae: Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.Pulmonary Medicine: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Asthma, Aspirin-Induced: Asthmatic adverse reaction (e.g., BRONCHOCONSTRICTION) to conventional NSAIDS including aspirin use.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Nedocromil: A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Picornaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate: Skin irritant and allergen used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams and other elastomers.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Puerto Rico: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is San Juan. It is a self-governing commonwealth in union with the United States. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493 but no colonization was attempted until 1508. It belonged to Spain until ceded to the United States in 1898. It became a commonwealth with autonomy in internal affairs in 1952. Columbus named the island San Juan for St. John's Day, the Monday he arrived, and the bay Puerto Rico, rich harbor. The island became Puerto Rico officially in 1932. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p987 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p436)Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.Pregnenediones: Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Eosinophil Cationic Protein: One of several basic proteins released from EOSINOPHIL cytoplasmic granules. Eosinophil cationic protein is a 21-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. Although eosinophil cationic protein is considered a member of the RNAse A superfamily of proteins, it has only limited RNAse activity.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Anti-Allergic Agents: Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Pulmonary Eosinophilia: A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Rhinovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Respiratory Tract DiseasesFenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Antigens, Dermatophagoides: Antigens from the house dust mites (DERMATOPHAGOIDES), mainly D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. They are proteins, found in mite feces or mite extracts, that can cause ASTHMA and other allergic diseases such as perennial rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL) and atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC). More than 11 groups of Dermatophagoides ALLERGENS have been defined. Group I allergens, such as Der f I and Der p I from the above two species, are among the strongest mite immunogens in humans.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.QuinolinesSinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Mice, Inbred BALB CLung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Conjunctivitis, Allergic: Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.United StatesPollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disease Management: A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)Desensitization, Immunologic: Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Leukotriene E4: A biologically active principle of SRS-A that is formed from LEUKOTRIENE D4 via a peptidase reaction that removes the glycine residue. The biological actions of LTE4 are similar to LTC4 and LTD4. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)MichiganGuideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Absenteeism: Chronic absence from work or other duty.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Goblet Cells: A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Inhalation Spacers: A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Nasal Polyps: Focal accumulations of EDEMA fluid in the NASAL MUCOSA accompanied by HYPERPLASIA of the associated submucosal connective tissue. Polyps may be NEOPLASMS, foci of INFLAMMATION, degenerative lesions, or malformations.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

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Many kids with asthma have symptoms when they exercise. But with careful management, they usually can do anything their peers ... Exercise-Induced Asthma. Resources. Please Note: By clicking a link to any resource listed on this page, you will be leaving ... The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology offers up-to-date information and a find-an-allergist search tool. ... Learn about asthma, its symptoms, and how to find relief through allergist care and treatment. ...

*  Asthma and Allergies

WebMD takes a closer look at allergies and asthma. ... Can Asthma Be Cured? Asthma and allergies often go hand-in-hand ... What Causes Asthma?. Asthma is a problem in the airways due to multiple factors. The airways in a person with asthma are very ... Can Asthma Be Cured?. There's no cure for asthma, but it can be treated and controlled. In most cases, people with asthma can ... There are several different types of asthma.. Allergic asthma is a type of asthma that is triggered by an allergy (for example ...

*  Wordle - Bronchial Asthma

Asthma" alt="Wordle: Bronchial Asthma" style="padding:4px;border:1px solid #ddd",,/a,. ... a href="" title="Wordle: Bronchial Asthma",,img src="http://www.wordle. ...

*  CDC - Asthma - Management and Treatment

It includes facts about asthma, asthma attacks, asthma medicines, peak flow meters, and home control of allergies and asthma. ... How Is Asthma Treated?. You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by taking your medicine exactly as your doctor or other ... Asthma medicines come in two types-quick relief and long-term control. Quick-relief medicines control the symptoms of an asthma ... This site provides an easy-to-read guide, So You Have Asthma, to help you learn about the latest information on asthma ...

*  Asthma: Jordan's Story (Video)

Jordan has had asthma since age 2. In this video for teens he talks about what he did to get it under control. ... Asthma: Jordan's Story (Video). Resources. Please Note: By clicking a link to any resource listed on this page, you will be ... The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology offers up-to-date information and a find-an-allergist search tool. ... Learn about asthma, its symptoms, and how to find relief through allergist care and treatment. ...

*  Treating Asthma | Care2 Causes

After Family Is Forced to Leave Animals in Car, Holiday Inn Grants Free Stays to Pets During ...

*  Update in paediatric asthma management: Where is evidence challenging current practice? - Robinson - 2011 - Journal of...

Extrapolation of management strategies based on results from predominantly adult asthma studies frequently occurs in paediatric asthma despite increasing evidence that paediatric asthma and, in particular, pre-school recurrent wheeze are very different disease entities. Response to medications in paediatric subjects is often different from that seen in their older adolescent and adult counterparts. In this update, we discussed recent studies that have had important implications for future paediatric asthma management. The overuse of combination inhaled steroid and long-acting beta2 agonist inhalers in paediatric asthma despite ongoing safety concerns is an increasing trend in paediatric asthma, and recent evidence has helped clarify how they should be used in children. Other aspects discussed include the role of oral corticosteroids in pre-school viral-induced wheeze and the utility of leukotriene receptor ...

*  Air Pollution, Inflammation, and New Onset Asthma - Full Text View -

BACKGROUND:. Ambient air pollution is well accepted as a cause of asthma exacerbations, but its role in the etiology of new onset asthma is less clear. Evidence for an etiologic role of ambient air pollutants is emerging from epidemiologic studies; however, the ecologic patterns of increasing asthma prevalence concurrent with decreasing levels of some pollutants have raised questions about the validity of these associations. A better understanding of the biological processes that mediate the effects of ambient air pollution on asthma occurrence is likely to contribute to answering these questions. Chronic oxidative/nitrosative stress and airway inflammation are probably critical processes in asthma etiology and these inter-related processes may mediate the increased asthma risk from air pollution.. This study builds on the existing Asthma Incidence Risk (AIR) study which is an ongoing cohort ...

*  Asthma and Allergy: Asthma Causes

If you or a loved one has asthma, it's important to understand the many asthma triggers. Once you identify and reduce exposure to the specific triggers or causes of asthma, you can take an active role in controlling your asthma and reducing the frequency of asthma attacks. For example, if you find that allergies are the cause of your asthma, you may have allergic asthma. Being aware of allergies and avoiding them can significantly help in asthma prevention by reducing the frequency or severity of asthma attacks. Or if environmental pollution seems to cause your asthma, it's important to stay indoors during periods of heavy air pollution. Try to find the specific triggers or causes of your asthma, and then plan to avoid these triggers and have better asthma control. ...

*  childhood asthma - dennisb's blog

natural asthma remedies asthma medication toddler cough asthma control childhood asthma severe asthma pneumonia sudden cough asthma asthma cure research childhood asthma causes asthma test at doctor childhood asthma 14 hours ago How can I tell if my child has asthma? How do I know when my child's asthma is...

*  bronchial asthma problems - dennisb's blog

bronchial asthma problems asthma without cough feline asthma breeds child asthma natural asthma treatment early warning signs of asthma bronchial asthma problems asthma in children oregon acute asthma attack bronchial asthma problems PROBLEMS AND CONTROVERSIES IN BRONCHIAL ASTHMA. The following are unresolved medical issues involving Adverse reactions: bronchial problems particularly...

*  history of asthma - tkovach's blog

asthma and pregnancy asthma in children coughing asthma inhaler affects of smoking asthma asthma treatments at home pictures of asthma national asthma education and prevention program national asthma prevention program history of asthma and allergy asthma msg A 37 y/o black female with a history of asthma, presents to the...

*  National Surveillance for Asthma --- United States, 1980--2004

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by episodic and reversible airflow obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness. Clinical manifestations include wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Although the pathophysiology of asthma is fairly well understood, the exact etiology is not. Following medical management guidelines and avoiding exposure to environmental allergens and irritants that are known to exacerbate asthma are factors that can contribute to the long-term management of asthma. The specific measures used to assess asthma morbidity and mortality have changed since the 1960s; however, the findings of previous studies are consistent with an increase in asthma burden (1--3). Estimates of asthma 12-month period prevalence* indicated that approximately 3.0% of the population had asthma in 1970 (1). Estimates from CDC's 2002 ...

*  Bronchoscopy Can Guide Effective Treatment for Refractory Asthma - :

Using a bronchoscope to visually examine the airways and collect fluid and tissue can help guide effective therapy for difficult-to-treat asthma patients, according to researchers at National Jewish Health. Reporting in the March 2012 issue of the journal Chest, the researchers identified five distinct phenotypes among the refractory asthma patients, and successfully treated four of them, often with reduced asthma medications.. "While standard anti-inflammatory treatment with inhaled corticosteroids helps many asthma patients, there is a significant number of patients who need more personalized diagnosis and treatment," said lead author James Good, MD, professor of medicine at National Jewish Health. "Bronchoscopy provides important clinical information that can help us better treat even the most difficult asthma patients.". Most tests for asthma involve evaluation of a person's ability to inhale and exhale ...

*  military asthma - tkovach's blog

what is asthma asthma graphs asthma in children natural cure asthma causes in cats asthma exercises improve asthma medications asthma treatments causes and risk factors of asthma asthma prevention and control asthma guideline national health institute I just want to be a doctor in the army or something, its not...

*  "Asthma Questionnaire for an Immigrant Chinese Population" by Ho-hin Choy, Whitney Shiau, MD et al.

Asthma is a key public health problem for the pediatric population of the United States. 7 million children in the United States have been diagnosed with asthma at some point in their lives (1). Asthma remains a disease that occurs in higher rates among minority populations. Those living in inner-city environments are most at risk. A study performed in an inner-city area of Boston, MA showed that 16% of an Asian American school age population had previously diagnosed asthma with an additional 3% having possible undiagnosed asthma (2). Northeast Medical Services (NEMS), a federally qualified community health center (FQHC), serves the medically underserved Asian population in San Francisco. The two biggest neighborhood it serves, Chinatown and Portola, have large Asian populations. For example, 84% of households in Chinatown speak an Asian language. Of those households, 84% are linguistically isolated (3). Due to language and ...

*  Pharmacy Asthma Care Program (PACP) improves outcomes for patients in the community | Thorax

A national pharmacy-based service (the PACP) for the care of patients with asthma resulted in improved clinical and humanistic outcomes. Over the 6 months of the study, interventions used by pharmacists resulted in improvements in asthma severity/control, adherence to preventer medication, quality of life, asthma knowledge and perceived control of asthma, as well as a decrease in the mean dose of the reliever medication salbutamol and in the number of patients relying solely on a reliever medication. Patients in the intervention group also had improved inhaler technique and more patients in this group had an action plan at 6 months compared with baseline.. These results are consistent with those achieved by other pharmacy-based asthma care models.20-24 However, in this case, national asthma management guidelines were used as the framework for the service model so that current standards of best practice were ...

*  ducharme f anti-leukotriene corticosteroids asthma - dennisb's blog

modifiable risk factors of asthma asthma and acupuncture and clinical trials ducharme f anti-leukotriene corticosteroids asthma asthma treatments ducharme f anti-leukotriene corticosteroids asthma asthma symtoms asthma in children signs and symptoms asthma in kids facts asthma camp hyderabad children's asthma sleep and pulmonary institute Safety of the newer inhaled corticosteroids...

*  scotts's blog

A new study suggests that the accepted practice of treating chronic, severe asthma with acid reflux Posts tagged: Treatment Of Bronchial Asthma The three main uses of Ephedra Herbal Remedy: Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention of Asthma. Health Tip: Keep Track of Asthma Symptoms More. Establish management and support systems for asthma-friendly schools. * Identify your school's or Promote asthma programs that are culturally and linguistically appropriate. * Use or adapt existing For the 8th consecutive year Access will be supporting Asthma UK by sending fundraising game packs to qualified Symptoms can be prevented by avoiding triggers, such as allergens and irritants, and by inhaling corticosteroids. Asthma is defined by the Global Initiative for Asthma as 'a chronic inflammatory Asthma is a chronic condition with symptoms of cough, Acute ...

*  Influence of comorbid conditions on asthma | European Respiratory Society

Allergic rhinitis is associated with an increased risk of asthma 12-14. Upper airways conditions, such as allergic or nonallergic rhinitis and sinusitis, are commonly associated with asthma and influence asthma outcomes, although there is still controversy regarding the magnitude of this effect 15-18. The "united airways" concept suggests that upper and lower airways inflammatory processes such as asthma and rhinitis are of a similar type 19, 20. Rhinitis may influence asthma through various mechanisms, including: 1) the release of mediators into the airways or peripheral circulation; 2) neural reflexes; 3) increased production of bone marrow progenitors of inflammatory cells; 4) increased lower airway exposure to airborne contaminants from mouth breathing; and 5) increased need for conditioning the inspired air.. Braunstahl and co-workers 21, 22 have reported that segmental bronchial allergen provocation in ...

*  Asthma Attack Treatment: 2008

When you're learning about something new, it's easy to feel overwhelmed by the sheer amount of relevant information available. This informative article should help you focus on the central points.. Increased breathing during exercise causes cooling and drying of the lining of the air passages, which can trigger exercise-induced asthma attack.. Asthma attack usually happen when the muscles in the bronchial tubes contract. When this happens, the cells make more mucus than usual. The extra mucus blocks the airways and disrupts breathing. An asthma attack is usually associated with the feeling of drowning. If you are an asthma attack sufferer, you may or may not have experienced severe asthma attack. Some are fortunate enough to feel only mild symptoms. Others, on the other hand, suffer so much that they have to be rushed to the hospital.. Information on Asthma Attack. How can you put a limit on learning more? ...

*  Michigan Asthma Interventions | Asthma Initiative of Michigan (AIM)

Asthma is a serious chronic disease of the lungs that is caused by swelling in the airways. There is no cure for asthma but it can be prevented and controlled with proper care

*  Poorly Controlled Asthma Costly - Redorbit

Poorly controlled asthma more than doubles healthcare costs associated with the disease and threatens educational achievement through a dramatic increase in school absence, according to researchers at National Jewish Health. The research team reported in the August 2011 issue of The Archives of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology that children with "very poorly controlled" asthma missed an average of 18 days of school each year, compared to 2 or less for other asthma patients.. "This study looks for the first time at how effective and ineffective management of severe asthma impacts cost ," said Stanley Szefler, MD, lead author and Professor of Pediatrics at National Jewish Health. "It highlights the toll that poorly controlled asthma takes on children. It also points to an opportunity "" with proper attention and education, many, if not most, of those children could gain control over their asthma, ...

*  Peak flow variation in childhood asthma: correlation with symptoms, airways obstruction, and hyperresponsiveness during long...

This study shows that maintenance therapy with inhaled corticosteroids in asthmatic children reduces PEF variation considerably. At first sight this result does not seem to be very surprising because the efficacy of inhaled steroids in childhood asthma is well established.3 16 Most studies on inhaled corticosteroids, however, have only assessed the effects on PEF levels, not PEF variation. This is curious because PEF variation is considered by many to be the golden standard of asthma severity.2 10 11 In only four studies have the effects of inhaled corticosteroids on PEF variation been reported. In mild or episodic asthma inhaled corticosteroids do not reduce PEF variation, probably because it was not very high at the start of the study.23 24 In moderately severe childhood asthma long term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids has been shown to reduce PEF variation.16 25 In each of these studies PEF variation was expressed ...

*  Mobile Technology and Online Tools to Improve Asthma Control in Adolescents - Usability - Full Text View -

This project will fully develop and preliminarily validate CampAir, an empirically-based dynamic e-health intervention (based on the evidence-based ASMA) to assist adolescents with uncontrolled asthma to learn how to manage their illness and improve their asthma control. In addition to developing a highly novel product for adolescents with asthma, the research proposed for this project will address unique scientific questions. Despite the high asthma prevalence among adolescents, few interventions have specifically targeted adolescents. This study is innovative in that it is among the few to focus on adolescents, who are often overlooked by the healthcare system. This research will assess factors associated with successful implementation of CampAir, thereby providing new information regarding how e-health interventions can be effectively developed and implemented for use with adolescents with asthma. To ensure the software ...

*  World Allergy Organization

To investigate inflammatory phenotypes in stable adult asthma, stable childhood asthma, and acute asthma, and to examine whether infection with Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a possible cause of noneosinophilic asthma, the researchers studied 51 adults with stable (n = 29) or acute (n = 22) asthma, and 77 children with stable (n = 49) or acute (n = 28) asthma. Sputum samples were collected from all of the participants and assessed for inflammatory cell types and C. pneumoniae DNA. Patients with sputum eosinophil levels of more than 3% were classified as having eosinophilic asthma, and those with neutrophil levels of more than 61% and eosinophil levels of less than 3% were classified as having neutrophilic asthma. Patients with neutrophil levels of more than 61% and eosinophil levels of more than 3% were classified as having mixed granulocytic asthma; and those ...

*  Plus it

Background: Asthma control is an important component of quality of care for asthma patients. The controller-to-total-asthma-medication ratio (CTR) has been evaluated as a reliable asthma control and quality indicator.. Aim: To evaluate the effects of a regional "asthma awareness campaign" during 2008 (patient, pharmacy and physician training) on asthma control.. Methods: We used a database form a central health insurance (BGKK, covering 70% of the population) to select a cohort (n=1158) with an asthma diagnosis (HEDIS criteria). Data for 2007 and 2008 regarding hospital and physician visits, pulmonary function tests, medication claims, etc. were extracted. The CTR was calculated from the amount of DDDs of controller medication divided by the amount of DDDs of controller and reliever medication.. Results: The asthma control for the cohort improved from 2007 to 2008 (CTR: ...

*  Plus it

Research on asthma costs often focuses on estimating average asthma costs. Trends in asthma costs and patterns of medication use, especially for those who have been followed up and under treatment, have received much less attention. This study's objective was to document asthma costs over time for asthma patients who are enrolled in an asthma care programme in Singapore and to identify its predictors, using a 10-year longitudinal dataset.. The study population comprised different cohorts of 939 asthma patients entering the programme at different times during 2004-2013. Average asthma costs were estimated and the trends over time examined graphically, within and across patient cohorts. Regression analyses were conducted to examine cost predictors, with a focus on the relationship between risk factors at programme enrolment and subsequent asthma costs.. The ...

*  S121 Mediator profiling of severe asthma phenotypes | Thorax

Methods Subjects were recruited from a Difficult Asthma Clinic at a single centre (n=164) and assessments of lung function, atopic status, asthma control and sputum induction were undertaken. Sputum was obtained and supernatants were analysed for 23 mediators using the Meso-Scale Discovery platform. We performed k-means cluster analysis to determine clinical clusters using the baseline characteristics and sputum differential counts. The pattern of mediator expression was determined by factor analysis to identify biological factors. The biological factors were related to the clinical clusters and subjects stratified by asthma control, exacerbation frequency, treatment and sputum cell counts. The repeatability of the individual clinical characteristics and biological mediators was assessed in paired samples in 106 subjects and in three samples in 66 subjects. ...

*  Efficacy and Safety Study of Mepolizumab Adjunctive Therapy in Subjects With Severe Uncontrolled Refractory Asthma - Full Text...

This study will evaluate two dose regimens of mepolizumab [75mg intravenous (i.v.) or 100mg subcutaneous (SC) every 4 weeks] compared with placebo over a 32 week treatment period in subjects with severe refractory asthma with elevated blood eosinophils. Efficacy will be measured by a reduction in the frequency of asthma exacerbations. Additional efficacy assessments will include measurements of lung function, symptom scores, and quality of life. Safety will be assessed by clinical laboratory samples, ECGs, immunogenicity and adverse events.. This study is intended to replicate the Phase IIb/III study MEA112997. Subjects in MEA115588, who meet all eligibility criteria at screening visit, will enter the run-in period. Those subjects that are not able/eligible to be randomised at the end of the 6 week run-in period will be deemed run-in failures. Subjects will remain on their current maintenance therapy throughout the run-in, double-blind treatment administration and follow-up ...

*  Regular use of inhaled corticosteroids and the long term prevention of hospitalisation for asthma | Thorax

In this large scale population based study we found that, over the long term, regular use of inhaled corticosteroids is associated with a reduction in the rate of hospital admissions for asthma of one third. This reduction was more pronounced in the more severe cohort limited to patients previously hospitalised for asthma and who are at greatest risk of being readmitted. The effect was sustained even after 4 years of follow up, indicating effectiveness early and further on in the course of the disease.. This study highlights the need to focus on regular use of inhaled corticosteroids in assessing their effectiveness in preventing major asthma outcomes. This observation was previously made in a study of the effectiveness of inhaled corticosteroids in preventing asthma death9 and their short term effectiveness in preventing asthma hospital admissions.28,29 The former study28 found that the benefit of regular use appeared to ...

Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research: Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), founded in 1988, performs basic research in the field of allergy and asthma with the aim to improve the understanding and treatment of these conditions, which affect around 30-40% of the westernized population. The Institute has its roots in the Tuberculosis Research Institute of Davos, a medical society founded in 1905 to study the beneficial effects of high altitude treatment of tuberculosis.Bronchial hyperresponsiveness: Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (or other combinations with airway or hyperreactivity) is a state characterised by easily triggered bronchospasm (contraction of the bronchioles or small airways).Bronchodilator: A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs. Bronchodilators may be endogenous (originating naturally within the body), or they may be medications administered for the treatment of breathing difficulties.Allergen immunotherapy: Allergen immunotherapy, also known as desensitization or hypo-sensitization, is a medical treatment for some types of allergies. It is useful for environmental allergies, allergies to insect bites, and asthma.Type I hypersensitivity: Type I hypersensitivity (or immediate hypersensitivity) is an allergic reaction provoked by reexposure to a specific type of antigen referred to as an allergen. Type I is not to be confused with Type II, Type III, or Type IV hypersensitivities.Honeymoon rhinitis: Honeymoon rhinitis is a condition in which the sufferer experiences nasal congestion during sexual intercourse.Ventolin (EP): "Ventolin" is a piece of electronic music composed by Cornish musician Richard D James. It is noted for its harsh, abrasive sound.MethacholineSpirometer: A spirometer is an apparatus for measuring the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs. A spirometer measures ventilation, the movement of air into and out of the lungs.BudesonideEosinophil granulocyteEstradiol dipropionateBronchus: A bronchus, also known as a main or primary bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. There is a right bronchus and a left bronchus and these bronchi branch into smaller secondary and tertiary bronchi which branch into smaller tubes, known as bronchioles.ZafirlukastAnaesthetic vaporizerLung receptor: Lung receptors sense irritation or inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli.Dynamic hyperinflation: Dynamic hyperinflation is a phenomenon that occurs when a new breath begins before the lung has reached the static equilibrium volume.Bronchoconstriction: Bronchoconstriction is the constriction of the airways in the lungs due to the tightening of surrounding smooth muscle, with consequent coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.Eosinophilic bronchitis: Eosinophilic bronchitis is a type of airway inflammation due to excessive mast cell recruitment and activation in the superficial airways as opposed to the smooth muscles of the airways as seen in asthma. It often results in a chronic cough.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Long-acting beta-adrenoceptor agonist: Long-acting beta-adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs, more specifically β2-agonists) are usually prescribed for moderate to severe persistent asthma patients or patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They are designed to reduce the need for shorter-acting β2-agonists such as salbutamol, as they have a duration of action of approximately 12 hours in comparison with the 4- to 6-hour duration of salbutamol, making them candidates for sparing high doses of corticosteroids or treating nocturnal asthma and providing symptomatic improvement in patients with COPD.Ovalbumin: Ovalbumin (abbreviated OVA) is the main protein found in egg white, making up 60-65% of the total protein. Ovalbumin displays sequence and three-dimensional homology to the serpin superfamily, but unlike most serpins it is not a serine protease inhibitor.Pulmonology: Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.ACP: Pulmonology: Internal Medicine Subspecialty.Aspirin-induced asthmaSputumLuis Gabriel Cano: Luis Gabriel Cano Isaza (1924-2010)El Espectador obituary (In Spanish) was the President and publisher of El Espectador who won the Golden Pen of Freedom Award in 1990 for his writings on the cocaine traffic. His brother Guillermo, who had also worked on the paper, had been assassinated by drug gangs.Habit cough: A habit cough (also known as psychogenic cough and pseudoasthma) is a cough that may develop in children or adolescents after a cold or other airway irritant. It has also been reported in adults.Indoor air pollution in developing nations: Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a significant form of indoor air pollution (IAP) that is little known to those in the developed world.Eosinophilic gastroenteritisBrevipalpus: Brevipalpus is a genus of mites in the family Tenuipalpidae, the flat mites.Brevipalpus californicus.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.P-AnisidineBroad-Spectrum Chemokine Inhibitor: A Broad-Spectrum Chemokine Inhibitor or BSCI (also termed Chemotide or Somatotaxin ) is a type of experimental anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits the action of the pro-inflammatory proteins chemokines.Erythromycin breath test: The erythromycin breath test (ERMBT) is a method used to measure metabolism (oxidation and elimination from the system) by a part of the cytochrome P450 system. Erythromycin is tagged with carbon-14 and given as an intravenous injection; after 20 minutes the subject blows up a balloon and the carbon dioxide exhaled that is tagged with carbon-14 shows the activity of the CYP3A4 isoenzyme on the erythromycin.Placebo-controlled study: Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect. Placebos are most commonly used in blinded trials, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving real or placebo treatment.Disodium guanylateLars Larsen Forsæth: Lars Larsen Forsæth (baptized 9 December 1759 – 12 February 1839) was a Norwegian farmer who served as a representative at the Norwegian Constituent Assembly. Tallak Lindstøl: Stortinget og Statsraadet, Kristiania, 1914.Online patient education: Online Patient Education also known as Online Patient Engagement is a method of providing medical information and education to patients using Learning Management Systems delivered through the Internet.Evaluation of bariatric Centers of Excellence Web sites for functionality and efficacy.PhosphorylethanolamineNested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Smokefree Environments Amendment Act 2003: The Smokefree Environments Amendment Bill was passed by the Parliament of New Zealand on 3 December 2003. The smoking ban legislation calls for progressive introduction of various clauses to totally ban smoking in all workplaces including offices, clubs, pubs, restaurants, airports, schools etc.Senior Emergency Department: The senior emergency department is a recent hospital innovation to build separate geriatric emergency rooms for older adults akin to pediatric emergency rooms designed for children. The trend comes in response to the nation's rapidly growing population of older adults and overcrowding of emergency departments.Depopulation of cockroaches in post-Soviet states: A mass depopulation of cockroaches has been observed since the beginning of the 21st century in Russia and other countries of the former USSR. Observers note quick disappearance of various types of cockroaches from cities and towns in Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Moldova, and Belarus.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Toluene diisocyanateEffect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: In some individuals, the effect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is to cause increased carbon dioxide retention, which may cause drowsiness, headaches, and in severe cases lack of respiration, which may lead to death. People with lung ailments or with central respiratory depression, who receive supplemental oxygen, require careful monitoring.San Juan River (Vancouver Island): The San Juan River is a river on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, draining into the Pacific Ocean at Port San Juan, the harbour for Port Renfrew,BCGNIS entry "San Juan River" which is at the limit of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, which lies south and southeast of the river. Its name is derived from that or Port San Juan, which is also the namesake of San Juan Ridge, which lies on the south side of the river's final W-E course.Aerosolization: Aerosolization is the process or act of converting some physical substance into the form of particles small and light enough to be carried on the air i.e.OlodaterolDeflazacortOccupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Atopic dermatitisNon-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.OxatomideNational Clinical Guideline CentreEosinophilic pneumoniaAir pollution: Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into Earth's atmosphere, causing diseases, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, or the natural or built environment. Air pollution may come from anthropogenic or natural sources.Rhinovirus: Rhinoviruses (from the Greek (gen.) "nose") are the most common viral infectious agents in humans and are the predominant cause of the common cold.

(1/13648) Physical characterization of a low-charge glycoform of the MUC5B mucin comprising the gel-phase of an asthmatic respiratory mucous plug.

We have previously noted that sequential extraction of an asthmatic mucous exudate with 6 M guanidinium chloride yielded a fraction of the mucins that were most resistant to solubilization and of high Mr [Sheehan, Richardson, Fung, Howard and Thornton (1995) Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 13, 748-756]. Here we show that this mucin fraction is dominated (at least 96% of the total) by the low-charge glycoform of the MUC5B gene product. Seen in the electron microscope the mucins appeared mainly as compact 'island' structures composed of linear threads often emanating from globular 'nodes' rather than the discrete linear threads more typical of mucins that we have previously described. The effect of reducing agents was as expected for other gel-forming mucins, i.e. reduced subunits or monomers of Mr 3x10(6)) were produced within 15 min of treatment. Kinetic experiments on the cleavage of the intact mucins with the proteinase trypsin indicated two clear regimes of fragmentation. An initial rapid cleavage generated mucins ranging from Mr=4x10(6) to 30x10(6) that in the electron microscope appeared as polydisperse threads (500-3000 nm in length), similar to normal and other respiratory mucins that we have previously characterized. A subsequent slower fragmentation over many hours yielded a major fragment of Mr 3x10(6) and length 200-600 nm, very similar in size and Mr to the subunits obtained by reduction. The results suggest that the MUC5B mucin is assembled, first into polydisperse linear threads, which are then linked together via a protein-mediated process. This might involve part of the mucin polypeptide or an as yet unidentified protein(s). The high proteinase susceptibility of the linkage suggests that it might be a point of control for mucin size and thus mucus rheology.  (+info)

(2/13648) Respiratory symptoms among glass bottle workers--cough and airways irritancy syndrome?

Glass bottle workers have been shown to experience an excess of respiratory symptoms. This work describes in detail the symptoms reported by a cohort of 69 symptomatic glass bottle workers. Symptoms, employment history and clinical investigations including radiology, spirometry and serial peak expiratory flow rate records were retrospectively analyzed from clinical records. The results showed a consistent syndrome of work-related eye, nose and throat irritation followed after a variable period by shortness of breath. The latent interval between starting work and first developing symptoms was typically 4 years (median = 4 yrs; range = 0-28). The interval preceding the development of dysponea was longer and much more variable (median = 16 yrs; range = 3-40). Spirometry was not markedly abnormal in the group but 57% of workers had abnormal serial peak expiratory flow rate charts. Workers in this industry experience upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms consistent with irritant exposure. The long-term functional significance of these symptoms should be formally investigated.  (+info)

(3/13648) Asthma visits to emergency rooms and soybean unloading in the harbors of Valencia and A Coruna, Spain.

Soybean unloading in the harbor of Barcelona, Spain, has been associated with large increases in the numbers of asthma patients treated in emergency departments between 1981 and 1987. In this study, the association between asthma and soybean unloading in two other Spanish cities, Valencia and A Coruna, was assessed. Asthma admissions were retrospectively identified for the period 1993-1995, and harbor activities were investigated in each location. Two approaches were used to assess the association between asthma and soybean unloading: One used unusual asthma days (days with an unusually high number of emergency room asthma visits) as an effect measure, and the other estimated the relative increase in the daily number of emergency room visits by autoregressive Poisson regression, adjusted for meteorologic variables, seasonality, and influenza incidence. No association between unusual asthma days and soya unloading was observed in either Valencia or A Coruna, except for one particular dock in Valencia. When the association between unloaded products and the daily number of emergency asthma visits was studied, a statistically significant association was observed for unloading of soya husk (relative risk = 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.94) and soybeans (relative risk = 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.59) in A Coruna. In Valencia, a statistical association was found only for the unloading of soybeans at two particular docks. Although these findings support the notion that asthma outbreaks are not a common hidden condition in most harbors where soybeans are unloaded, the weak associations reported are likely to be causal. Therefore, appropriate control measures should be implemented to avoid soybean dust emissions, particularly in harbors with populations living in the vicinity.  (+info)

(4/13648) Beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism and bronchoprotective sensitivity with regular short- and long-acting beta2-agonist therapy.

The aim of the present study was to investigate bronchoprotective sensitivity in patients receiving regular treatment with short- and long-acting beta2-agonists and to evaluate any possible association with genetic polymorphism. Thirty-eight patients with stable mild to moderate asthma and receiving inhaled corticosteroids were randomized in a parallel group, double-blind, double-dummy fashion to receive 2 weeks of treatment with either formoterol (12 microg once daily, 6 microg twice daily or 24 microg twice daily) or terbutaline (500 microg four times daily). Bronchoprotection against methacholine challenge (as a provocative dose to produce a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1.0 s: PD20) was measured at baseline (unprotected) after an initial 1 week run-in without beta2-agonist, and at 1 h after the first and last doses of each treatment. The PD20 values were log-transformed and calculated as change from baseline. Percentage desensitization of log PD20 for first- versus last-dose bronchoprotection was calculated and analysed according to effects of treatment and beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. The mean degree of desensitization for bronchoprotection was comparable with all four treatments and there were no significant differences in absolute PD20 values after 2 weeks of chronic dosing. The PD20 values were (as microg of methacholine, geometric means+/-S. E.M.): formoterol, 12 microg once daily, 99+/-42 microg; formoterol, 6 microg twice daily, 107+/-44 microg; formoterol, 24 microg twice daily, 108+/-45 microg; terbutaline, 500 microg four times daily, 88+/-37 microg. All patients receiving formoterol, 24 microg twice daily, exhibited a loss of protection greater than 30% which was unrelated to polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. For codon 16, the use of lower doses of formoterol (12 microg once daily or 6 microg twice daily) showed wider variability in the propensity for protection loss in patients who were heterozygous, in contrast to a more uniform protection loss seen with homozygous glycine patients. The amount of protection loss was not significantly related to polymorphism at codon 16 or 27, expressed as values (mean+/-S.E.M.) for percentage desensitization according to each genotype (pooled treatments): Gly-16, 66+/-11%; Het-16, 53+/-8%; Arg-16, 69+/-18%; Glu-27, 68+/-12%; Het-27, 58+/-8%; Gln-27, 52+/-12%. The results of this preliminary study showed that bronchoprotective desensitization occurred readily in response to short- or long-acting beta2-agonist exposure irrespective of beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. Further studies with larger patient numbers are required to further evaluate the effects of polymorphisms with lower doses of regular formoterol.  (+info)

(5/13648) Management of asthma and COPD patients: feasibility of the application of guidelines in general practice.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility of the application of guidelines to the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by assessing compliance with the guidelines and listing the barriers general practitioners (GPs) encountered during implementation. Insight into the feasibility of individual items in the guidelines can guide implementation strategies in the future and, if necessary, support revision of the guidelines. DESIGN: Descriptive study of care delivered during the implementation of guidelines by means of documentation of the care provided, education, feedback on compliance and peer review. SETTING: General practice. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen GPs in 14 general practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Compliance was expressed as the percentage of patients per practice managed by the GPs according to the guidelines. For each patient (n=413) data were collected on the care delivered during the first year of the implementation. Barriers encountered were derived from the summaries of the discussions held during the monthly meetings. RESULTS: The GPs were most compliant on the items 'PEFR measurement at every consultation' (98%), 'allergy test' (78%) and 'advice to stop smoking' (82%), and less compliant on the items 'four or more consultations a year' (46%), 'ordering spirometry' (33%), 'adjustment of medication' (42%), 'check on inhalation technique' (38%) and referral to a chest physician (17%) or a district nurse (5%). The main barriers were the amount of time to be invested, doubts about the necessity of regular consultations and about the indications for ordering spirometry and for referral to a chest physician or a district nurse. CONCLUSION: Although the feasibility was assessed in a fairly optimal situation, compliance with the guidelines was not maximal, and differed between the individual items of care. Suggestions are given for further improvements in compliance with the guidelines and for revision of the guidelines.  (+info)

(6/13648) Elevated asthma morbidity in Puerto Rican children: a review of possible risk and prognostic factors.

Latino children represent a significant proportion of all US children, and asthma is the most common chronic illness affecting them. Previous research has revealed surprising differences in health among Latino children with asthma of varying countries of family origin. For instance, Puerto Rican children have a higher prevalence of asthma than Mexican American or Cuban American children. In addition, there are important differences in family structure and socioeconomic status among these Latino populations: Cuban Americans have higher levels of education and family income than Mexican-Americans and Puerto Ricans; mainland Puerto Rican children have the highest proportion of households led by a single mother. Our review of past research documents differences in asthma outcomes among Latino children and identifies the possible genetic, environmental, and health care factors associated with these differences. Based on this review, we propose research studies designed to differentiate between mutable and immutable risk and prognostic factors. We also propose that the sociocultural milieus of Latino subgroups of different ethnic and geographic origin are associated with varying patterns of risk factors that in turn lead to different morbidity patterns. Our analysis provides a blue-print for future research, policy development, and the evaluation of multifactorial interventions involving the collaboration of multiple social sectors, such as health care, public health, education, and public and private agencies.  (+info)

(7/13648) Cockroach allergy and asthma in a 30-year-old man.

A growing body of evidence has implicated allergens derived from cockroaches as an important environmental factor that may aggravate asthma in sensitized persons. We present the case of a 30-year-old man with asthma and a cockroach allergy. Allergy skin testing confirmed hypersensitivity to cockroach extract, and a home visit revealed visual evidence of infestation and the presence of Bla g 1 German cockroach allergen in vacuumed dust. As is typical of patients with a cockroach allergy and asthma, multiple factors in addition to cockroach allergen appeared to aggravate the patient's asthma. A multimodality therapeutic regimen, which included medications as well as cleaning of the home, integrated pest management, and professional application of chemical controls, resulted in substantial clinical improvement. The pathophysiology, epidemiology, and clinical features of cockroach-allergic asthma are reviewed, and an approach to diagnosis and management is suggested.  (+info)

(8/13648) Short-term associations between outdoor air pollution and visits to accident and emergency departments in London for respiratory complaints.

Many epidemiological studies have shown positive short-term associations between health and current levels of outdoor air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between air pollution and the number of visits to accident and emergency (A&E) departments in London for respiratory complaints. A&E visits include the less severe cases of acute respiratory disease and are unrestricted by bed availability. Daily counts of visits to 12 London A&E departments for asthma, other respiratory complaints, and both combined for a number of age groups were constructed from manual registers of visits for the period 1992-1994. A Poisson regression allowing for seasonal patterns, meteorological conditions and influenza epidemics was used to assess the associations between the number of visits and six pollutants: nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles measured as black smoke (BS) and particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of <10 microm (PM10). After making an allowance for the multiplicity of tests, there remained strong associations between visits for all respiratory complaints and increases in SO2: a 2.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-4.9) increase in the number of visits for a 18 microg x (-3) increase (10th-90th percentile range) and a 3.0% (95% CI 0.8-5.2) increase for a 31 microg x m(-3) increase in PM10. There were also significant associations between visits for asthma and SO2, NO2 and PM10. No significant associations between O3 and any of the respiratory complaints investigated were found. Because of the strong correlation between pollutants, it was difficult to identify a single pollutant responsible for the associations found in the analyses. This study suggests that the levels of air pollution currently experienced in London are linked to short-term increases in the number of people visiting accident and emergency departments with respiratory complaints.  (+info)

current asthma prevalence

  • From 1980 to 1996, 12-month asthma prevalence increased both in counts and rates, but no discernable change was identified in asthma attack estimates since 1997 or in current asthma prevalence from 2001 to 2004. (
  • When race/ethnicity is considered, Puerto Ricans had a current asthma prevalence rate 125% higher than non-Hispanic white people and 80% higher than non-Hispanic black people. (
  • The current asthma prevalence for boys (10%) was 30% higher than for girls (7.8%) (data not shown). (


  • Learn about asthma, its symptoms, and how to find relief through allergist care and treatment. (
  • What Are the Most Common Symptoms of Asthma? (
  • Symptoms of asthma strike when the airways undergo the three changes described above. (
  • Some people can go a long time between asthma episodes while others have some symptoms every day. (
  • Not every person with asthma has the same symptoms in the same way. (
  • You may not have all of these asthma symptoms, or you may have different symptoms at different times. (
  • Your symptoms may also vary from one asthma episode to the next. (
  • Symptoms may be mild during one asthma episode and severe during another. (
  • It is important to recognize and treat even mild symptoms to help prevent severe episodes and keep asthma in control. (
  • If you suffer from allergies and asthma , a reaction to any offending allergy-causing substance can worsen asthma symptoms. (
  • Early warning signs start before the more prominent symptoms of asthma and are the earliest signs that a person's asthma is worsening. (
  • If you have any of these asthma symptoms, seek treatment as soon as possible to prevent experiencing a severe asthma attack . (
  • Coming into contact with these triggers often produces asthma symptoms. (
  • Quick-relief medicines control the symptoms of an asthma attack. (
  • With your doctor's or other medical professional's help, make your own asthma action plan (management plan) so that you know what to do based on your own symptoms. (
  • You may have been healthy and this is the first time you've had asthma symptoms, or you may have had asthma as a child and it has returned. (
  • If you are exposed to any of these substances at high concentrations, you may begin wheezing and experiencing other asthma symptoms immediately after exposure. (
  • Workers who already have asthma or some other respiratory disorder may also experience an increase in their symptoms during exposure to these irritants. (
  • For example, workers in the washing powder industry may develop an allergy to the enzymes of the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, while bakers may develop an allergy and occupational asthma symptoms from exposure to various flours or baking enzymes. (
  • Many people with persistent asthma symptoms caused by substances at work are incorrectly diagnosed as having bronchitis. (
  • An allergist / immunologist, often referred to as an allergist, is the best qualified physician to determine if your symptoms are allergy or asthma-related. (
  • Once the cause of your symptoms is identified, you and your employer can work together to assure that you avoid exposure to the substance that triggers your asthma symptoms and to high concentrations of irritants. (
  • Patients on statins also reported getting up more frequently at night because of their asthma and said they had worse symptoms during the day. (
  • Asthma, a chronic respiratory disease with episodic symptoms, increased in prevalence during 1980--1996 in the United States. (

trigger an asthma

  • The air on planes is very dry, which can trigger an asthma flare-up. (
  • Stuff like allergies, a cold, cigarette smoke, exercise, or even cold air can trigger an asthma flare-up. (


  • The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology offers up-to-date information and a find-an-allergist search tool. (
  • Allergic asthma is a type of asthma that is triggered by an allergy (for example, pollen or mold spores). (
  • According to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, many of the 25 million Americans with asthma also have allergies , and this is called allergic asthma . (
  • The new study -- being presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Allergy , Asthma, and Immunology in Boston -- followed 40 asthma patients who were treated at the same California clinic for one year. (
  • There are many studies showing the opposite of what I'm saying," says researcher Safa M. Nsouli, MD, an allergist who is director of the Danville Asthma and Allergy Clinic, in Danville, Calif. (
  • Those cells are particularly bad for people with asthma triggered by allergy ( allergic asthma ) because they increase inflammation in the airways. (
  • Gurjit (Neeru) Khurana Hershey, MD, PhD, is the principal investigator of a federally funded Asthma and Allergic Diseases Cooperative Research Center which supports, in part, the asthma and allergy-based Greater Cincinnati Pediatric Clinic Repository. (
  • Dr. Khurana Hershey is a fellow of the American Pediatric Society and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. (
  • She serves on the Executive Council of the American Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology Program Committee, is the chair of the Grant Review Committee and appointed vice chair of the Basic and Immunology Interest Section. (

chronic respiratory disease

  • Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by episodes or attacks of inflammation and narrowing of small airways. (


  • Someone with asthma can have trouble breathing because of problems with the airways, the tubes that carry air into the lungs . (
  • Asthma is a problem in the airways due to multiple factors. (
  • The airways in a person with asthma are very sensitive and react to many things, which are referred to as "triggers. (
  • Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by episodic and reversible airflow obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness. (


  • Almost 75% of patients with asthma are adults, and more than 2500 adults in the United States die each year from the disease. (
  • An estimated 25 million adults and children in the U.S. have asthma. (
  • Topic reviews about asthma in non-pregnant adults are available separately. (
  • See 'Patient education: Asthma treatment in adolescents and adults (Beyond the Basics)' and 'Patient education: How to use a peak flow meter (Beyond the Basics)' and 'Patient education: Asthma inhaler techniques in adults (Beyond the Basics)' and 'Patient education: Trigger avoidance in asthma (Beyond the Basics)' . (
  • However, the exact number of newly diagnosed cases of asthma in adults due to occupational exposure is unknown. (
  • Women with current asthma were more likely to report asthma attacks than men, and children were more likely than adults. (
  • 8.9% of children (6.5 million) had asthma compared to 7.2% of adults (15.7 million). (
  • Asthma attack prevalence decreased with age: 5.2% of children (3.8 million) had an asthma attack in the previous year compared to 3.9% of adults (8.4 million). (
  • Among adults, 10.7% had a lifetime asthma diagnosis (23 million) compared to 12.7% of children (9 million). (


  • Asthma triggers can be anywhere. (
  • If you're staying in a hotel, you may find that something in the room triggers your asthma. (
  • There are many kinds of asthma triggers . (
  • One of the most important aspects of asthma control is avoiding triggers when possible. (
  • The length of time you are exposed to a substance before it triggers your asthma varies. (

outpatient visits

  • During the period of increasing prevalence, patient encounters (office visits, emergency department visits, outpatient visits, and hospitalizations) for asthma increased. (
  • Health care use for asthma includes outpatient visits to doctors' offices and hospital outpatient departments, visits to hospital emergency departments (EDs), and hospitalizations. (


  • Long-term control medicines help you have fewer and milder attacks, but they don't help you if you're having an asthma attack. (
  • It includes facts about asthma, asthma attacks, asthma medicines, peak flow meters, and home control of allergies and asthma. (
  • Factors affecting risk of attacks - The factors that increase or decrease the risk of asthma attacks during pregnancy are not entirely clear. (
  • The cause for this pattern is unknown, although it may be because some women stop using asthma-controlling drugs when they realize they are pregnant, increasing their risk for attacks. (
  • The National Health Interview Survey includes questions about asthma prevalence and asthma attacks. (
  • Asthma attacks can vary from mild to life threatening. (
  • Many things can trigger asthma attacks such as allergens (e.g., pollen), infections, exercise, changes in the weather, and exposure to airway irritants (e.g., tobacco smoke). (
  • Asthma attacks interfere with daily activities, including attending school and going to work. (


  • AAN's mission is to end the needless death and suffering due to asthma, allergies and related conditions through outreach, education, advocacy and research. (
  • Asthma and allergies often go hand-in-hand. (
  • People with a family history of allergies are more likely to develop occupational asthma, particularly to some substances such as flour, animals and latex. (
  • Allergies play a role in many cases of occupational asthma. (


  • If animal allergens trigger your asthma, ask for a room that has never had pets in it. (


  • Topics include the pathogenesis, evaluation, and differential diagnosis of asthma, pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy, exercise- and drug-induced asthma, asthma in the pregnant patient and the elderly, occupational asthma, and the relation of gastroesophageal reflux disease to asthma. (
  • Development of cockroach immunotherapy by the Inner-City Asthma Consortium. (

type of asthma

  • This type of asthma generally develops only after months or years of exposure to a work-related substance. (


  • Be sure to take a copy of your asthma action plan , your health insurance card, and your doctor's phone number. (

occupational asthma

  • Occupational asthma has become the most common work-related lung disease in developed countries. (
  • Occupational asthma is caused by inhaling fumes, gases, dust or other potentially harmful substances while 'on the job. (
  • The rate of occupational asthma varies within individual industries. (
  • Irritants in high doses that induce occupational asthma include hydrochloric acid, sulfur dioxide or ammonia, which is found in the petroleum or chemical industries. (
  • Similarly, about 5% of people working with laboratory animals or with powdered natural rubber latex gloves have developed occupational asthma. (
  • Occupational asthma can also occur in workers after repeated exposure to small chemical molecules in the air, such as with paint hardeners or in the plastic and resin industries. (
  • These chemicals can cause occupational asthma in up to 10% of exposed workers. (
  • If occupational asthma is not correctly diagnosed early, and you aren't protected or removed from the exposure, it can cause permanent changes to your lungs. (


  • Its 14 chapters provide essential information on the causes and classifications of asthma and its diagnosis and treatment. (
  • Written by a team of allergists and members of internal medicine departments, Asthma provides the evidenced-based information physicians need for the diagnosis and management of their adult patients with this common and potentially deadly disease. (
  • Lifetime asthma diagnosis is defined as having ever been diagnosed with asthma by a doctor. (
  • Females were about 20% more likely than males to ever have been diagnosed with asthma, but among children ages 0-17 years, males (14.6%) were more likely to have an asthma diagnosis than females (10.6%) (data not shown). (


  • Asthma is a disease of the branches of the windpipe (bronchial tubes), which carry air in and out of the lungs . (
  • Asthma is the most common condition affecting the lungs during pregnancy. (
  • Finally, inhaling some substances in aerosol form can directly lead to the buildup of naturally occurring chemicals in your body, such as histamine or acetylcholine within your lungs, which leads to asthma. (


  • What Causes Asthma? (
  • Because no primary strategies for preventing asthma have been identified, efforts to control asthma exacerbations through interventions that promote adhering to proper medical regimens and reducing exposures to causes of asthma exacerbations should continue to be pursued. (


  • Overall, the risk of poorly controlled asthma is much greater than the risk of taking medications to control asthma. (
  • Women who discover that they are pregnant should continue their asthma medications. (
  • Suddenly stopping asthma medications could be harmful to you and your baby. (
  • Healthcare workers can develop asthma from breathing in powdered proteins from latex gloves or from mixing powdered medications. (
  • In some cases, pre-treatment with specific medications to protect against asthma worsened at work may be helpful. (
  • So, researchers are not building a case right now for you to change your medications , but to talk to your doctor if you have asthma and high cholesterol . (
  • The findings echo a previous study that looked at the medical records of 759 asthma patients treated at the same clinic in Rochester, N.Y. In that study, 24 patients who were starting statins saw significant drops in lung function, needed more medication, had more nighttime asthma problems, and were seen in the office more frequently compared to 26 patients who were not taking those medications. (
  • Larger studies on the effects of statins in asthma have been contradictory, however, with some showing that statins offer modest benefits to breathing while others have found no net benefit or harm from the medications. (


  • The latest volume in the ACP Key Disease Series, Asthma is intended for primary care physicians, who provide the majority of care for adult asthma patients. (
  • Asthma also features illustrative case studies that focus on patients in the office setting. (
  • Patients were excluded from the study if an asthma attack had landed them in the hospital or emergency room in the eight months leading up to the study. (
  • Other than asthma or high cholesterol, patients in the study were free of health problems, researchers say. (
  • Nsouli says he became interested in the question after he noticed that many of his asthma patients who started statin therapy saw their breathing problems escalate. (


  • The severity of asthma during pregnancy varies from one woman to another. (


  • Pack your asthma medicines and supplies. (
  • If you're leaving the country, get a letter from your doctor that describes your asthma and your medicines. (
  • Asthma medicines come in two types-quick relief and long-term control. (
  • Asthma medicines can have side effects, but most side effects are mild and soon go away. (


  • Many women worry about how the changes of pregnancy will affect their asthma and if asthma treatments will harm the baby. (


  • Three different asthma prevalence estimates are available from the National Health Interview Survey. (


  • On the other hand, exposure to a high concentration of irritants can cause asthma within 24 hours. (


  • But when a person has a lot of trouble with wheezing, coughing, or shortness of breath, it's called an asthma flare-up, or attack. (


  • The findings in this report suggest that from 1980 through the mid-1990s, increases in asthma prevalence played a substantial role in the increases in patient encounter measures used in asthma surveillance. (


  • Of course, breathing is really important, so someone who has asthma may need to see a doctor regularly and carry special medicine to make it easier to breathe. (
  • People who have asthma may go through times when they breathe just fine or only have a little trouble. (
  • With appropriate asthma therapy, most women can breathe easily, have a normal pregnancy, and deliver a healthy baby. (


  • If pollen or air pollution trigger your asthma and counts are high, travel with the windows closed and the air conditioner on. (


  • Before becoming pregnant, women with asthma should discuss their condition with a healthcare provider. (


  • As a result, people with asthma feel they cannot get enough air. (
  • Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn more about helping people with asthma live healthier lives by gaining control over their asthma. (
  • Nov. 5, 2011 -- People with asthma may find that their breathing gets worse after they start a statin drug to lower cholesterol , a small new study shows. (
  • People meeting this definition may or may not have had asthma at the time of the survey. (
  • Asthma attack is a crude way to identify people with symptomatic asthma and is defined as having been diagnosed with asthma and having at least one asthma attack in the previous 12 months. (
  • In 2005, an estimated 7.7% of people (22.2 million) currently had asthma ( Figure 1 ). (
  • In 2005, an estimated 4.2% of people (12.2 million) had at least one asthma attack in the previous year ( Figure 2 ). (
  • Puerto Ricans had the highest asthma attack prevalence, 140% higher than non-Hispanic white people. (
  • In 2005, an estimated 11.2% of people, (32.6 million) had ever been diagnosed with asthma during their lifetime ( Figure 3 ). (
  • Puerto Ricans were 95% more likely to have ever been diagnosed with asthma than non-Hispanic white people. (
  • Considering race only, black people were about 20% more likely to have ever been diagnosed with asthma than white people. (


  • This site provides information about asthma management and treatment options to help you take control of your asthma. (
  • Asthma therapy during pregnancy is most successful when a woman receives regular medical care and follows her treatment plan closely. (
  • Although the etiology of asthma is unknown, adherence to medical treatment regimen and environmental management should reduce the occurrence of exacerbations and lessen the hardship of this disease. (


  • Deaths from asthma. (
  • Although the rate of asthma deaths increased during 1980--1995, the rate of deaths has decreased each year since 2000. (


  • Mild asthma episodes are generally more common. (


  • At any given time, up to 8 percent of pregnant women have asthma. (


  • You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by taking your medicine exactly as your doctor or other medical professional tells you to do and by avoiding things that can cause an attack. (
  • The important thing to remember is that you can control your asthma . (
  • The above text is from the "You Can Control Your Asthma" [PDF - 4074 KB] full-color brochure and is suitable for downloading and printing. (


  • Asthma experts say the finding is a surprise because some previous studies have shown that statin drugs have anti-inflammatory properties beyond their cholesterol -lowering effects that may help conditions like asthma . (


  • Among persons with current asthma, whites and blacks were equally likely to report an attack during the preceding 12 months. (


  • She now directs the Division of Asthma Research at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and is the director of the Medical Scientist Training Program at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. (
  • She is the principal investigator of an NIH-funded Asthma and Allergic Diseases Cooperative Research Center (AADCRC), and is also the PI of the Inner City Asthma Consortium, an NIH funded subcontract. (


  • - Asthma is a major medical problem in the United States, one that is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. (


  • Visit our Asthma Center for information and advice on managing and living with asthma. (


  • If your asthma has been flaring up, check with your doctor. (

action plan


  • CDC has outlined a public health approach to asthma that includes comprehensive analyses of national surveillance data on prevalence, health-care use and mortality, and a strategy to improve the timeliness and geographic specificity of asthma surveillance data. (


  • Among those who currently have asthma, about 55% had at least one asthma attack in the previous year. (
  • The asthma attack prevalence rate for boys (5.9%) was 30% higher than the rate among girls (4.5%) (data not shown). (
  • Among all race and ethnicity groups, Puerto Ricans have the highest rate of lifetime asthma and Mexicans have the lowest. (
  • Table 1 shows school and work days missed due to asthma among those who reported at least one asthma attack in the previous year. (


  • The rate for asthma health-care encounters, regardless of place (physician office, emergency department, outpatient department, or hospital), when based on the population with asthma, did not differ by race. (


  • Women who have asthma have a small increase in the risk for certain complications of pregnancy, although the reasons for this are unknown. (
  • However, rates for these encounters, when based on the population with asthma, did not increase. (


  • However, the vast majority of women with asthma and their babies do NOT have any complications during pregnancy. (
  • However, whites with current asthma had higher rates for physician offices, and blacks had higher rates for hospital-based sites (e.g., outpatient clinics and emergency departments). (


  • This site provides an easy-to-read guide, So You Have Asthma , to help you learn about the latest information on asthma management and also provides facts about asthma . (