ArtArt Therapy: The use of art as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of neurological, mental, or behavioral disorders.Medicine in ArtAnti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment: Treatment modality for DENTAL CARIES that uses manual excavation method and GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS. Because of its noninvasiveness and no need for expensive equipment and anesthesia it is promoted as an approach in places where dental care is not readily available.PaintingsCD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Lost to Follow-Up: Study subjects in COHORT STUDIES whose outcomes are unknown e.g., because they could not or did not wish to attend follow-up visits.(from Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed.)Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Sensory Art Therapies: Therapies using arts or directed at the senses.SculptureMedication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Creativity: The ability to generate new ideas or images.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Artemisia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE with strong-smelling foliage. It is a source of SANTONIN and other cytotoxic TERPENES.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Multiple Birth Offspring: The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Famous PersonsADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Septins: A family of GTP-binding proteins that were initially identified in YEASTS where they were shown to initiate the process of septation and bud formation. Septins form into hetero-oligomeric complexes that are comprised of several distinct septin subunits. These complexes can act as cytoskeletal elements that play important roles in CYTOKINESIS, cytoskeletal reorganization, BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, and membrane dynamics.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: Exuberant inflammatory response towards previously undiagnosed or incubating opportunistic pathogens. It is frequently seen in AIDS patients following HAART.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Language Arts: Skills in the use of language which lead to proficiency in written or spoken communication.Body Piercing: The perforation of an anatomical region for the wearing of jewelry.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Stavudine: A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Engraving and EngravingsHumanitiesOrganophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Benzoxazines: OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Patient Dropouts: Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome: A syndrome of multiple defects characterized primarily by umbilical hernia (HERNIA, UMBILICAL); MACROGLOSSIA; and GIGANTISM; and secondarily by visceromegaly; HYPOGLYCEMIA; and ear abnormalities.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reproductive Techniques: Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).Lesotho: A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Glass Ionomer Cements: A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.CambodiaDrug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Schistosomicides: Agents that act systemically to kill adult schistosomes.Tattooing: The indelible marking of TISSUES, primarily SKIN, by pricking it with NEEDLES to imbed various COLORING AGENTS. Tattooing of the CORNEA is done to colorize LEUKOMA spots.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Dental Cavity Preparation: An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)Withholding Treatment: Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.SesquiterpenesFollow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Lopinavir: An HIV protease inhibitor used in a fixed-dose combination with RITONAVIR. It is also an inhibitor of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Oocyte Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Botswana: A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Drama: A composition in prose or verse presenting in dialogue or pantomime a story involving various characters, usually intended to be acted on a stage and to be regarded as a form of entertainment. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.IndiaHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Embryo Culture Techniques: The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Poetry as Topic: Literary and oral genre expressing meaning via symbolism and following formal or informal patterns.Esthetics: The branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of the beautiful. It includes beauty, esthetic experience, esthetic judgment, esthetic aspects of medicine, etc.Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.
Saint-Florent Cathedral: Saint-Florent Cathedral or Nebbio Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint-Florent de Saint-Florent, also known as Cathédrale du Nebbio) is a former Roman Catholic cathedral and French national monument located in the town of Saint-Florent in Corsica. It is now the church of Santa Maria Assunta.Margaret NaumburgProphet Jeremiah (Michelangelo): The Prophet Jeremiah is one of the seven Old Testament prophets painted by the Italian High Renaissance master Michelangelo (c. 1542–1545) on the Sistine Chapel ceiling.Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections: The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) is an annual scientific meeting devoted to the understanding, prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and the opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. Thousands of leading researchers and clinicians from around the world convene in a different location in North America each year for the Conference.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Conjuring Arts Research Center: Conjuring Arts Research Center is a not-for-profit organization, based in New York City in the United States, dedicated to the preservation and interpretation of magic and its allied arts.Taagepera Castle: The Taagepera Castle (German name: Wagenküll) is a mansion in Taagepera village, Helme Parish, Valga County, Estonia.HIV/AIDS in South African townships: South Africa’s HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the most severe in the world, is concentrated in its townships, where many black South Africans live due to the lingering effects of the Group Areas Act. A 2010 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.Karonga District: right|115px|Location of Karonga District in MalawiStatnamic load test: The Statnamic load test is a type of test for assessing the load carrying capacity of deep foundations which is faster and less expensive than the static load test. The Statnamic test was conceived in 1985, with the first prototype tests carried out in 1988 through collaboration between Berminghammer Foundation Equipment of Canada and TNO Building Research of the Netherlands (Middendorp et al.Herzog HospitalMarble sculpture: Marble sculpture is the art of creating three-dimensional forms from marble. Sculpture is among the oldest of the arts.Creativity and mental illness: Parallels can be drawn to connect creativity to Major Mental Illnesses including: Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia, Depression, Anxiety Disorder, and ADHD. For example, numerous studies have demonstrated correlations between creative occupations and people living with mental illness.Makerere University School of MedicineVpx: Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains, but that is absent from HIV-1. It is similar in structure to the protein Vpr that is carried by SIV and HIV-2 as well as HIV-1.Hinduism in Zambia: Zambia is home to 25,000 Hindus.as reported by Hinduism Today, 2003 Hinduism is the third largest religion in Zambia.Artemisia afra: Artemisia afra is a common species of the genus Artemisia in Africa, with a wide distribution from South Africa, to areas reaching to the North and East, as far north as Ethiopia. Artemisia afra is the only indigenous species in this genus.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Nicholas II of WerleExoenzyme: An exoenzyme, or extracellular enzyme, is an enzyme that is secreted by a cell and functions outside of that cell. Exoenzymes are produced by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and have been shown to be a crucial component of many biological processes.Septin: Septins are a group of GTP-binding proteins found primarily in eukaryotic cells of fungi and animals, but also in some green algae. Different septins form protein complexes with each other.Ippolito de' MediciGreenpoint Renaissance Enterprise Corporation: The Greenpoint Renaissance Enterprise Corporation (GREC) is a consortium of neighborhood organizations in North Brooklyn that serves to facilitate and advocate the activities for city initiatives, as well as coordinate community involvement in the neighborhood of the former Greenpoint Hospital Complex.Lang, Frank.Trace theory: In mathematics and computer science, trace theory aims to provide a concrete mathematical underpinning for the study of concurrent computation and process calculi. The underpinning is provided by an algebraic definition of the free partially commutative monoid or trace monoid, or equivalently, the history monoid, which provides a concrete algebraic foundation, analogous to the way that the free monoid provides the underpinning for formal languages.B.C. Rich Body Art Collection: The Body Art Collection are a selection of limited edition electric guitars made by the guitar manufacturer B.C.Discoverer 23HIV-positive people: HIV-positive people are people who have the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, the agent of the currently incurable disease AIDS.StavudineList of birds of Ivory Coast: This is a list of the bird species recorded in Ivory Coast. The avifauna of Ivory Coast include a total of 758 species, of which one has been introduced by humans and nineteen are rare or accidental.Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome: Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome is a provisional name for a newly diagnosed immunodeficiency illness. The name is proposed in the first public study to identify the syndrome.Resistance mutation: A resistance mutation is a point mutations in virus genes that allow the virus to become resistant to treatment with a particular antiviral drug. The term was first used in the management of HIV, the first virus in which genome sequencing was routinely used to look for drug resistance.NevirapineParaffin Safety Association of Southern Africa: Paraffin Safety Association of Southern AfricaNatural cycle in vitro fertilization: Natural Cycle IVF is in vitro fertilisation (IVF) using either of the following procedures:Pregnancy rate: Pregnancy rate is the success rate for getting pregnant. It is the percentage of all attempts that leads to pregnancy, with attempts generally referring to menstrual cycles where insemination or any artificial equivalent is used, which may be simple artificial insemination (AI) or AI with additional in vitro fertilization.Laser engravingLast Days of Humanity: Last Days of Humanity is a Dutch goregrind band, which was active from 1989 until 2006, and reformed in 2010. Their music is known for its nonstop sound and relentless blast beats, with regards to drummer Marc Palmen.Elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovirEfavirenzReproductive technology: Reproductive technology (RT) encompasses all current and anticipated uses of technology in human and animal reproduction, including assisted reproductive technology, contraception and others.Drug Resource Enhancement against Aids and Malnutrition: DREAM (short for "Drug Resources Enhancement against Aids and Malnutrition", formerly "Drug Resource Enhancement against AIDS in Mozambique") is an AIDS therapy program promoted by the Christian Community of Sant'Egidio. It is designed to give access to free ARV treatment with generic HAART drugs to the poor in Africa on a large scale: So far, 5,000 people are receiving ARV treatment, especially in Mozambique, but the program is being built up also in other countries: Malawi, Guinea, Tanzania and others.Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions: The Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions is the primary trade union federation in Zimbabwe. The general secretary of ZCTU is Wellington Chibebe and the president is Lovemore Matombo.Tuberculosis managementIndia–Rwanda relations: Indo-Rwandan relations are the foreign relations between the Republic of India and the Republic of Rwanda. India is represented in Rwanda through its Honorary Consulate in Kigali.Lucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}Beckwith–Wiedemann syndromeTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingPfATP6: PfATP6, also known as PfSERCA or PfATPase6, is a calcium ATPase gene encoded by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The protein is thought to be a P-type ATPase involved in calcium ion transport.Enlightenment Intensive: An Enlightenment Intensive is a group retreat designed to enable a spiritual enlightenment experience within a relatively short time. Devised by Americans Charles (1929–2007) and Ava Berner in the 1960s,http://www.Glass ionomer cement: A glass ionomer cement is a dental restorative material used in dentistry for dental fillings and luting cements. These materials are based on the reaction of silicate glass powder and polyalkenoic acid, an ionomer.Addis Ababa Fistula HospitalFederal institutions of Tanzania: This is a list of the federal institutions of Tanzania.Social stigma of obesity: The social stigma of obesity has created negative psychosocial impacts and has caused disadvantages for overweight and obese people. The social stigma often spans one's entire life, starting from a young age and lasting into adulthood.Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors: Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NtRTIs) began in the 1980s when the AIDS epidemic hit Western societies. NRTIs inhibit the reverse transcriptase (RT), an enzyme that controls the replication of the genetic material of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation: The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation is the independent nonprofit technology transfer organization serving the University of Wisconsin–Madison and Morgridge Institute for Research. It provides significant research support, granting tens of millions of dollars to the university each year and contributing to the university's "margin of excellence.TRNA (adenine57-N1/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase: TRNA (adenine57-N1/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase (, TrmI, PabTrmI, AqTrmI, MtTrmI) is an enzyme with system name S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA (adenine57/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionPhnom Tamao Wildlife Rescue Centre: Phnom Tamao Wildlife Rescue Centre (PTWRC) is a wildlife centre located roughly by road south of Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The centre was established in 1995 and with an area of over 6,000 acres of protected regenerating forest, this is the largest zoo in Cambodia.Kenya Pipeline CompanyParchment repair: The repair and mending of parchment has taken place for thousands of years. Methods from the earliest hand stitching of tears to today's use of modern equipment to mend and fill parchment show the importance that has been placed on its preservation and conservation.List of tattoo artists: This is a list of notable tattoo artists.Embryo transfer: Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy. This technique (which is often used in connection with in vitro fertilization (IVF)), may be used in humans or in animals, in which situations the goals may vary.Cavity wall insulation: Cavity wall insulation is used to reduce heat loss through a cavity wall by filling the air space with material that inhibits heat transfer. This immobilises the air within the cavity (air is still the actual insulator), preventing convection, and can substantially reduce space heating costs.Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.
(1/144) Is integer arithmetic fundamental to mental processing?: the mind's secret arithmetic.
Unlike the ability to acquire our native language, we struggle to learn multiplication and division. It may then come as a surprise that the mental machinery for performing lightning-fast integer arithmetic calculations could be within us all even though it cannot be readily accessed, nor do we have any idea of its primary function. We are led to this provocative hypothesis by analysing the extraordinary skills of autistic savants. In our view such individuals have privileged access to lower levels of information not normally available through introspection. (+info)
(2/144) An evaluation of a theatre production to encourage non-smoking among elementary age children: 2 Smart 2 Smoke.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a theatre production on smoking-related attitudes, norms, and intentions of children in grades 1-6 (aged 6-12 years). DESIGN: Seventeen schools were randomly selected among 160 that were participating in the implementation of the theatre production 2 Smart 2 Smoke. Schools that participated in the theatre production after 3 December 1997 were assigned as control schools. Assignment of schools to a given date for the theatre production was a random process. Students in grades 1-6 were surveyed before and after the theatre production and associated activities. The data were examined for pretest-posttest differences and intervention-control differences. The school was the unit of analysis. SETTING: Elementary schools in the Twin Cities metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: Students in grades 1-6 in 17 elementary schools. INTERVENTION: Two plays 2 Smart 2 Smoke for grades 1-3 (6-8 year olds) and grades 4-6 (9-12 year olds), respectively, with follow-up activities for the classroom and home. A national theatre company performed the plays at the schools. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intention to smoke in the future, normative expectations about how many people smoke, functional meanings of smoking, expected outcomes of smoking. RESULTS: 10% more students reported that they would never smoke a cigarette after the theatre production. Students in grades 4-6 showed changes in the functional meanings and expected outcomes of smoking. Students in grades 1-3 showed changes in normative expectations. CONCLUSIONS: Further research on the impact of live theatre productions as a smoking prevention strategy is recommended. (+info)
(3/144) Babes and boobs? analysis of JAMA cover art.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the representation of the sexes in JAMA cover art. DESIGN: Review of 50 consecutive issues. SETTING: JAMA, March 1997-March 1998. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Numbers and nature of covers portraying men and women. RESULTS: Of the 50 covers, 34 depicted humans. 15 depicted women, 13 men, and 6 were of mixed or indeterminate sex. 11 pictures of women included a child and five included nudity. One cover showed a man with a child (not as a father) and none depicted nudity. Men were depicted exclusively in authoritative roles. CONCLUSIONS: Much of the cover art gives strong messages about sexual stereotypes that are inappropriate in modern society. JAMA should consider reviewing its policy for choosing cover art. (+info)
(4/144) The scientist's world.
This paper describes the features of the world of science, and it compares that world briefly with that of politics and the law. It also discusses some "postmodern" trends in philosophy and sociology that have been undermining confidence in the objectivity of science and thus have contributed indirectly to public mistrust. The paper includes broader implications of interactions of government and science. (+info)
(5/144) The myth of objectivity: is medicine moving towards a social constructivist medical paradigm?
Biomedicine is improperly imbued with a nomothetic methodology, which views 'disease' in a similar way to other 'natural' phenomena. This arises from a 300-year history of a positivist domination of science, meaning that objectivist research (e.g. randomized controlled trials or biochemical research) attracts more funding and is more readily published than 'softer' qualitative research. A brief review of objectivism and subjectivism is followed by a definition of an emerging medical paradigm. Current 'inappropriate' medical practices become understandable in this broader context, and examples are given. A constructivist paradigm can continue to incorporate 'objective' clinical findings and interventions, as well as the recent evidence for the doctor-patient relationship as a major contributor to patient outcomes. (+info)
(6/144) Using signs, artwork, and music to promote stair use in a public building.
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the impact on stair use of improving the attractiveness of a stairwell. METHODS: Observations of stair usage were made in a university building during baseline, 2 interventions, and follow-up. The first intervention involved signs; the second intervention added artwork and music in the stairwell. RESULTS: More participants used the stairs during the music and artwork intervention than at baseline or when signs alone were used. CONCLUSIONS: Improving the aesthetic qualities of a stairwell can increase rates of stair usage in a public building. Designs for buildings should take accessibility and aesthetic issues into consideration. (+info)
(7/144) Emended descriptions of the genus Micrococcus, Micrococcus luteus (Cohn 1872) and Micrococcus lylae (Kloos et al. 1974).
Nine yellow-pigmented, spherical bacterial strains isolated from a medieval wall painting (strain D7), from indoor air (strains 3, 6, 7, 13C2, 38, 83 and 118) and from an activated-sludge plant (strain Ballarat) were classified by a polyphasic approach. Analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of three representatives (strains D7, 118 and Ballarat) indicated that they all belong to the genus Micrococcus. The three isolates shared the highest sequence similarities with Micrococcus luteus DSM 20030T (97.9-98%), Micrococcus antarcticus AS 1.2372T (97.9-98.3%) and Micrococcus lylae DSM 20315T (97.5-97.9%). DNA-DNA reassociation studies clearly demonstrated that all nine isolates belong to the species M. luteus. However, neither their chemotaxonomic features nor their physiological and biochemical properties were consistent with those of M. luteus DSM 20030T. In contrast to M. luteus DSM 20030T, all isolates investigated possessed MK-8(H2) as the major respiratory quinone, and strain Ballarat had an A4alpha peptidoglycan type. On the basis of analyses of their Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy spectra, isolates D7, 3, 6, 7, 13C2, 38, 83 and 118 could be grouped into a single cluster separate from M. luteus DSM 20030T, strain Ballarat and M. lylae DSM 20315T. In addition, all these isolates could be distinguished from M. luteus DSM 20030T by their ability to assimilate D-maltose, D-trehalose, DL-3-hydroxybutyrate, DL-lactate, pyruvate and L-histidine and to hydrolyse casein. Strains D7, 3, 6, 7, 13C2, 38, 83 and 118 differed from both M. luteus DSM 20030T and strain Ballarat by their ability to assimilate acetate, L-phenylalanine, L-serine and phenylacetate. Furthermore, REP-PCR fingerprinting yielded one common band for these strains, whereas this band was not observed for M. luteus DSM 20030T, strain Ballarat or M. lylae DSM 20315T. On the basis of these data, the species M. luteus can be divided into three biovars that are distinguished by several chemotaxonomic and biochemical traits: biovar I, represented by M. luteus DSM 20030T; biovar II, represented by strains D7 (= DSM 14234 = CCM 4959), 3, 6, 7, 13C2, 38, 83 and 118; and biovar III, represented by strain Ballarat (= DSM 14235 = CCM 4960). On the basis of the results generated in this study, emended descriptions of the genus Micrococcus and the species M. luteus and M. lylae are given. (+info)
(8/144) Factor analysis of safety for visitors to a mega-event.
This paper investigated the safety factors considered by visitors to the Kwangju Biennale 2000 and analyzed the correlation between the safety factors and the demographic characteristics of the visitors. Global tourism increased throughout the 1990s, with the biggest surge occurring in the Asia-Pacific region. Long-distance travel is also increasing, and at a rate faster than the global average. The opportunities for event tourism appear to be strong almost everywhere, even though recessions may have an impact on these destinations. Along with this upward trend, competition for more desirable tourists is also surging (Getz, 1997). Therefore event tourism is appearing as a powerful method in the fierce competition around the tourism industry. (+info)