American Native Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continents of the Americas.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.Asian Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Genealogy and HeraldryPolymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.Gene Pool: The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Far East: A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Trinidad and Tobago: An independent state in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, north of Venezuela, comprising the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Its capital is Port of Spain. Both islands were discovered by Columbus in 1498. The Spanish, English, Dutch, and French figure in their history over four centuries. Trinidad and Tobago united in 1898 and were made part of the British colony of Trinidad and Tobago in 1899. The colony became an independent state in 1962. Trinidad was so named by Columbus either because he arrived on Trinity Sunday or because three mountain peaks suggested the Holy Trinity. Tobago was given the name by Columbus from the Haitian tambaku, pipe, from the natives' habit of smoking tobacco leaves. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1228, 1216 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p555, 547)Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
North American Native Fishes Association: The North American Native Fishes Association (NANFA) is a non-profit, tax-exempt U.S.Vibe Australia: Vibe Australia Pty Ltd (Vibe) is an Aboriginal media, communications and events management agency. Located in Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, they work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people throughout Australia.Miss Asia Pacific 2005Atomic heraldry: Atomic heraldry is heraldry characterised by the appearance of charges including the atom or showing the motion of parts of the atom; more loosely, it may describe heraldry in which atoms or the component parts thereof are represented through a combination of other charges. Obviously, this is a late development in heraldry.WGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Population stratification: Population stratification is the presence of a systematic difference in allele frequencies between subpopulations in a population possibly due to different ancestry, especially in the context of association studies. Population stratification is also referred to as population structure, in this context.Microhyla berdmoreiAfrican-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Genetic variation: right|thumbLampreado: thumb | 250px | right | LampreadoGene pool: The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Far East Movement discography: The discography of Far East Movement, an American electronic pop rap group, consists of four studio albums, four extended plays, four mixtapes, eighteen singles (including three as featured artists) and thirty-three music videos. The group formed in 2003 in Los Angeles and released their first mixtape, Audio-Bio, in 2005, with their first studio album Folk Music following in 2006.Environment of Trinidad and Tobago: The environment of Trinidad and Tobago reflects the interaction between its biotic diversity, high population density, and industrialised economy.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Disequilibrium (medicine): Disequilibrium}}
(1/8027) Genetic polymorphism and interethnic variability of plasma paroxonase activity.
A method for determining plasma paroxonase activity using an auto-analyser is described. Frequency distributions for British and Indian subjects show bimodality. A study of 40 British families confirms the presence of a genetic polymorphism with regard to plasma paroxonase activity. Two phenotypes can be defined, controlled by two alleles at one autosomal locus. The frequency of the low activity phenotype is less in the Indian population than in the British population. Malay, Chinese, and African subjects fail to show obvious bimodality. (+info)
(2/8027) Cephalometric abnormalities in non-obese and obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.
The aim of this work was to comprehensively evaluate the cephalometric features in Japanese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and to elucidate the relationship between cephalometric variables and severity of apnoea. Forty-eight cephalometric variables were measured in 37 healthy males and 114 male OSA patients, who were classed into 54 non-obese (body mass index (BMI) <27 kg x m(-2), apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI)=25.3+/-16.1 events x h(-1)) and 60 obese (BMI > or = 27 kg x m(-2), AHI=45.6+/-28.0 events h(-1)) groups. Diagnostic polysomnography was carried out in all of the OSA patients and in 19 of the normal controls. The non-obese OSA patients showed several cephalometric defects compared with their BMI-matched normal controls: 1) decreased facial A-P distance at cranial base, maxilla and mandible levels and decreased bony pharynx width; 2) enlarged tongue and inferior shift of the tongue volume; 3) enlarged soft palate; 4) inferiorly positioned hyoid bone; and 5) decreased upper airway width at four different levels. More extensive and severe soft tissue abnormalities with a few defects in craniofacial bony structures were found in the obese OSA group. For the non-obese OSA group, the stepwise regression model on AHI was significant with two bony structure variables as determinants: anterior cranial base length (S-N) and mandibular length (Me-Go). Although the regression model retained only linear distance between anterior vertebra and hyoid bone (H-VL) as an explainable determinant for AHI in the obese OSA group, H-VL was significantly correlated with soft tissue measurements such as overall tongue area (Ton), inferior tongue area (Ton2) and pharyngeal airway length (PNS-V). In conclusion, Japanese obstructive sleep apnoea patients have a series of cephalometric abnormalities similar to those described in Caucasian patients, and that the aetiology of obstructive sleep apnoea in obese patients may be different from that in non-obese patients. In obese patients, upper airway soft tissue enlargement may play a more important role in the development of obstructive sleep apnoea, whereas in non-obese patients, bony structure discrepancies may be the dominant contributing factors for obstructive sleep apnoea. (+info)
(3/8027) Laboratory assay reproducibility of serum estrogens in umbilical cord blood samples.
We evaluated the reproducibility of laboratory assays for umbilical cord blood estrogen levels and its implications on sample size estimation. Specifically, we examined correlation between duplicate measurements of the same blood samples and estimated the relative contribution of variability due to study subject and assay batch to the overall variation in measured hormone levels. Cord blood was collected from a total of 25 female babies (15 Caucasian and 10 Chinese-American) from full-term deliveries at two study sites between March and December 1997. Two serum aliquots per blood sample were assayed, either at the same time or 4 months apart, for estrone, total estradiol, weakly bound estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Correlation coefficients (Pearson's r) between duplicate measurements were calculated. We also estimated the components of variance for each hormone or protein associated with variation among subjects and variation between assay batches. Pearson's correlation coefficients were >0.90 for all of the compounds except for total estradiol when all of the subjects were included. The intraclass correlation coefficient, defined as a proportion of the total variance due to between-subject variation, for estrone, total estradiol, weakly bound estradiol, and SHBG were 92, 80, 85, and 97%, respectively. The magnitude of measurement error found in this study would increase the sample size required for detecting a difference between two populations for total estradiol and SHBG by 25 and 3%, respectively. (+info)
(4/8027) A case-control study of risk factors for Haemophilus influenzae type B disease in Navajo children.
To understand the potential risk factors and protective factors for invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, we conducted a case-control study among Navajo children less than two years of age resident on the Navajo Nation. We analyzed household interview data for 60 cases that occurred between August 1988 and February 1991, and for 116 controls matched by age, gender, and geographic location. The Hib vaccine recipients were excluded from the analyses. Conditional logistic regression models were fit to examine many variables relating to social and environmental conditions. Risk factors determined to be important were never breast fed (odds ratio [OR] = 3.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.52, 8.26), shared care with more than one child less than two years of age (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 0.91, 5.96); wood heating (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 0.91, 5.05); rodents in the home (OR = 8.18, 95% CI = 0.83, 80.7); and any livestock near the home (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 0.94, 5.04). (+info)
(5/8027) Relationship of plasmin generation to cardiovascular disease risk factors in elderly men and women.
Plasmin-alpha2-antiplasmin complex (PAP) marks plasmin generation and fibrinolytic balance. We recently observed that elevated levels of PAP predict acute myocardial infarction in the elderly, yet little is known about the correlates of PAP. We measured PAP in 800 elderly subjects who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease in 2 cohort studies: the Cardiovascular Health Study and the Honolulu Heart Program. Median PAP levels did not differ between the Cardiovascular Health Study (6.05+/-1.46 nmol/L) and the Honolulu Heart Program (6.11+/-1.44 nmol/L), and correlates of PAP were similar in both cohorts. In CHS, PAP levels increased with age (r=0. 30), procoagulant factors (eg, factor VIIc, r=0.15), thrombin activity (prothrombin fragment F1+2, r=0.29), and inflammation-sensitive proteins (eg, fibrinogen, r=0.44; factor VIIIc, r=0.37). PAP was associated with increased atherosclerosis as measured by the ankle-arm index (AAI) (P for trend, =0.001). PAP was negatively related to factors associated with the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) (eg, fasting insulin, r=-0.26; body mass index, r=-0.26), possibly reflecting an association with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (r=-0.29). Although our study did not have sufficient power to detect a significant interaction, PAP and AAI appeared to be more weakly associated in subjects with more manifestations of the IRS: PAP appeared more strongly associated with AAI in the subgroup with 0 or 1 metabolic disorders (P=0.001; slope estimate, -0.14) compared with the subgroup with 2 or more metabolic disorders (P=0.10; slope estimate, -0.08) and in those with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (P=0.46; slope estimate, -0.04). Although PAP reflects reactive fibrinolysis and is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, this relationship may be weaker in populations with characteristics of the IRS, possibly reflecting the inhibitory effects of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 on PAP. Decreased fibrinolysis in the presence of subclinical disease in subjects with hyperinsulinemia or glucose intolerance is consistent with the premise that depressed plasmin generation may enhance the progression of atherosclerosis in these people. (+info)
(6/8027) Relative contribution of insulin and its precursors to fibrinogen and PAI-1 in a large population with different states of glucose tolerance. The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS).
Hyperinsulinemia is associated with the development of coronary heart disease. However, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Hypercoagulability and impaired fibrinolysis are possible candidates linking hyperinsulinism with atherosclerotic disease, and it has been suggested that proinsulin rather than insulin is the crucial pathophysiological agent. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of insulin and its precursors to markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis in a large triethnic population. A strong and independent relationship between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen and insulin and its precursors (proinsulin, 32-33 split proinsulin) was found consistently across varying states of glucose tolerance (PAI-1 versus fasting insulin [proinsulin], r=0.38 [r=0.34] in normal glucose tolerance; r=0.42 [r=0.43] in impaired glucose tolerance; and r=0.38 [r=0.26] in type 2 diabetes; all P<0.001). The relationship remained highly significant even after accounting for insulin sensitivity as measured by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. In a stepwise multiple regression model after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, and clinic, both insulin and its precursors were significantly associated with PAI-1 levels. The relationship between fibrinogen and insulin and its precursors was significant in the overall population (r=0.20 for insulin and proinsulin; each P<0.001) but showed a more inconsistent pattern in subgroup analysis and after adjustments for demographic and metabolic variables. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that proinsulin (split products) but not fasting insulin significantly contributed to fibrinogen levels after adjustment for age, sex, clinic, and ethnicity. Decreased insulin sensitivity was independently associated with higher PAI-1 and fibrinogen levels. In summary, we were able to demonstrate an independent relationship of 2 crucial factors of hemostasis, fibrinogen and PAI-1, to insulin and its precursors. These findings may have important clinical implications in the risk assessment and prevention of macrovascular disease, not only in patients with overt diabetes but also in nondiabetic subjects who are hyperinsulinemic. (+info)
(7/8027) Low-density lipoprotein particle size is inversely related to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study.
High levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and preponderance of small dense low-density lipoproteins (LDL) have both been associated with atherosclerotic disease and with the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS). In vitro studies have shown a stimulatory effect of various lipoproteins on PAI-1 release from different cells, including endothelial cells and adipocytes. The authors sought to investigate the relation of PAI-1 to LDL particle size in a large tri-ethnic population (n=1549) across different states of glucose tolerance. LDL size was determined by gradient gel electrophoresis, and PAI-1 was measured by a 2-site immunoassay, sensitive to free PAI-1. PAI-1 was inversely related to LDL size in the overall population (r=-0.21, P<0.0001), independent of gender and ethnicity. However, the authors found a significant interaction with glucose tolerance status (P=0.035). In univariate analysis, the association between PAI-1 and LDL size was most pronounced in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, r=-0.22, P<0.0001) and weaker in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, r=-0.12, P=0.03) and type-2 diabetes (r=-0.10, P=0.02). After adjustment for demographic variables and metabolic variables known to influence PAI-1 levels (triglyceride and insulin sensitivity), a significant inverse relation of LDL size to PAI-1 levels was only present in NGT (P=0. 023). In subjects with IGT or overt diabetes, who usually have elevated PAI-1 levels, additional factors other than LDL size seem to contribute more importantly to PAI-1 levels. The demonstrated inverse relation of LDL size and PAI-1 levels provides one possible explanation for the atherogeneity of small dense LDL particles. (+info)
(8/8027) Influence of ethnic background on clinical and serologic features in patients with systemic sclerosis and anti-DNA topoisomerase I antibody.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of ethnicity on clinical and serologic expression in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and anti-DNA topoisomerase I (anti-topo I) antibody. METHODS: Clinical and serologic features, as well as HLA class II allele frequencies, were compared among 47 North American white, 15 North American black, 43 Japanese, and 12 Choctaw Native American SSc patients with anti-topo I antibody. RESULTS: The frequency of progressive pulmonary interstitial fibrosis was lower, and cumulative survival rates were better in white compared with black and Japanese patients. Sera of white and black patients frequently recognized the portion adjacent to the carboxyl terminus of topo I, sera of Japanese patients preferentially recognized the portion adjacent to the amino terminus of topo I, and sera of Choctaw patients recognized both portions of topo I. Anti-RNA polymerase II and anti-SSA/Ro antibodies were present together with anti-topo I antibody more frequently in sera of Japanese patients than in sera of white patients. The HLA-DRB1 alleles associated with anti-topo I antibody differed; i.e., DRB1*1101-*1104 in whites and blacks, DRB1*1502 in Japanese, and DRB1*1602 in Choctaws. Multivariate analysis showed that ethnic background was an independent determinant affecting development of severe lung disease as well as survival. CONCLUSION: Clinical and serologic features in SSc patients were strongly influenced by ethnic background. The variability of disease expression in the 4 ethnic groups suggests that multiple factors linked to ethnicity, including genetic and environmental factors, modulate clinical manifestations, disease course, and autoantibody status in SSc. (+info)