Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Appetite Stimulants: Agents that are used to stimulate appetite. These drugs are frequently used to treat anorexia associated with cancer and AIDS.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Anorexia: The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Peptide YY: A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Diethylpropion: A appetite depressant considered to produce less central nervous system disturbance than most drugs in this therapeutic category. It is also considered to be among the safest for patients with hypertension. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2290)Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Meals: A portion of the food eaten for the day, usually at regular occasions during the day.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Fenfluramine: A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Cachexia: General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.Megestrol Acetate: Megestrol acetate is a progestogen with actions and uses similar to those of the progestogens in general. It also has anti-androgenic properties. It is given by mouth in the palliative treatment or as an adjunct to other therapy in endometrial carcinoma and in breast cancer. Megestrol acetate has been approved to treat anorexia and cachexia. (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Phentermine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It has been used most frequently in the treatment of obesity.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Sodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Dexfenfluramine: The S-isomer of FENFLURAMINE. It is a serotonin agonist and is used as an anorectic. Unlike fenfluramine, it does not possess any catecholamine agonist activity.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Clinical Trials, Phase IV as Topic: Planned post-marketing studies of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale. These studies are often conducted to obtain additional data about the safety and efficacy of a product. This concept includes phase IV studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Receptors, Ghrelin: Transmembrane proteins that recognize and bind GHRELIN, a potent stimulator of GROWTH HORMONE secretion and food intake in mammals. Ghrelin receptors are found in the pituitary and HYPOTHALAMUS. They belong to the family of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS.Pylorus: The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.

*  My horse keeps stopping and stretching as if to pee while being ridden. He has a good appetite and otherwise is healthy.

He has a good appetite and otherwise is - Answered by a verified Horse Veterinarian ... He has a good appetite and otherwise is healthy. His tail swishespecially while being ridden as if he is agitated. Also his ...
https://justanswer.com/horse-health/9pcl4-horse-keeps-stopping-stretching-pee.html

*  On avanza 15mgs for anxiety. Experiencing constant ringing in ears and loss of appetite. Should I increase the medicine dosage?

Experiencing constant ringing in ears and loss of appetite. Should I increase the medicine dosage?. Ask a Doctor about uses, ... In addition to its anti-depressant properties, Avanza also has a positive effect on improving sleep and appetite. These effects ... Experiencing constant ringing in ears and loss of appetite. Should I increase the medicine dosage? 12 days later ... Experiencing constant ringing in ears and loss of appetite. Should I increase the medicine dosage? 17 hours later ...
healthcaremagic.com/premiumquestions/On-avanza-15mgs-for-anxiety-Experiencing-constant-ringing-in-ears-and-loss-of-appetite-Should-I-increase-the-medicine-dosage/33563

*  Appetite hormones and energy intake in obese men after consumption of fructose, glucose and whey protein beverages.

To investigate appetite responses over 4 h to fructose beverages in obese men, relative to glucose and whey protein. Second, to ... Blood samples and appetite ratings were collected for 4 h then a buffet meal was offered. SUBJECTS: Twenty-eight obese men (age ... Appetite hormones and energy intake in obese men after consumption of fructose, glucose and whey protein beverages.. ... Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate appetite responses over 4 h to fructose beverages in obese men, relative to glucose and whey ...
https://omicsonline.org/references/appetite-hormones-and-energy-intake-in-obese-men-after-consumption-of-fructose-glucose-and-whey-protein-beverages-1603986.html

*  Leptin regulates appetite-related neuropeptides in the hypothalamus of developing rats without affecting food intake.

Appetite / physiology*. Arcuate Nucleus / metabolism. Eating / drug effects*. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. ... We determined whether two appetite-related neuropeptides [neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC)] and food intake ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Leptin-regulates-appetite-related-neuropeptides/12446596.html

*  Newly discovered road map of leptin explains its regulation of bone and appetite

Karsenty »Leptin »Leptin-serotonin pathway »Medical Wellness »SSRI »Serotonin »appetite-suppressing hormone »bone formation in ... Further reports about: , Karsenty , Leptin , Leptin-serotonin pathway , Medical Wellness , SSRI , Serotonin , appetite- ... "It will be difficult to turn on the pathway to strengthen bone without increasing appetite at the same time," Dr. Karsenty said ... Karsenty points out that these current findings may have more influence on developing a new way to reduce appetite and obesity ...
innovations-report.com/html/reports/life-sciences/newly-discovered-road-map-leptin-explains-139065.html

*  Block food Cravings At Their Molecular Root

Learn how a saffron extract targets appetite dysregulation at the neurotransmitter level, inhibiting the compulsion-reward ... Appetite. 2004 Apr;42(2):167-73.. 5. Polivy J, Herman CP. Distress and eating: why do dieters overeat? Int J Eat Disord. 1999 ... Appetite. 2010 Apr;54(2):346-53.. 50. Yamauchi M, Tsuruma K, Imai S, et al. Crocetin prevents retinal degeneration induced by ... Targeting the Biochemistry of Appetite In the quest for a novel intervention to block reactional hyperphagia and the cycle of ...
prohealth.com/fibromyalgia/library/showarticle.cfm?libid=18068

*  Why tackling appetite could hold the key to preventing childhood obesity

Why tackling appetite could hold the key to pre... Why tackling appetite could hold the key to preventing childhood obesity. 17 ... "It might make life easy to have a baby with a hearty appetite, but as she grows up, parents may need to be alert for tendencies ... A heartier appetite is linked to more rapid infant growth and to genetic predisposition to obesity, according to two papers ... The first paper reveals that infants with a heartier appetite grew more rapidly up to age 15 months, potentially putting them ...
ucl.ac.uk/news/news-articles/0214/17022014-why-tackling-appetite-could-hold-the-key-to-preventing-childhood-obesity-Wardle-Llewellyn

*  Appetite Control (non stimulant)

Appetite control is one of the safest method of weight control. ... Controlling appetite is a key step in the process of ... Appetite Control (non stimulant). Reduce your appetite and get control of your weight. Dieting requires control of calorie ... Suppress Xtreme by NutraClipse (Night Appetite Suppressant) BUY 1, GET 1 FREE. HIGH POTENCY Appetite SuppressantCaffeine and ... Appetite Control (non stimulant). TOP SELLERS (38) New Products (64) Accessories (69) Clothing (60) Fat Loss Center (408) - ...
https://bodyandfitness.com/fat-loss-center/appetite-control-non-stimulant?page=3

*  How to Correct a Loss of Appetite | eHow

Loss of appetite can occur for many reasons, such as when a person is sick or under stress. Although short-term appetite loss ... Change up your atmosphere and dine with friends to increase your mood and, possibly, your appetite. Sometimes appetite is ... Appetite loss is sometimes caused by poor diet. Supplements provide your body with essential Vitamins A, C, E and others that ... A plate full of food often seems like a daunting chore to people with no appetite. Try eating a series of small meals on small ...
ehow.com/how_5316403_correct-loss-appetite.html

*  Fertility problem, Loss of appetite, Tinnitus: ### Possible Causes

What causes fertility problem, loss of appetite and tinnitus? 0 possible conditions. ...
https://healthline.com/symptom/fertility-problem/loss-of-appetite/tinnitus

*  Appetite Control (non stimulant)

Appetite control is one of the safest method of weight control. ... Controlling appetite is a key step in the process of ... Appetite Control (non stimulant). Reduce your appetite and get control of your weight. Dieting requires control of calorie ... Appetite Control (non stimulant). TOP SELLERS (38) New Products (64) Accessories (69) Clothing (60) Fat Loss Center (408) - ... Appetite Control (non stimulant) (37) - Ripped - Definition Muscles (143) - Fat Burners - Fat Loss (29) - Metabolism Boosters ( ...
https://bodyandfitness.com/fat-loss-center/appetite-control-non-stimulant?page=2

*  Leaked Oblivion screens whet the appetite

A pile of unofficial Oblivion screenshots briefly appeared on at least one Internet forum, and Gaming-360 was lucky enough to snag the link before moderators re...
https://engadget.com/2006/01/18/leaked-oblivion-screens-whet-the-appetite/

*  ACSM | ACSM Blog

One of these examined appetite responses to energy deficits created through diet or exercise. The results showed that appetite ... In the second of those two studies, we directly compared appetite perception, appetite hormone and food intake responses to ... The findings from our experiments indicate that females do not respond differently to males in terms of appetite, appetite ... most research suggests that vigorous exercise transiently suppresses appetite. Subsequently, appetite will return but this is ...
acsm.org/public-information/acsm-blog/2017/01/27/active-voice-appetite-responses-to-exercise-in-females-implications-for-weight-control

*  What Causes Loss of Appetite and Nausea? | LIVESTRONG.COM

The symptoms of lack of appetite and nausea are often non-specific can... ... Loss of appetite and nausea are common symptoms that affect everyone at some point. ... Loss of appetite and nausea are common symptoms that affect everyone at some point. The symptoms of lack of appetite and nausea ... What Causes Loss of Appetite and Nausea? by ELLE PAULA Last Updated: Jul 18, 2017. ...
livestrong.com/article/267497-what-causes-loss-of-appetite-and-nausea/

*  Delaying fat digestion to kerb appetite

... 18 August 2010 Institute of Food Research ...
https://alphagalileo.org/ViewItem.aspx?ItemId=83174&CultureCode=en

*  Brain's appetite circuits could be 'rewired' - NHSUK

"Appetite control could be rewired, say researchers", BBC News reports, based on findings that it notes "could eventually offer ... Adding new cells could mean there may be ways to adapt appetite, energy balance and satiety, and if these processes could be ... The new neurons were created in parts of the hypothalamus with a role in regulating appetite, energy balance and feeling full. ... For these reasons, any chance of 'rewiring' human appetite - as the researchers point out - is an incredibly long way off. ...
https://nhs.uk/news/neurology/brains-appetite-circuits-could-be-rewired/

*  Appetite

2017 by Intellectual Reserve, Inc. All rights reserved ...
https://lds.org/scriptures/tg/appetite

*  The Lost Appetite - Wikipedia

The Lost Appetite è un cortometraggio muto del 1917 diretto da Louis Chaudet. Il film fu prodotto dalla Nestor Film Company e ... Filmografia della Nestor Film Company (EN) The Lost Appetite, su Internet Movie Database, IMDb.com.. ...
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Lost_Appetite

*  Appetite for Democracy - Wikipedia

Appetite for Democracy é uma turnê do Guns N' Roses que celebra os 25 anos do álbum "Appetite for Destruction" e os quatro anos ... Appetite for Democracy' Residency». Rolling Stone. Consultado em 13 de agosto de 2012 «Guns N' Roses: Appetite for Democracy». ... Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012 «Guns N' Roses brings Appetite for Democracy to Las Vegas». Ticket News. Consultado em 17 de ... Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012 «Guns N' Roses To Launch Appetite for Democracy On Halloween». Anti Music. ...
https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appetite_for_Democracy

*  Appetite for instruction | National Post

Appetite for instruction. How a famed chef's life echoes The Hundred-Foot Journey's apprenticeship story. Handout ... 8. And no one has worked up a bigger appetite for the big-screen version of the story, a gourmand's dream of gorgeous food lore ...
nationalpost.com/appetizer/appetite-for-instruction

*  FOOD - Whetting the Appetite - NYTimes.com

FOOD; Whetting the Appetite. BY BRYAN MILLER with PIERRE FRANEY Published: April 16, 1989. ...
nytimes.com/1989/04/16/magazine/food-whetting-the-appetite.html?src=pm

*  Mood stabilizer + appetite suppressant???

Home › Q & A › Questions › Mood stabilizer + appetite.... Mood stabilizer + appetite suppressant???. Asked. 12 Aug 2016 by ... I'm scared my appetite will get worse on medication , making bulimia worse, I'm scared I can only treat my appetite or bipolar ... bipolar disorder, paranoid disorder, systemic lupus erythematosus, doctor, appetite, mood swing. Details:. I will be going to ... My appetite is fierce . I feel out of control . I can maintain my weight but when restricting calories to lose weight I binge ...
https://drugs.com/answers/mood-stabilizer-appetite-suppressant-3106404.html

*  Measuring investors' risk appetite

Unlike other indicators, our measure of market sentiment distinguishes risk appetite from risk aversion, and is reported in ... risk appetite'. Like other indicators in the literature, it is based on a comparison of risk-neutral probabilities of future ... "What Does the Risk-Appetite Index Measure?," Staff Working Papers 03-23, Bank of Canada. * Campbell, John Y & Shiller, Robert J ... "What does the risk-appetite index measure?," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 28(6), pages 1-6. *Miroslav Misina, 2003. " ...
https://ideas.repec.org/p/boe/boeewp/283.html

*  Dopamine levels and appetite

Science has found one likely contributor to the way that some folks eat to live and others live to eat.
https://news-medical.net/news/2007/10/15/31146.aspx

*  Oh, What an Appetite - Wikipedia

Oh, What an Appetite è un cortometraggio muto del 1908 diretto da Gilbert M. 'Broncho Billy' Anderson. Il film fu prodotto ... Filmografia della Essanay Filmografia di Gilbert M. Anderson (EN) Oh, What an Appetite, su Internet Movie Database, IMDb.com.. ...
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oh,_What_an_Appetite

Specific appetite: Specific appetite, also known as specific hunger, is a drive to eat foods with specific flavors or other characteristics.TiflorexUnderweightHunger (motivational state): Hunger is a sensationSensory-specific satiety: Sensory-specific satiety is a sensory hedonic phenomenon that refers to the declining satisfaction generated by the consumption of a certain type of food, and the consequent renewal in appetite resulting from the exposure to a new flavor or food.Raynor H, Epstein L.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.Songhwa milsuLeptinFenfluramineCholecystokininGlucagon-like peptide-2: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a 33 amino acid peptide with the sequence HADGSFSDEMNTILDNLAARDFINWLIQTKITD (see Proteinogenic amino acid) in humans. GLP-2 is created by specific post-translational proteolytic cleavage of proglucagon in a process that also liberates the related glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1).Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.CachexiaMegestrolFenfluramine/phentermine: The drug combination fenfluramine/phentermine, usually called fen-phen, was an anti-obesity treatment that utilized two anorectics. Fenfluramine was marketed by American Home Products (later known as Wyeth) as Pondimin, but was shown to cause potentially fatal pulmonary hypertension and heart valve problems, which eventually led to its withdrawal and legal damages of over $13 billion.List of puddings: This list includes both sweet and savoury puddings that conform to one of two definitions:Agouti-related peptide: A:87-122 A:87-120 A:80-128Taste: Taste, gustatory perception, or gustationAdjectival form: [is the sensory impression of food] or other substances on the tongue and is one of the [[sense|five traditional senses.Salt and cardiovascular disease: Salt consumption has been intensely studied for its role in human physiology and impact on human health. In particular, excessive dietary salt consumption over an extended period of time has been associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease, in addition to other adverse health effects.Levofenfluramine: Levofenfluramine (INN), or (−)-3-trifluoromethyl-N-ethylamphetamine, also known as (−)-fenfluramine or (R)-fenfluramine, is a drug of the amphetamine family that, itself (i.e.Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Sampson Gideon: Sampson Gideon (February 1699 in London – 17 October 1762) was a Jewish-British banker in the City of London.Management of obesity: The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. Diet programs may produce weight loss over the short term, but maintaining this weight loss is frequently difficult and often requires making exercise and a lower calorie diet a permanent part of an individual's lifestyle.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Carbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Growth hormone secretagogue receptor: Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), or ghrelin receptor, is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds ghrelin and plays a role in energy homeostasis and regulation of body weight. In the brain, they are located in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus and arcuate nucleus, as well as in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens.Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Eating Disorder Inventory: The Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) is a self-report questionnaire used to assess the presence of eating disorders, (a) Anorexia Nervosa both restricting and binge-eating/purging type; (b) Bulimia Nervosa; and (c) Eating disorder not otherwise specified including Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The original questionnaire consisted of 64 questions, divided into eight subscales.

(1/863) A prospective randomized study of megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in gastrointestinal cancer patients with weight loss.

The use of megestrol acetate in the treatment of weight loss in gastrointestinal cancer patients has been disappointing. The aim of the present study was to compare the combination of megestrol acetate and placebo with megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in the treatment of weight loss in such patients. At baseline, 4-6 weeks and 12 weeks, patients underwent measurements of anthropometry, concentrations of albumin and C-reactive protein and assessment of appetite, performance status and quality of life using EuroQol-EQ-5D and EORTC QLQ-C30. Thirty-eight and 35 patients (median weight loss 18%) were randomized to megestrol acetate/placebo or megestrol acetate/ibuprofen, respectively, for 12 weeks. Forty-six (63%) of patients failed to complete the 12-week assessment. Of those evaluable at 12 weeks, there was a decrease in weight (median 2.8 kg) in the megestrol acetate/placebo group compared with an increase (median 2.3 kg) in the megestrol acetate/ibuprofen group (P<0.001). There was also an improvement in the EuroQol-EQ-5D quality of life scores of the latter group (P<0.05). The combination of megestrol acetate/ibuprofen appeared to reverse weight loss and appeared to improve quality of life in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer. Further trials of this novel regimen in weight-losing patients with hormone-insensitive cancers are warranted.  (+info)

(2/863) Effect of postweaning feeding on the performance and energy balance of female rabbits at different physiological states.

The feeding of a high-fiber and low-energy diet to young rabbit does from weaning to the first kindling was used to modify their body reserves, stimulate their energy intake, and reduce the energy deficit during the first lactation. Rabbits (53 per group) were given ad libitum access to either a control or high-fiber diet (CP, 17.6 vs 15.8% of DM; crude fiber, 15.5 vs 19.9% of DM; digestible energy, 2,565 vs 2,261 kcal/kg of DM, respectively) from weaning to their first kindling. During lactation, both groups received the same diet, which contained 19.3% CP, 16.5% crude fiber, and 2,634 kcal/kg digestible energy (dry matter basis). Four comparative slaughters were performed to estimate the chemical and energy balance of rabbit does at different physiological states: at the beginning of the trial (12 rabbits, 45 d of age), at mating (10 rabbits per group, 136 d), at kindling (10 rabbits per group, 167 d), and at the end of lactation (12 and 11 rabbits for the control and the high-fiber group, 197 d). Large changes in body weight and composition were observed between slaughters. From 45 d to mating, doe body fat and energy increased 7.93 and 4.64 times the initial content, respectively. During pregnancy, body protein concentration decreased from 203 to 186 g/kg. At the end of lactation, body fat and energy concentration were reduced to values close to those measured at 45 d of age. Dietary treatment affected body chemical and energy balance during pregnancy and lactation but not reproductive and lactational performance. The high-fiber diet stimulated feed intake from weaning to the first kindling but not dietary energy intake. During lactation, the rabbits fed the high-fiber diet ate 10 kcal x d(-1) x kg live weight(-.75) more and lost less body fat (-405 vs -504 g) and body energy (-3,628 vs -4,294 kcal) than the does fed the control diet (P < .001). In the same period, all does showed water and protein retention (185 and 45 g, on average) regardless of dietary treatment. In conclusion, feeding young does a high-fiber diet until their first kindling reduced the chemical and energy body deficit at the end of the first lactation.  (+info)

(3/863) Effects of age on concentrations of plasma cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and peptide YY and their relation to appetite and pyloric motility.

BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with a decrease in appetite and a slowing of gastric emptying. The gastrointestinal hormones cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY (PYY) may mediate these changes. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether aging influenced the secretion of CCK, GLP-1, and PYY and their effects on appetite and pyloric motility. DESIGN: Eight healthy older (65-80 y) and 7 younger (20-34 y) men received isoenergetic (12.1 kJ/min) intraduodenal infusions of lipid and glucose for 120 min on separate days. Plasma CCK, GLP-1, and PYY concentrations were measured. RESULTS: Plasma CCK concentrations were higher in older than in younger subjects (P = 0.004) as a result of higher baseline values (4.7+/-0.2 compared with 3.2+/-0.2 pmol/L; P < 0.0001) and a greater rise during lipid infusion (increase from baseline: 7.1+/-0.5 compared with 5.3+/-0.6 pmol/L; P = 0.048). Plasma GLP-1 and PYY concentrations were not significantly different between groups. The decrease in hunger during intraduodenal lipid infusion was inversely related to the increase in CCK, GLP-1, and PYY in younger but not older subjects. During intraduodenal lipid infusion, the increase in isolated pyloric pressure wave (IPPW) frequency was positively related to GLP-1 and PYY and the increase in IPPW amplitude was positively related to CCK in older but not younger subjects, whereas the increase in IPPW amplitude and pyloric tone was negatively related to GLP-1 and PYY in younger subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Human aging is associated with increased CCK concentrations, which may contribute to the slowing of gastric emptying, mediated by increased pyloric motility. The role of increased plasma CCK concentrations in mediating the age-related decrease in appetite remains to be established.  (+info)

(4/863) Sodium depletion and aldosterone decrease dopamine transporter activity in nucleus accumbens but not striatum.

Motivated behaviors, including sodium (Na) appetite, are correlated with increased dopamine (DA) transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). DA transporter (DAT) modulation affects DA transmission and may play a role in motivated behaviors. In vivo Na depletion, which reliably induces Na appetite, was correlated with robust decreases in DA uptake via the DAT in the rat NAc with rotating disk electrode voltammetry [1,277 +/- 162 vs. 575 +/- 89 pmol. s-1. g-1; Vmax of transport for control vs. Na-depleted tissue]. Plasma aldosterone (Aldo) levels increase after in vivo Na depletion and contribute to Na appetite. Decreased DAT activity in the NAc was observed after in vitro Aldo treatment (428 +/- 28 vs. 300 +/- 25 pmol. s-1. g-1). Neither treatment affected DAT activity in the striatum. These results suggest that a direct action of Aldo is one possible mechanism by which Na depletion induces a reduction in DAT activity in the NAc. Reduced DAT activity may play a role in generating increased NAc DA transmission during Na appetite, which may underlie the motivating properties of Na for the Na-depleted rat.  (+info)

(5/863) Roles of aldosterone and angiotensin in maturation of sodium appetite in furosemide-treated rats.

When rats are treated with furosemide, there is a rapid natriuresis. However, increased sodium appetite does not occur until some time later. One hypothesis to explain this delay is that increased circulating levels of the hormones of sodium depletion prime or sensitize the brain circuits involved in sodium appetite, perhaps by induction of target gene(s). In the present study, we describe the time course of the temporal maturation of sodium appetite after furosemide treatment and the associated changes in plasma levels of ANG II and aldosterone and in plasma volume. Sodium appetite is modest 3 h after furosemide treatment, is increased after 12 h, and is still larger after 24 h. This pattern is evident with repeated testing. Plasma levels of aldosterone and plasma renin activity are substantially increased 3 h after furosemide treatment, and so the NaCl appetite cannot result simply from progressively increasing levels of these hormones. Furthermore, activation of the subfornical organ and the ventral lamina terminalis, assessed with c-Fos immunocytochemistry, did not differ across these three times. Metyrapone, an inhibitor of adrenal steroid synthesis, was used to examine sodium appetite in the absence of elevations in aldosterone after furosemide treatment. Although metyrapone effectively blocked the increase in aldosterone, it was without effect on the appetite 3 or 24 h after furosemide treatment. Furthermore, elevations of plasma aldosterone by the use of minipumps for several days before furosemide treatment did not prime or potentiate but instead tended to inhibit the induced sodium appetite, despite achieving levels of aldosterone and plasma renin activity typically associated with a robust sodium appetite. Infusions of DOCA gave a similar result. Lastly, minipump infusions of ANG II also did not potentiate sodium appetite. Thus neither addition nor subtraction of these hormones alone influenced sodium appetite under these conditions.  (+info)

(6/863) Glucagon-like peptide-1 promotes satiety and reduces food intake in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

Glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone of the enteroinsular axis. Recent experimental evidence in animals and healthy subjects suggests that GLP-1 has a role in controlling appetite and energy intake in humans. We have therefore examined in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 12 patients with diabetes type 2 the effect of intravenously infused GLP-1 on appetite sensations and energy intake. On 2 days, either saline or GLP-1 (1.5 pmol. kg-1. min-1) was given throughout the experiment. Visual analog scales were used to assess appetite sensations; furthermore, food and fluid intake of a test meal were recorded, and blood was sampled for analysis of plasma glucose and hormone levels. GLP-1 infusion enhanced satiety and fullness compared with placebo (P = 0.028 for fullness and P = 0.026 for hunger feelings). Energy intake was reduced by 27% by GLP-1 (P = 0.034) compared with saline. The results demonstrate a marked effect of GLP-1 on appetite by showing enhanced satiety and reduced energy intake in patients with diabetes type 2.  (+info)

(7/863) Neuropeptide Y restores appetite and alters concentrations of GH after central administration to endotoxic sheep.

The objective of this study was to determine whether neuropeptide Y (NPY) and recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) would: first, increase food intake; secondly, decrease concentrations of GH; thirdly, reduce GHRH-induced release of GH; and fourthly, reduce changes to concentrations of IGF-I in plasma during experimental endotoxemia in sheep. Six treatments were given to six castrated male sheep in a 6x6 Latin square treatment order. Osmotic mini-pumps were implanted at 0 h and a jugular vein was cannulated. Each sheep was continuously infused with saline (0.9%) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (20 micrograms/kg per 24 h, s.c.) at 10 microliters/h for 72 h via the osmotic mini-pumps. Blood samples (3 ml) were collected at 15-min intervals from 24 to 33 h. At 26 h, one of three treatments (artificial cerebrospinal fluid, NPY or IL-1ra) was injected i.c.v. within 30 s (0.3 microgram/kg), then infused i.c.v. from 26 to 33 h (600 microliters/h) at 0.3 microgram/kg per h. GHRH was injected i.v. (0.075 microgram/kg) at 32 h after which blood samples were collected at 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. Feed intake was reduced up to 50% for 48 h in LPS-treated compared with non-LPS-treated sheep. NPY restored feed intake in LPS-treated sheep and induced hyperphagia in non-LPS-treated sheep from 24 to 48 h. In contrast, IL-1ra did not affect appetite. Injection of NPY increased concentrations of GH from 26 to 27 h, while IL-1ra had no effect. Infusion of NPY suppressed GHRH-induced release of GH. However, no treatment altered pulse secretion parameters of GH. Concentrations of IGF-I were 20% higher at 72 h in LPS-treated sheep given NPY than in sheep treated with LPS alone, and this may reflect increased appetite from 24 to 48 h. We concluded that reduced appetite during endotoxemia is due to down-regulation of an NPY-mediated mechanism. Furthermore, NPY stimulates release of GH in healthy sheep, does not reduce pulse secretion parameters of GH, but does suppress GHRH-induced release of GH in endotoxic sheep. Therefore, NPY may be an important neurotransmitter linking appetite with regulation of GH during endotoxemic and healthy states in sheep.  (+info)

(8/863) Influences of long-term administration of 24R, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a vitamin D3 derivative, in rats.

In order to examine the influences by long-term feeding of 24R, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3[24R, 25(OH)2D3], an active form of vitamin D, Wistar rats (14-week-old, male, 20 rats/group) were fed a powder diet containing 0 or 5 ppm 24R, 25(OH)2D3 for 57 weeks. Final body weights and total food consumption were comparable between the groups. Urinary calcium levels were significantly (p < 0.05 or 0.01) increased by the administration of 24R, 25(OH)2D3 at weeks 3, 22 and 56, although the levels of serum calcium did not differ between the groups at the termination of week 57. In the 24R, 25(OH)2D3 group, weights of the adrenals and femurs were significantly (p < 0.01) increased. Histopathologically, this was found due to thickening of cortical bone in the femurs, and medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma of the adrenals. Immunohistochemically, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-labeling indices for intact adrenal medulla, medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma in the 24R, 25(OH)2D3 group were respectively 1.82 +/- 1.21, 5.88 +/- 4.13 and 16, all higher than that for the adrenal medulla in the control group (0.87 +/- 0.67). These results indicate that 24R, 25(OH)2D3 at a dose with which serum calcium is not chronically increased causes thickening of the cortex of the femur, and development of adrenal proliferative lesions, suggesting that rats may be too sensitive for results to be relevant to human risk assessment.  (+info)



stimulant


  • Eatmor Appetite Stimulant is not a medical drug, but an all-natural dietary supplement that encourages regular hunger symptoms. (cottrillseyeview.com)
  • mirtazapine appetite stimulant, any success? (medhelp.org)
  • Living Life: Pizotifen an Appetite Stimulant for Migraine? (blogspot.com)
  • Interestingly, pizotifen, a popular appetite stimulant is one of these. (blogspot.com)

Stimulants


  • Taking all natural appetite stimulants is a good and healthy way to increase your appetite. (cottrillseyeview.com)
  • Stimulants create a reverse effect on the appetite and therefore render weight gain supplements powerless. (cottrillseyeview.com)

stomach


  • This soothes stomach and liver problems as well as increases appetite. (cottrillseyeview.com)
  • For strong stomach muscles and increase in appetite mix equal amounts of carom seed and ginger powder and soak in ginger juice. (cottrillseyeview.com)

increase


  • has anyone had success with mirtazapine to increase a dog's appetite? (medhelp.org)

life


  • A decrease in appetite can lead to listlessness, fatigue and sometimes will negatively influence your outlook on life. (cottrillseyeview.com)

health


  • A good healthy appetite is a great attribute to possess and even though it is not a factor you think about every day, appetite is connected with general health and metabolism. (cottrillseyeview.com)

effect