*  ARCTIC TRAVELER: MALAMUTE MYTH BUSTING::Mushing.com - The Online Magazine of Dog-Powered Sports

The malamutes crossed the Bering Straits with the Inuit from the arctic regions of Siberia. They were used as pack dogs, ... They hold up better for freighting in the arctic, and that s what the breed was designed for originally. Nonetheless, the ... We had spent most of the winter prior to the movie in the arctic busting through drifts in -70 Fahrenheit temperatures. ...
mushing.com/articles/content.php?vw=2,,9,794

*  NSPD-66 on Arctic Region Policy

... in the Arctic and in other regions, to the fullest extent permitted under international law; ... Work with other Arctic nations to ensure that hydrocarbon and other development in the Arctic region is carried out in ... The Arctic environment is unique and changing. Increased human activity is expected to bring additional stressors to the Arctic ... F. Maritime Transportation in the Arctic Region. *. The United States priorities for maritime transportation in the Arctic ...
https://fas.org/irp/offdocs/nspd/nspd-66.htm

*  Along the Russian Arctic Regions: Adolf Nordenskiöld's Voyage around Europe and Asia in 1878-80 - Viewer - World Digital Library

Granstrem's book also describes Russian and foreign expeditions in the Arctic Ocean prior to the late 19th century. This copy ... accomplished by the Finnish-born geographer and Arctic explorer Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld (1832-1901) on the steamship Vega ... Title: Along the Russian Arctic Regions: Adolf Nordenskiöld's Voyage around Europe and Asia in 1878-80. ...
https://wdl.org/en/item/504/view/1/3/

*  Arctic Regions in 2008 | Britannica.com

The Arctic regions may be defined in physical terms (astronomical [north of the Arctic Circle, latitude 66° 30′ N], climatic [ ... The Arctic regions may be defined in physical terms (astronomical [north of the Arctic Circle, latitude 66° 30′ N], climatic [ ... International organizations concerned with the Arctic include the Arctic Council, the Barents Euro-Arctic Council, the Inuit ... Early in the year the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (a branch of the Arctic Council) issued the report of its four- ...
https://britannica.com/place/Arctic-Year-In-Review-2008

*  Goats Reading Books: Surf City Hits the Arctic

... some of the highest blood levels of these chemicals due to weather patterns that concentrate pollution in the polar regions. ... Twice as many girls as boys are being born in some Arctic villages because of high levels of man-made chemicals in the blood of ... Man-made chemicals blamed as many more girls than boys are born in Arctic. ... Arctic populations have long been shown to have ... pregnant women, according to scientists from the Arctic ...
goatsreadingbooks.blogspot.com/2007/09/surf-city-hits-arctic.html

*  Send to a Friend: Russian Scientists Look to Biofuels from Wood Waste for Arctic Regions - Biofuels Supplement | Crop Biotech...

Russian scientists believe that biofuel could be an alternative energy source for some areas in the Arctic regions. A good ... Russian Scientists Look to Biofuels from Wood Waste for Arctic Regions. Message:. Hi! I thought you'd be interested in this ... Article Title: Russian Scientists Look to Biofuels from Wood Waste for Arctic Regions. Page URL : http://www.isaaa.org/kc/ ...
isaaa.org/kc/cropbiotechupdate/biofuels/sendtofriend/default.asp?Date=8/2/2017&ID=15655

*  The three voyages of William Barents to the Arctic regions (1594, 1595, and 1596) book by Gerrit de Veer, Charles T. Beke,...

The three voyages of William Barents to the Arctic regions (1594, 1595, and 1596) has 0 available edition to buy at Alibris ... The three voyages of William Barents to the Arctic regions (1594, 1595, and 1596) by Gerrit de Veer, Charles T. Beke, Laurens ... The three voyages of William Barents to the Arctic regions (1594, 1595, and 1596). by Gerrit de Veer, Charles T. Beke, Laurens ... The three voyages of William Barents to the Arctic regions (1594, 1595, and 1596) ...
https://alibris.com/The-three-voyages-of-William-Barents-to-the-Arctic-regions-1594-1595-and-1596-Gerrit-de-Veer/book/6687332?cm_sp=1rec-_-RHS-_-p1-0

*  Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a Northwest Passage, and of a Residence in the Arctic Regions During the Years 1829,...

Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a Northwest Passage, and of a Residence in the Arctic Regions During the Years 1829, ... Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a Northwest Passage, and of a Residence in the Arctic Regions During the Years 1829, ... and of a Residence in the Arctic Regions During the Years 1829, 1830, 1831, 1833' with ISBN 9780837138602 and ISBN 0837138604. ...
https://valorebooks.com/textbooks/narrative-of-a-second-voyage-in-search-of-a-northwest-passage-and-of-a-residence-in-the-arctic-regions-during-the-years-1829-1830-1831-1833/9780837138602&default=buy

*  Rate this Article: Russian Scientists Look to Biofuels from Wood Waste for Arctic Regions - Biofuels Supplement | CropBiotech...

Russian scientists believe that biofuel could be an alternative energy source for some areas in the Arctic regions. A good ...
isaaa.org/kc/cropbiotechupdate/biofuels/ratethisarticle/default.asp?Date=8/2/2017&ID=15655

*  The Polar Regions: Arctic Information

... Arctic Climate Primer. This informative site provides basic information that defines the ... The southern limit of the arctic region is commonly placed at the Arctic Circle (latitude 66 degrees, 32 minutes North). The ... Geography Places and Regions Standard 4: Understands the physical and human characteristics of place. Geography Places and ... Geography Places and Regions Standard 4: Understands the physical and human characteristics of place. Geography Human Systems ...
ku-prism.org/resources/polar/arcinfo.html

*  Arctic regions map. :: University of Alaska Fairbanks

Arctic regions map. Description Depths shown by soundings. Polar projection. Depths shown for Bering Sea only. "Published ... Alaska and Polar Regions Collections, Elmer E. Rasmuson Library, University of Alaska Fairbanks.; mailto:UAF-APR-reference- ...
vilda.alaska.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/cdmg11/id/10735/rec/5

*  Arctic regions of North America. :: University of Alaska Fairbanks

Arctic regions -- Discovery and exploration -- Maps. Arctic Coast (Canada) -- Maps. Baffin Bay (North Atlantic Ocean) -- Maps. ... Arctic regions of North America. Description Relief shown by hachures. Inset: Continuation of Smith's Sound to the northward on ... Shows the arctic islands of North America, including the western tip of Greenland. Extensive place names along the coastlines. ... Alaska and Polar Regions Collections, Elmer E. Rasmuson Library, University of Alaska Fairbanks.; mailto:UAF-APR-reference- ...
vilda.alaska.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/cdmg11/id/14996/rec/12

*  Arctic regions. Annotated by Sir George Hubert Wilkins. :: University of Alaska Fairbanks

Arctic regions. Annotated by Sir George Hubert Wilkins. Description Map annotated by George Hubert Wilkins with flight paths ... Alaska and Polar Regions Collections, Elmer E. Rasmuson Library, University of Alaska Fairbanks.; mailto:UAF-APR-reference- ...
vilda.alaska.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/cdmg11/id/18880/rec/40

*  Mammals of North America: Temperate and Arctic Regions: Adrian Forsyth | NHBS Book Shop

Temperate and Arctic Regions: NHBS - Adrian Forsyth, Firefly Books ... 4. DVD Guide to the Birds of Britain and Europe (All Regions) ... Mammals of North America: Temperate and Arctic Regions. View ...
https://nhbs.com/mammals-of-north-america-book-2

*  Category:Regions of the Arctic - Wikipedia

Pages in category "Regions of the Arctic". The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total. This list may not ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Regions_of_the_Arctic&oldid=717202509" ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Regions_of_the_Arctic

*  Arctic, Polar Regions Conferences Events Meetings | AllConferences.com

allconferences
allconferences.com/Geographical/Polar_Regions/Arctic/

*  The Polar Regions: Arctic Maps

Maps of Regions within the Arctic Rim. Beautiful maps that are easy to read and easy to 'zoom in' both in printed and when ... The Polar Regions: Arctic Maps & Images. Xpeditions. An offering by National Geographic, this site provides the best free ... Canadian Arctic Species Maps. If your class is studying the ecology or the animals of the Arctic, this is the site for you. ... Learn more facts about the distribution of animals of the arctic at the Canadian Arctic Species Map. ...
ku-prism.org/resources/polar/arcmaps.html

*  NAM NEWS NETWORK - ARCTIC COLD BLASTS IN SOUTH AMERICAN REGIONS

ARCTIC COLD BLASTS IN SOUTH AMERICAN REGIONS. Last Updated: 2012-06-07 ...
namnewsnetwork.org/v3/read.php?id=MTk2NDA0

*  ADS Bibliographic Codes: Refereed Publications

Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research ArA Arkiv for Astronomi ArG Arkiv for Geofysik ArM Arkiv for Matematik ArMAF Arkiv for ... H II regions and related topics 1985LNP 231 Hadrons and Heavy Ions 1999LNP 516 Hadrons in Dense Matter and Hadrosynthesis ...
adsabs.harvard.edu/abs_doc/refereed.html

*  National Academies and National Science Foundation Host U.S. Opening Ceremony for International Polar Year

"The polar regions are central to many of the key scientific questions of our times," said Robin Bell, chair of the U.S. ... Arctic. and Antarctic. Scientific research from these projects is expected to answer important questions about climate change ... International Polar Year 2007-2008 is a worldwide scientific effort to analyze the role of the polar regions in the global ... recent video from the polar regions, and a new exhibit of polar art. The importance of the IPY initiative and glimpses of the ...
www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=02262007

*  St. Olaf College | Academic Catalog 2013-14

The foundation of the course is the discussion of current literature on arctic ecosystems. The course briefly reviews causes of ... readings from texts and primary literature concerning ecological and environmental issues specific to each of these regions. ... Biology/Environmental Studies 320: Arctic Ecosystems: An Analysis of Global Change. This course focuses on biological and ... physical features of arctic ecosystems, their responses to climate change, and consequences of climate change for ecological ...
stolaf.edu/catalog/1314/academicprogram/biology.html

*  Biology, Geography & Health Research: Section 7

Smetana K.; Likovsky Z., 1982: The number of nucleolar silver stained granules of active nucleolus organizer regions in mitotic ... Beyens L.; Chardez D.; De Landtsheer R., 1986: Testate amoebae communities from aquatic habitats in the arctic ... Serum 25 hydroxy vitamin d parathyroid hormone and calcium levels in adult inhabitants above the arctic circle in northern ...
https://eurekamag.com/research/006/?shared=email&msg=fail?shared=email&msg=fail

*  Time for America to Get Serious about Its Arctic Policy | The National Interest

While fears of a new Arctic Cold War are overblown, the fact is there will be more military activity in the region.' ... Shifts in the global climate are making the Arctic regions more accessible to human activity. From fishing and shipping to ... Time for America to Get Serious about Its Arctic Policy. "While fears of a new Arctic Cold War are overblown, the fact is there ... Thus, the impact of "black carbon" on the Arctic environment is high on the council agenda. But other Arctic nations are just ...
nationalinterest.org/feature/time-america-get-serious-about-its-arctic-policy-13833

*  A Family Affair | Foreign Policy

Here's What Russia's Military Build-Up in the Arctic …. Robbie Gramer , 8 months ago. ...
foreignpolicy.com/2012/05/30/a-family-affair/

*  Poland

Based on climate properties the following climatic regions are distinguished: (see Figure 4). ... from the Arctic Sea, polar continental air from the northern part of Eastern Europe or tropical continental air masses from ... For mountainous regions the typology was elaborated by Kielpinski and Nowak (1954). Physiography of terrain, water-air ... though marked differences may occur between regions: the growing season is longer and annual temperatures higher in the south ...
fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Counprof/Poland/Poland.htm

(1/701) Phylogenetic affiliation and quantification of psychrophilic sulfate-reducing isolates in marine Arctic sediments.

Thirteen psychrophilic sulfate-reducing isolates from two permanently cold fjords of the Arctic island Spitsbergen (Hornsund and Storfjord) were phylogenetically analyzed. They all belonged to the delta subclass of Proteobacteria and were widely distributed within this group, indicating that psychrophily is a polyphyletic property. A new 16S rRNA-directed oligonucleotide probe was designed against the largest coherent cluster of these isolates. The new probe, as well as a set of available probes, was applied in rRNA slot blot hybridization to investigate the composition of the sulfate-reducing bacterial community in the sediments. rRNA related to the new cluster of incompletely oxidizing, psychrophilic isolates made up 1.4 to 20.9% of eubacterial rRNA at Storfjord and 0.6 to 3. 5% of eubacterial rRNA at Hornsund. This group was the second-most-abundant group of sulfate reducers at these sites. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and hybridization analysis showed bands identical to those produced by our isolates. The data indicate that the psychrophilic isolates are quantitatively important in Svalbard sediments.  (+info)

(2/701) High bacterial diversity in permanently cold marine sediments.

A 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clone library from permanently cold marine sediments was established. Screening 353 clones by dot blot hybridization with group-specific oligonucleotide probes suggested a predominance of sequences related to bacteria of the sulfur cycle (43.4% potential sulfate reducers). Within this fraction, the major cluster (19.0%) was affiliated with Desulfotalea sp. and other closely related psychrophilic sulfate reducers isolated from the same habitat. The cloned sequences showed between 93 and 100% similarity to these bacteria. Two additional groups were frequently encountered: 13% of the clones were related to Desulfuromonas palmitatis, and a second group was affiliated with Myxobacteria spp. and Bdellovibrio spp. Many clones (18.1%) belonged to the gamma subclass of the class Proteobacteria and were closest to symbiotic or free-living sulfur oxidizers. Probe target groups were further characterized by amplified rDNA restriction analysis to determine diversity within the groups and within the clone library. Rarefaction analysis suggested that the total diversity assessed by 16S rDNA analysis was very high in these permanently cold sediments and was only partially revealed by screening of 353 clones.  (+info)

(3/701) Community size and metabolic rates of psychrophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria in Arctic marine sediments.

The numbers of sulfate reducers in two Arctic sediments with in situ temperatures of 2.6 and -1.7 degrees C were determined. Most-probable-number counts were higher at 10 degrees C than at 20 degrees C, indicating the predominance of a psychrophilic community. Mean specific sulfate reduction rates of 19 isolated psychrophiles were compared to corresponding rates of 9 marine, mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. The results indicate that, as a physiological adaptation to the permanently cold Arctic environment, psychrophilic sulfate reducers have considerably higher specific metabolic rates than their mesophilic counterparts at similarly low temperatures.  (+info)

(4/701) Distribution patterns of marine bird digenean larvae in periwinkles along the southern coast of the Barents Sea.

An important component of the parasite fauna of seabirds in arctic regions are the flukes (Digena). Different species of digeneans have life cycles which may consist of 1 intermediate host and no free-living larval stages, 2 intermediate hosts and 1 free-living stage, or 2 intermediate hosts and 2 free-living larval stages. This study examined the distribution of such parasites in the intertidal zones of the southern coast of the Barents Sea (northwestern Russia and northern Norway) by investigating 2 species of periwinkles (Littorina saxatilis and L. obtusata) which are intermediate hosts of many species of digeneans. A total of 26,020 snails from 134 sampling stations were collected. The study area was divided into 5 regions, and the number of species, frequency of occurrence and prevalence of different digenean species and groups of species (depending on life cycle complexity) were compared among these regions, statistically controlling for environmental exposure. We found 14 species of digeneans, of which 13 have marine birds as final hosts. The number of species per sampling station increased westwards, and was higher on the Norwegian coast than on the Russian coast. The frequency of occurrence of digeneans with more than 1 intermediate host increased westwards, making up a larger proportion of the digeneans among infected snails. This was significant in L. saxatilis. The prevalence of different species showed the same pattern, and significantly more snails of both species were infected with digeneans with complicated life cycles in the western regions. In L. saxatilis, environmental exposure had a statistically significant effect on the distribution of the most common digenean species. This was less obvious in L. obtusata. The causes of changing species composition between regions are probably (1) the harsh climate in the eastern part of the study area reducing the probability of successful transmission of digeneans with complicated life cycles, and (2) the distribution of different final hosts.  (+info)

(5/701) Psychrophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from permanently cold arctic marine sediments: description of Desulfofrigus oceanense gen. nov., sp. nov., Desulfofrigus fragile sp. nov., Desulfofaba gelida gen. nov., sp. nov., Desulfotalea psychrophila gen. nov., sp. nov. and Desulfotalea arctica sp. nov.

Five psychrophilic, Gram-negative, sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from marine sediments off the coast of Svalbard. All isolates grew at the in situ temperature of -1.7 degrees C. In batch cultures, strain PSv29T had the highest growth rate at 7 degrees C, strains ASv26T and LSv54T had the highest growth rate at 10 degrees C, and strains LSv21T and LSv514T had the highest growth rate at 18 degrees C. The new isolates used the most common fermentation products in marine sediments, such as acetate, propionate, butyrate, lactate and hydrogen, but only strain ASv26T was able to oxidize fatty acids completely to CO2. The new strains had growth optima at neutral pH and marine salt concentration, except for LSv54T which grew fastest with 1% NaCl. Sulfite and thiosulfate were used as electron acceptors by strains ASv26T, PSv29T and LSv54T, and all strains except PSv29T grew with Fe3+ (ferric citrate) as electron acceptor. Chemotaxonomy based on cellular fatty acid patterns and menaquinones showed good agreement with the phylogeny based on 16S rRNA sequences. All strains belonged to the delta subclass of Proteobacteria but had at least 9% evolutionary distance from known sulfate reducers. Due to the phylogenetic and phenotypic differences between the new isolates and their closest relatives, establishment of the new genera Desulfotalea gen. nov., Desulfofaba gen. nov. and Desulfofrigus gen. nov. is proposed, with strain ASv26T as the type strain of the type species Desulfofrigus oceanense sp. nov., LSv21T as the type strain of Desulfofrigus fragile sp. nov., PSv29T as the type strain of the type species Desulfofaba gelida sp. nov., LSv54T as the type strain of the type species Desulfotalea psychrophila sp. nov. and LSv514T as the type strain of Desulfotalea arctica sp. nov.  (+info)

(6/701) Population genetics of ice age brown bears.

The Pleistocene was a dynamic period for Holarctic mammal species, complicated by episodes of glaciation, local extinctions, and intercontinental migration. The genetic consequences of these events are difficult to resolve from the study of present-day populations. To provide a direct view of population genetics in the late Pleistocene, we measured mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in seven permafrost-preserved brown bear (Ursus arctos) specimens, dated from 14,000 to 42,000 years ago. Approximately 36,000 years ago, the Beringian brown bear population had a higher genetic diversity than any extant North American population, but by 15,000 years ago genetic diversity appears similar to the modern day. The older, genetically diverse, Beringian population contained sequences from three clades now restricted to local regions within North America, indicating that current phylogeographic patterns may provide misleading data for evolutionary studies and conservation management. The late Pleistocene phylogeographic data also indicate possible colonization routes to areas south of the Cordilleran ice sheet.  (+info)

(7/701) Susceptibility to infections and immune status in Inuit infants exposed to organochlorines.

We investigated whether organochlorine exposure is associated with the incidence of infectious diseases in Inuit infants from Nunavik (Arctic Quebec, Canada). We compiled the number of infectious disease episodes during the first year of life for 98 breast-fed and 73 bottle-fed infants. Concentrations of organochlorines were measured in early breast milk samples and used as surrogates to prenatal exposure levels. Immune system parameters were determined in venous blood samples collected from infants at 3, 7, and 12 months of age. Otitis media was the most frequent disease, with 80. 0% of breast-fed and 81.3% of bottle-fed infants experiencing at least one episode during the first year of life. During the second follow-up period, the risk of otitis media increased with prenatal exposure to p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene, and dieldrin. The relative risk (RR) for 4- to 7-month-old infants in the highest tertile of p, p'-DDE exposure as compared to infants in the lowest tertile was 1. 87 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-3.26]. The RR of otitis media over the entire first year of life also increased with prenatal exposure to p,p'-DDE (RR, 1.52; CI, 1.05-2.22) and hexachlorobenzene (RR, 1.49; CI, 1.10-2.03). Furthermore, the RR of recurrent otitis media ( [Greater/equal to] 3 episodes) increased with prenatal exposure to these compounds. No clinically relevant differences were noted between breast-fed and bottle-fed infants with regard to immunologic parameters, and prenatal organochlorine exposure was not associated with immunologic parameters. We conclude that prenatal organochlorine exposure could be a risk factor for acute otitis media in Inuit infants.  (+info)

(8/701) Persistence of bat defence reactions in high Arctic moths (Lepidoptera).

We investigated the bat defence reactions of three species of moths (Gynaephora groenlandica, Gynaephora rossi (Lymantriidae) and Psychophora sabini (Geometridae)) in the Canadian Arctic archipelago. Since these moths inhabit the Arctic tundra and, therefore, are most probably spatially isolated from bats, their hearing and associated defensive reactions are probably useless and would therefore be expected to disappear with ongoing adaptation to Arctic conditions. When exposed to bat-like ultrasound (26 kHz and 110 dB sound pressure level root mean square at 1 m) flying male Gynaephora spp. always reacted defensively by rapidly reversing their flight course. They could hear the sound and reacted at least 15-25 m away. Psychophora sabini walking on a surface froze at distances of at least 5-7 m from the sound source. However, two out of three individuals of this species (all males) did not respond in any way to the sound while in flight. Hence, we found evidence of degeneration of bat defence reactions, i.e. adaptation to the bat-free environment, in P. sabini but not in Gynaephora spp. Some Arctic moths (Gynaephora spp.) still possess defensive reactions against bats, possibly because the selection pressure for the loss of the trait is such that it declines only very slowly (perhaps by genetic drift; and there may not have been enough time for the trait to disappear. One possible reason may be that Arctic moths have long generation times.  (+info)



sovereignty


  • The United States exercises authority in accordance with lawful claims of United States sovereignty, sovereign rights, and jurisdiction in the Arctic region, including sovereignty within the territorial sea, sovereign rights and jurisdiction within the United States exclusive economic zone and on the continental shelf, and appropriate control in the United States contiguous zone. (fas.org)

Council


  • Early in the year the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (a branch of the Arctic Council) issued the report of its four-year study on the state of oil and natural gas development in the Arctic. (britannica.com)

fragile


  • A growing awareness that the Arctic region is both fragile and rich in resources. (fas.org)
  • In addition, the coastal states agreed that they shared a stewardship role in protecting and preserving the fragile marine environment of the Arctic Ocean. (britannica.com)

Scientists


  • Scientists estimated that the overall volume of Arctic sea ice might be at an absolute minimum. (britannica.com)

region


  • A. This directive establishes the policy of the United States with respect to the Arctic region and directs related implementation actions. (fas.org)
  • A. The United States is an Arctic nation, with varied and compelling interests in that region. (fas.org)
  • The United States has broad and fundamental national security interests in the Arctic region and is prepared to operate either independently or in conjunction with other states to safeguard these interests. (fas.org)
  • The United States also has fundamental homeland security interests in preventing terrorist attacks and mitigating those criminal or hostile acts that could increase the United States vulnerability to terrorism in the Arctic region. (fas.org)
  • Human activity in the Arctic region is increasing and is projected to increase further in coming years. (fas.org)
  • This requires the United States to assert a more active and influential national presence to protect its Arctic interests and to project sea power throughout the region. (fas.org)
  • With the rapid onset of climate change-and its related summer sea-ice melt and the prospects of future oil and natural gas development and shorter shipping routes-the Arctic remained a region of political interest throughout 2008. (britannica.com)

interests


  • Offshore oil and gas interests coincided with regions that were being considered for designation as critical polar bear habitat. (britannica.com)

policy


  • Later the report's executive summary, which included policy recommendations on Arctic drilling practices, was released. (britannica.com)