Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Anxiety, Separation: Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.Panic Disorder: A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Agoraphobia: Obsessive, persistent, intense fear of open places.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Manifest Anxiety Scale: True-false questionnaire made up of items believed to indicate anxiety, in which the subject answers verbally the statement that describes him.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Desensitization, Psychologic: A behavior therapy technique in which deep muscle relaxation is used to inhibit the effects of graded anxiety-evoking stimuli.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Shyness: Discomfort and partial inhibition of the usual forms of behavior when in the presence of others.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Test Anxiety Scale: A self-reporting test consisting of items concerning fear and worry about taking tests and physiological activity, such as heart rate, sweating, etc., before, during, and after tests.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Hypochondriasis: Preoccupation with the fear of having, or the idea that one has, a serious disease based on the person's misinterpretation of bodily symptoms. (APA, DSM-IV)Implosive Therapy: A method for extinguishing anxiety by a saturation exposure to the feared stimulus situation or its substitute.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Psychopathology: The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Panic: A state of extreme acute, intense anxiety and unreasoning fear accompanied by disorganization of personality function.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Cycloserine: Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Defense Mechanisms: Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)United StatesPsychotherapy, Group: A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Personality Disorders: A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation: A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Performance Anxiety: Anxiety related to the execution of a task. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)Impulse Control Disorders: Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.Extraversion (Psychology): A state in which attention is largely directed outward from the self.Paroxetine: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Anger: A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Psychophysiologic Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Cyclohexanols: Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Adjustment Disorders: Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Adolescent Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in individuals 13-18 years.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Psychotherapeutic Processes: Experiential, attitudinal, emotional, or behavioral phenomena occurring during the course of treatment. They apply to the patient or therapist (i.e., nurse, doctor, etc.) individually or to their interaction. (American Psychological Association: Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.Body Dysmorphic Disorders: Preoccupations with appearance or self-image causing significant distress or impairment in important areas of functioning.Precipitating Factors: Factors associated with the definitive onset of a disease, illness, accident, behavioral response, or course of action. Usually one factor is more important or more obviously recognizable than others, if several are involved, and one may often be regarded as "necessary". Examples include exposure to specific disease; amount or level of an infectious organism, drug, or noxious agent, etc.Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by a cycle of binge eating (BULIMIA or bingeing) followed by inappropriate acts (purging) to avert weight gain. Purging methods often include self-induced VOMITING, use of LAXATIVES or DIURETICS, excessive exercise, and FASTING.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A: A serotonin receptor subtype found distributed through the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM where they are involved in neuroendocrine regulation of ACTH secretion. The fact that this serotonin receptor subtype is particularly sensitive to SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS such as BUSPIRONE suggests its role in the modulation of ANXIETY and DEPRESSION.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Irritable Mood: Abnormal or excessive excitability with easily triggered anger, annoyance, or impatience.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Child Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in children.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Binge-Eating Disorder: A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Personality Development: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Fluoxetine: The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Resilience, Psychological: The human ability to adapt in the face of tragedy, trauma, adversity, hardship, and ongoing significant life stressors.Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Stroop Test: Timed test in which the subject must read a list of words or identify colors presented with varying instructions and different degrees of distraction. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary. 8th ed.)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Alprazolam: A triazolobenzodiazepine compound with antianxiety and sedative-hypnotic actions, that is efficacious in the treatment of PANIC DISORDERS, with or without AGORAPHOBIA, and in generalized ANXIETY DISORDERS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p238)Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Freezing Reaction, Cataleptic: An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by the cessation of body movements, except for those that are involved with BREATHING, and the maintenance of an immobile POSTURE.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Self Medication: The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Chlordiazepoxide: An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.Relaxation Therapy: Treatment to improve one's health condition by using techniques that can reduce PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS; or both.Combat Disorders: Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.Family Therapy: A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.

*  Anxiety Disorders | NAMI: National Alliance on Mental Illness

... treatment options and related conditions of anxiety disorders. ... Types of Anxiety Disorders. Different anxiety disorders have ... Other anxiety disorders include: agoraphobia, separation anxiety disorder and substance/medication-induced anxiety disorder ... Anxiety disorders are a group of related conditions, and each with unique symptoms. However, all anxiety disorders have one ... This means that each type of anxiety disorder has its own treatment plan. The most common anxiety disorders include:. Panic ...
https://nami.org/Learn-More/Mental-Health-Conditions/Anxiety-Disorders

*  Children and Anxiety Disorders - Anxiety | HealthCentral

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): If your child has generalized anxiety disorder he or she may worry excessively and seek ... Social Anxiety Disorder: Children who suffer from social anxiety disorder have a persistent fear of being embarrassed in public ... Other anxiety related disorders of childhood include: Phobias, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and post ... your child may suffer from this anxiety disorder. Children who have separation anxiety disorder may be afraid to go to school, ...
https://healthcentral.com/article/children-and-anxiety-disorders

*  effexor - Anxiety Disorder - MedHelp

does anyone have anything positive to say about this drug? I am on 150mg and day 15 Thanks
medhelp.org/posts/Anxiety-Disorder/effexor/show/1678211

*  Memantine as an Augmentation Therapy for Anxiety Disorders

Memantine as an Augmentation Therapy for Anxiety Disorders. Thomas L. Schwartz, Umar A. Siddiqui, and Shafi Raza ... Thomas L. Schwartz, Umar A. Siddiqui, and Shafi Raza, "Memantine as an Augmentation Therapy for Anxiety Disorders," Case ...
https://hindawi.com/journals/crips/2012/749796/cta/

*  What Types Of Medications Are Helpful In Treating Anxiety Disorders? - ABC News

We're very fortunate to have a large number of medications that may be helpful in treating anxiety disorders. The major classes ... Previous: I Prefer To Modify My Own Drug Regimen For My Anxiety Disorder Depending On How I Feel. Is There Any Harm In This? ... Next: What Are Antidepressants (Such As Prozac, Cymbalta), How Do They Work, And How Are They Used To Treat Anxiety Disorders? ... Question: What types of medications are helpful in treating anxiety disorders? Answer: We're very fortunate to have a large ...
abcnews.go.com/Health/AnxietyTreating/story?id=4665203

*  Have We Found Anxiety Disorder Genes? Video - ABC News

However, researchers are busy trying to locate the genes that might actually be relevant for anxiety disorders. The genes that ... we have no definitive genes that have been discovered for anxiety disorders. ...
abcnews.go.com/Health/comments?type=story&id=4430721

*  Anxiety and Stress Disorders (Children): Understanding

Anxiety Disorders (Nemours) *Anxiety Disorders in Children and Teens (Anxiety Disorders Association of America) *Anxiety: ... Childhood Anxiety Disorders (Anxiety and Depression Association of America) Anxiety and Stress Disorders (Children). ... Anxiety and Stress Disorders (Children): Understanding. General. *Get Kids Psyched to Go Back to School *For Troups and ... Mental Health Disorders in Children and Teens (OSU Wexner Medical Center) * ...
netwellness.org/healthtopics/anxiety/more.cfm?categoryid=1

*  FINALLY!!! - Anxiety - Panic Disorders - HealingWell.com Forum

HealingWell.com Forum , Diseases & Conditions , Anxiety - Panic Disorders , FINALLY!!! Select A Location. ****** Top of the ... Moderator Anxiety/Panic Forum. Help Support the forums: www.healingwell.com/donate. 'The best way out is always through. ~ ... panic disorder, major depression and if that wasn't enough IBS with the beginning stages of diverticulosis. ... panic disorder, major depression and if that wasn't enough IBS with the beginning stages of diverticulosis. ...
healingwell.com/community/default.aspx?f=9&m=740901

*  Anxiety - Anxiety - Panic Disorders - HealingWell.com Forum

Moderator Anxiety ~ Panic Disorders. Dx: Anxiety/Panic, Depression ______________________________________________________. "If ... HealingWell.com Forum , Diseases & Conditions , Anxiety - Panic Disorders , Anxiety Select A Location. ****** Top of the Forum ... I also suffer from social anxiety disorder. Going out on dates has been very hard since my hands shake uncontrollably. I try ... All I want is for my anxiety and nervousness to go away and to fight the social anxiety so I can speak in front of people. ...
healingwell.com/community/default.aspx?f=9&m=835412

*  screwed - Anxiety - Panic Disorders - HealingWell.com Forum

HealingWell.com Forum , Diseases & Conditions , Anxiety - Panic Disorders , screwed Select A Location. ****** Top of the Forum ... one's fingers would work lol but have you ever tryed learning CBT as we see so miny ppl in school coming down with anxiety now ...
healingwell.com/community/default.aspx?f=9&m=781042

*  Pregabalin in the Treatment of Patients With Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of pregabalin as compared to placebo in the treatment of patients with general anxiety disorder (GAD). Efficacy will be measured by the improvement in the total Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) scores from baseline observed following 8 weeks of double-blind treatment or at earlier termination during the double-blind treatment phase and analyzed using a mixed linear model for repeated measures ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00413010

*  Anxiety Disorder Depiction In the Media

Anxiety disorders are common themes in the media. 1). Choose a fictitious media character from television or film and who has an apparent anxiety disorder. 2). Identify the disorder and evaluate the character for observable.
https://brainmass.com/psychology/anxiety-disorders/438300

*  Plus it

Generalised anxiety disorder is characterised by excessive worrying over everyday things and is associated with irritability; restlessness; difficulties in concentrating; and somatic symptoms such as muscle tension, fatigue, or sleeplessness. In the linked systematic review (doi:10.1136/bmj.d1199) Baldwin and colleagues assess the relative effectiveness and tolerability of different drugs in the treatments of patients with this disorder.1 Generalised anxiety disorder first appeared in the American diagnostic classification system in 1980 as a residual category after diagnostic criteria for more specific anxiety disorders such as panic disorder, phobias, and obsessive-compulsive disorder had been delineated. Since then, conceptualisations of this disorder have been successively refined, and it is now generally recognised as an independent diagnostic entity. It can be distinguished from other, often coexisting, mental ...
bmj.com/content/342/bmj.d1216

*  Treatment of Anxiety Disorders (<i>cont'd</i>) - |...

Treatment of Anxiety Disorders (|i|cont'd|/i|) - Treatment of anxiety disorders typically involves medication and psychotherapy. Learn about treatment options for anxiety disorders from HowStuffWorks.
health.howstuffworks.com/mental-health/anxiety/treatment-of-anxiety-disorders1.htm

*  1 litre of sweat per hour and Anxiety disorder - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at RightDiagnosis

List of 35 causes for 1 litre of sweat per hour and Anxiety disorder, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
wrongdiagnosis.com/cosymptoms/1-litre-of-sweat-per-hour/anxiety-disorder.htm

*  Anxiety Disorder Relapses - Transcripts - Anxiety Panic | HealthyPlace

Discussion of anxiety disorder relapses, anxiety treatment programs, anti-anxiety medications, panic attacks, anxiety in women. Conference transcript
https://healthyplace.com/anxiety-panic/transcripts/anxiety-disorder-relapses/

*  Recovering From Anxiety Disorders | Panic & Anxiety Recovery Group

When I look at the picture of me to the left, holding a tray of appies, I smile big. The picture was taken on a cruise ship on our way through the Caribbean with members of both of our families. Something I never thought I would of been able to do….in fact I never even dared to dream I could come that far! From pretty much totally incapacitated from panic attacks to travelling to far off places.. The process of overcoming my anxiety disorder reminds me of my practise of running for exercise. First, I had a starting point-I may start by walking, getting the legs used to what I am preparing to do.. This was the same with overcoming my anxiety-I got educated on what I needed to do to get well. I got this from the anxiety recovery group I attended and reading everything I could on the subject. Thus-the walk-to be good at what I want to accomplish in my life, I have to FOCUS on the process on how to get better.. Next, from the walk, I started to jog-my slow run.. ...
panicandanxietyrecoverygroup.com/blog/recovering-from-anxiety-disorders

*  Anxiety Disorders: Worry not! Help is at hand. - Moose and Doc

Anxiety affects many of our lives and can be a crippling condition. Find out with Moose and Doc the 6 main anxiety disorders and what you can do about them.
halls.md/anxiety-disorders/

*  Dietary intake of fish and PUFA, and clinical depressive and anxiety disorders in women | British Journal of Nutrition |...

Dietary intake of fish and PUFA, and clinical depressive and anxiety disorders in women - Volume 109 Issue 11 - Felice N. Jacka, Julie A. Pasco, Lana J. Williams, Barbara J. Meyer, Rebecca Digger, Michael Berk
https://cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/dietary-intake-of-fish-and-pufa-and-clinical-depressive-and-anxiety-disorders-in-women/1DCCC8ADE55414BC1DDB7B54C2DFA689

*  how cbd oil helps anxiety disorder how to get CBD hemp oil smell off

... |||||Delivery of the product to all states of America||||| We offer CBD Hemp related products providing the best potencies and puri
forum.interhub.org/Thread-how-cbd-oil-helps-anxiety-disorder-how-to-get-CBD-hemp-oil-smell-off

*  Nigel Magowan, Author at Inner Changes

What is Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD)? Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is an well understood and common issue, with its characteristic indicator of persistent daily anxiety without any obvious cause. Sometimes known as free floating anxiety or chronic worry. Around 1 in every 20 adults in Britain suffer from Generalised Anxiety Disorder. Anxiety is a natural part of day-to-day living and may occur in any part of our life. At low levels, anxiety is in fact very important and helpful as it keeps us safe by helping us avoid potential threats and mistakes, it can motivate us, and it ensures we think things through thoroughly before doing them. For example it is anxiety that ensures we have prepared for important exams and presentations. Depending on how we evaluate them, worrying events can have the power to actually strengthen us and build our confidence and self esteem ...
hypnotize.me.uk/author/nigel/

*  Food allergies linked to higher prevalence of childhood anxiety

Researchers at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health and Albert Einstein College of Medicine studied the link between food allergy and childhood anxiety and depression among a sample of predominantly low socioeconomic status minority children.
https://news-medical.net/news/20170629/Food-allergies-linked-to-higher-prevalence-of-childhood-anxiety.aspx

*  Anxiety Disorder in Older Adults

Anxiety, a normal emotion in threatening situations, becomes a disorder when in non- threatening situations or levels that stop us from functioning daily.
oaktreeclinicmidlands.co.uk/services/older-adult-psychiatry/anxiety-disorder-older-adults/

*  Risk Factors for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) | Lifescript.com

A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition. It is possible to develop generalized anxiety...
lifescript.com/health/centers/depression/related_conditions/generalized_anxiety_disorder_gad_articles/risk_factors_for_generalized_anxiety_disorder_gad.aspx

*  September 2013 - Books

Try any of our Foolish newsletter services free for 30 days. Helpful treatment resources are also provided, as well as continuing education for clinicians. People who develop diabetes or heart disease have a genetic vulnerability, and then external circumstances may convert this vulnerability into disease. GAD often coexists with depression, substance abuse, or other anxiety disorders. The word "manic" means a person feels overly excited and confident. In some research studies, the amount of vitamin D given has been small, much less that the 5000 IU a day that the Vitamin D Council recommends ...
travelideas.es/books/2013/09

*  I REALLY need some advice. Panic/Anxiety Disorder | allnurses

I really need some advice. I am a LPN student at a small private college that has a newer Nursing Program that Is accredited. I have completed 70 out of the 96 credits needed so far. I am a mother
allnurses.com/nurses-with-disabilities/i-really-need-428423.html

*  Anxiety Disorders | Mental Health | BellaOnline Forums

The BellaOnline forums are a free way to get help with any issue you face. Whether it's stress relief, finding the perfect recipe for tonight's meal or how to live a healthy, happy life with your family, we are here to answer your questions!
forums.bellaonline.com/ubbthreads.php/topics/806408/Anxiety_Disorders

*  Children and Adolescents

At CBT Associates we provide effective, evidence-based psychological treatment for mood and anxiety disorders as well as other common problems.
cbtassociates.com/about-our-services/children-and-adolescents/

*  Child and Adolescent Assessment and Treatment

We are dedicated in providing effective, evidence-based psychological treatment for mood and anxiety disorders as well as other common problems.
cbtassociates.com/about-you/child-and-adolescent-assessment-and-treatment/

Social anxiety disorderHypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.Claustrophobia: Claustrophobia is the fear of having no escape and being in closed or small space or room It is typically classified as an anxiety disorder and often results in panic attack, and can be the result of many situations or stimuli, including elevators crowded to capacity, windowless rooms, and even tight-necked clothing. The onset of claustrophobia has been attributed to many factors, including a reduction in the size of the amygdala, classical conditioning, or a genetic predisposition to fear small spaces.Maternal bond: A maternal bond or motherly bond is generally the relationship between a mother and her child.Panic Disorder Severity Scale: The Panic Disorder Severity Scale is a questionnaire developed for measuring the severity of panic disorder. The clinician-administered PDSS is intended to assess severity and considered a reliable tool for monitoring of treatment outcome.SchizophreniaAnxiolytic: An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety. This effect is in contrast to anxiogenic agents, which increase anxiety.Mental disorderPanic and Agoraphobia Scale: The Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS) is a rating scale developed for measuring severity of agoraphobia with or without panic attacks.Bandelow B.BrexpiprazoleBipolar disorderComorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is derived from both the cognitive and behavioral schools of psychology and focuses on the alteration of thoughts and actions with the goal of treating various disorders. The cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders emphasizes the minimization of negative thoughts about body image and the act of eating, and attempts to alter negative and harmful behaviors that are involved in and perpetuate eating disorders.Fear conditioning: Fear conditioning is a behavioral paradigm in which organisms learn to predict aversive events. It is a form of learning in which an aversive stimulus (e.Relationship obsessive–compulsive disorder: In psychology, relationship obsessive–compulsive disorder (ROCD) is a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder focusing on intimate relationships (whether romantic or non-romantic). Such obsessions can become extremely distressing and debilitating, having negative impacts on relationships functioning.Rating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Oneirology: Oneirology (; from Greek [oneiron, "dream"; and -λογία], ["the study of") is the scientific study of [[dream]s. Current research seeks correlations between dreaming and current knowledge about the functions of the brain, as well as understanding of how the brain works during dreaming as pertains to memory formation and mental disorders.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Substance-related disorderOptalert: Optalert is an Australian business founded by sleep expert Dr Murray Johnshttp://www.mwjohns.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.DysthymiaShyness Machine GirlSelective serotonin reuptake inhibitorS32212: S32212 is a drug which is under preclinical investigation as a potential antidepressant medicine. It behaves as a selective, combined 5-HT2C receptor inverse agonist and α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist (at all three subtypes—α2A, α2B, and α2C) with additional 5-HT2A and, to a lesser extent, 5-HT2B receptor antagonistic properties, and lacks any apparent affinity for the monoamine reuptake transporters or for the α1-adrenergic, H1, or mACh receptors.Emotion and memory: Emotion can have a powerful response on humans and animals. Numerous studies have shown that the most vivid autobiographical memories tend to be of emotional events, which are likely to be recalled more often and with more clarity and detail than neutral events.Martin Weaver: Martin Weaver is a psychotherapist, author and media writerThe Newtown Neurotics: The Newtown Neurotics (later just The Neurotics) are an English punk rock/post-punk group formed in 1979. They are noted for their openly political music.David Budescu: David Budescu is a psychologist and academic. He is the Anne Anastasi Professor of Psychometrics and Quantitative Psychology at Fordham University.Yellowdog Creative Project Management: Yellowdog Creative Project Management (also known as 'Yellowdog CPM' or just 'Yellowdog') is an independent record label, project management platform, tour management and promotions representing a variety of artists and bands. The business trades in the United Kingdom, France, Netherlands, Italy, Sweden, Ireland & United States.Hyperthymic temperament: Hyperthymic temperament, or hyperthymia, from Greek hyper ("over", meaning here excessive) + θυμός ("spirited"), is a proposed personality type characterized by an excessively positive disposition similar to, but more stable than, the hypomania of bipolar disorder.Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorderHypochondriasisInteroceptive exposure: Interoceptive exposure is a cognitive behavioral therapy technique used in the treatment of panic disorder. It refers to carrying out exercises that bring about the physical sensations of a panic attack, such as hyperventilation and high muscle tension, and in the process removing the patient's conditioned response that the physical sensations will cause an attack to happen.Skyland Trail: Skyland Trail is a private, not-for profit organization in Atlanta, Georgia offering treatment to adults with mental illness. Skyland Trail specializes in treating adults with Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia, Depression, and Dual Diagnosis.Roger Gould: Roger Gould, M.D.SonepiprazoleQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Low arousal theory: Low arousal}}Avoidance coping: In psychology, avoidance coping, escape coping, or cope and avoid is a maladaptive coping mechanism characterized by the effort to avoid dealing with a stressor. Coping refers to behaviors that attempt to protect oneself from psychological damage.Research Society on Alcoholism: The Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) is a learned society of over 1600 active members based in Austin, Texas. Its objective is to advance research on alcoholism and the physiological and cognitive effects of alcohol.Developmental psychopathology: Developmental psychopathology is the study of the development of psychological disorders, such as psychopathy, autism, schizophrenia and depression, with a lifecourse perspective.Cicchetti, D.DSM-IV Codes (alphabetical): __FORCETOC__Relationship Development Intervention: Relationship Development Intervention (RDI) is a trademarked proprietary treatment program for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), based on the belief that the development of dynamic intelligence is the key to improving the quality of life for individuals with autism. The program's core philosophy is that individuals with autism can participate in authentic emotional relationships if they are exposed to them in a gradual, systematic way.Cell envelope antibiotic: A cell envelope antibiotic is an antibacterial that acts primarily at the level of the cell envelope.Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Law: The Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Law (麻薬及び向精神薬取締法 Mayaki oyobi kousei shin'yaku torishimari hou) is a law enacted in Japan in 1953 to control most narcotic and psychotropic drugs.Olson's Extinction: Olson's Extinction was a mass extinction that occurred in the Early Guadalupian of the Permian period and which predated the Permian–Triassic extinction event.Emotional responsivity: Emotional responsivity refers to the ability to acknowledge an affective stimuli by exhibiting emotion. Any response, whether it is appropriate or not, would showcase the presence of this phenomena.Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of special education. The editors-in-chief are Alisa K.Tic disorderGenetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.DesmethylcitalopramHalfdan T. MahlerList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Biosignal: A biosignal is any signal in living beings that can be continually measured and monitored. The term biosignal is often used to refer to bioelectrical signals, but it may refer to both electrical and non-electrical signals.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Personality disorder not otherwise specifiedTime-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Benzodiazepine misuse: The non-medical use of Benzodiazepine drugs (called misuse or abuse in public health journals) is the use of benzodiazepines without a prescription, often for recreational purposes, which poses risks of dependence, withdrawal and other long-term effects. Benzodiazepines are one of the more common prescription drugs used recreationally.Interpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).Curiosity: Curiosity (from Latin curiosus "careful, diligent, curious," akin to cura "care") is a quality related to inquisitive thinking such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in human and animal species. Curiosity is heavily associated with all aspects of human development, in which derives the process of learning and desire to acquire knowledge and skill.Conscientiousness: Conscientiousness is the personality trait of being thorough, careful, or vigilant. Conscientiousness implies a desire to do a task well.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.

(1/2412) Predicting delayed anxiety and depression in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of predicting anxiety and depression 6 months after a cancer diagnosis on the basis of measures of anxiety, depression, coping and subjective distress associated with the diagnosis and to explore the possibility of identifying individual patients with high levels of delayed anxiety and depression associated with the diagnosis. A consecutive series of 159 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed in connection with the diagnosis, 3 months (non-cured patients only) and 6 months later. The interviews utilized structured questionnaires assessing anxiety and depression [Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale], coping [Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) scale] and subjective distress [Impact of Event (IES) scale]. Patient anxiety and depression close to the diagnosis were found to explain approximately 35% of the variance in anxiety and depression that was found 6 months later. The addition of coping and subjective distress measures did little to improve that prediction. A model using (standardized) cut-off scores of moderate to high anxiety, depression (HAD) and intrusive thoughts (IES subscale) close to the diagnosis to identify patients at risk for delayed anxiety and depression achieved a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 98%. Levels of anxiety and depression at diagnosis predicted a similar status 6 months later. The results also indicated that the HAD scale in combination with the IES intrusion subscale may be used as a tool for detecting patients at risk of delayed anxiety and depression.  (+info)

(2/2412) Increased postwar symptoms and psychological morbidity among U.S. Navy Gulf War veterans.

To investigate reports on war-related morbidity, 527 active-duty Gulf War veterans and 970 nondeployed veterans from 14 Seabee commands were studied in 1994 with a questionnaire, sera collection, handgrip strength, and pulmonary function testing. The questionnaire assessed postwar symptoms, war exposures, and screened for chronic fatigue syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, and psychological symptoms suggesting neurosis (Hopkins Symptom Checklist). Sera were tested with four nonspecific reactant assays: C-reactive protein, transferrin, ferritin, and haptoglobin. Gulf War veterans reported a higher prevalence for 35 of 41 symptoms, scored higher on psychological symptom scales, were more likely to screen for post-traumatic stress disorder, had lower handgrip strength, and had higher serum ferritin assay results. Numerous comparisons of these morbidity outcomes with 30 self-reported exposures demonstrated many associations, but no unique exposure or group of exposures were implicated. Morbidity data are consistent with other postwar observations, but the etiology for morbidity findings remains uncertain.  (+info)

(3/2412) Stillbirth as risk factor for depression and anxiety in the subsequent pregnancy: cohort study.

OBJECTIVE: To assess women's symptoms of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the postpartum year in the pregnancy after stillbirth; to assess relevance of time since loss. DESIGN: Cohort study with four assessments: in third trimester and 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after birth. SETTING: Outpatient departments of three district general hospitals; subjects' homes. SUBJECTS: 60 women whose previous pregnancy ended in stillbirth after 18 weeks' gestation; 60 matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Depression and anxiety measured by Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, Beck depression inventory, and Spielberger state-trait anxiety scale. RESULTS: In the third trimester women whose previous pregnancy had ended in stillbirth were significantly more depressed than control women (10.8 v 8.2; P=0.004) and had greater state anxiety (39.8 v 32. 8, P=0.003) The difference was accounted for by those women who conceived less than 12 months after the stillbirth, who were also more depressed at 1 year. Results in those who conceived 12 months or more after stillbirth were similar to those in their controls at all points and showed lower trait anxiety 1 year post partum. One year after the birth 8% of control women and 19% of subjects scored high for depression (P=0.39), with most of the depression among the more recently bereaved (28% v 11%; P=0.18). In the women who had experienced stillbirth, depression in the third trimester was highly predictive of depression 1 year after subsequent birth (P+info)

(4/2412) Frontal lobe syndrome reassessed: comparison of patients with lateral or medial frontal brain damage.

Examination of mood and behaviour changes after frontal damage may contribute to understanding the functional role of distinct prefrontal areas in depression and anxiety. Depression and anxiety disorders, symptoms, and behaviour were compared in eight patients with single lateral and eight patients with single medial frontal lesions matched for age, sex, race, education, socioeconomic status, side, and aetiology of lesion 2 weeks and 3 months after brain injury. DSM IV major depressive and generalised anxiety disorders were more frequent in patients with lateral compared with medial lesions at 2 weeks but not at 3 months. At 3 months, however, patients with lateral damage showed greater severity of depressive symptoms, and greater impairment in both activities of daily living and social functioning. At initial evaluation depressed mood and slowness were more frequent, whereas at 3 months slowness, lack of energy, and social unease were more frequent in the lateral than the medial group. Patients with lateral lesions showed greater reduction of emotion and motivation (apathy) during both examinations. Medial frontal injury may fail to produce emotional dysregulation or may inhibit experience of mood changes, anxiety, or apathy. Lateral prefrontal damage may disrupt mood regulation and drive while leaving intact the ability to experience (negative) emotions.  (+info)

(5/2412) Slapping and spanking in childhood and its association with lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a general population sample.

BACKGROUND: Little information is available in Canada about the prevalence of and outcomes associated with a history of slapping and spanking in childhood. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of a history of slapping or spanking in a general population sample and to assess the relation between such a history and the lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: In this general population survey, a probability sample of 9953 residents of Ontario aged 15 years and older who participated in the Ontario Health Supplement was used to examine the prevalence of a history of slapping and spanking. A subgroup of this sample (n = 4888), which comprised people aged 15 to 64 years who did not report a history of physical or sexual abuse during childhood, was used to assess the relation between a history of slapping or spanking and the lifetime prevalence of 4 categories of psychiatric disorder. The measures included a self-administered questionnaire with a question about frequency of slapping and spanking during childhood, as well as an interviewer-administered questionnaire to measure psychiatric disorder. RESULTS: The majority of respondents indicated that they had been slapped or spanked, or both, by an adult during childhood "sometimes" (33.4%) or "rarely" (40.9%); 5.5% reported that this occurred "often." The remainder (20.2%) reported "never" experiencing these behaviours. Among the respondents without a history of physical or sexual abuse during childhood, those who reported being slapped or spanked "often" or "sometimes" had significantly higher lifetime rates of anxiety disorders (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.96), alcohol abuse or dependence (adjusted OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.27-3.21) and one or more externalizing problems (adjusted OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.36-3.16), compared with those who reported "never" being slapped or spanked. There was also an association between a history of slapping or spanking and major depression, but it was not statistically significant (adjusted OR 1.64, 95% CI 0.96-2.80). INTERPRETATION: There appears to be a linear association between the frequency of slapping and spanking during childhood and a lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorder, alcohol abuse or dependence and externalizing problems.  (+info)

(6/2412) Anxiety disorders in late life.

OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and treatment of anxiety disorders in late life. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic and comorbidity data are derived from well designed random-sample community surveys. There are virtually no controlled data specific to treatment of anxiety in the elderly. Guidelines for treating anxiety disorders in late life, therefore, must be extrapolated from results of randomized controlled trials conducted in younger patients. MAIN MESSAGE: Generalized anxiety disorder and agoraphobia account for most cases of anxiety disorder in late life. Late-onset generalized anxiety is usually associated with depressive illness and, in this situation, the primary pharmacologic treatment is antidepressant medication. Most elderly people with agoraphobia do not give a history of panic attacks; exposure therapy is the preferred treatment for agoraphobia without panic. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians need to make more use of antidepressant medication and behavioural therapy and less use of benzodiazepines in treating anxiety disorders in late life.  (+info)

(7/2412) Assisted bibliotherapy: effective, efficient treatment for moderate anxiety problems.

Specific psychological treatments of proven effectiveness for moderate anxiety disorders are not often easily accessible in general practice. In this study, selected patients were supported in learning skills to manage their symptoms. This approach was efficient, acceptable, and led to clinically significant symptom reduction for a high proportion of patients. This improvement was well sustained at three-month follow-up.  (+info)

(8/2412) An analysis of 60 cases of culture bound syndromes.

Of 60 cases of culture bound syndromes seen in psychiatry OPD, Dhat syndrome was most common (76.7%), followed by possession syndrome (13.3%). Depression by the most common associated psychiatric disorder. As the data on culture bound syndromes in Indian subcontinent is less, this study calls for careful evaluation of these patients psychologically to detect and treat the associated psychiatric comorbidity appropriately.  (+info)



Panic Disorder


  • In some cases separation anxiety disorder of childhood is the precursor of panic disorder with agoraphobia in adulthood. (healthcentral.com)
  • Phobias , panic disorder , obsessive compulsive disorder , and post traumatic stress disorder . (healthcentral.com)
  • Severe herniated S1 disc that caused never damage on left side and wonderful reflex tricks, mild herniated L4/5 disc, severe spinal stenosis, panic disorder, major depression and if that wasn't enough IBS with the beginning stages of diverticulosis. (healingwell.com)
  • A lot of GP's will treat folks with panic disorder, but my personal preference is to let a specialist in mental disorders handle it. (healingwell.com)

agoraphobia


  • Other anxiety disorders include: agoraphobia, separation anxiety disorder and substance/medication-induced anxiety disorder involving intoxication or withdrawal or medication treatment. (nami.org)

type of anxiety disorder


  • This means that each type of anxiety disorder has its own treatment plan. (nami.org)
  • Although this type of anxiety disorder is considered a disorder of childhood it can persist into the adult years. (healthcentral.com)

separation anxiety


  • Children who have separation anxiety disorder may be afraid to go to school, camp, or sleep-overs. (healthcentral.com)
  • It is estimated that up to 4 percent of children and young adolescents suffer from separation anxiety disorder. (healthcentral.com)
  • In a previous post I wrote about how adult separation anxiety disorder is more prevalent for adults than for children. (healthcentral.com)

Forum


  • If you want to check out the GERD forum you will find posts from members in that forum that talk about their anxiety issues too. (healingwell.com)

Osteoarthritis


  • Also diagnosed w/ Fibromyalgia, Osteoarthritis, & Anxiety. (healingwell.com)

suffer


  • Although we tend to think of anxiety as symptom associated with adults, many children also suffer from an anxiety related disorder. (healthcentral.com)
  • If your child is over four years old and still becomes distressed, tearful, and clingy when you leave, your child may suffer from this anxiety disorder. (healthcentral.com)
  • Children who suffer from social anxiety disorder have a persistent fear of being embarrassed in public social situations. (healthcentral.com)
  • Do you suffer from anxiety becuase when you are anxious your pupils dilate and feel heavy and dry, try and relax and see if it occure then otherwise see a optician. (healingwell.com)

persistent


  • However, all anxiety disorders have one thing in common: persistent, excessive fear or worry in situations that are not threatening. (nami.org)

medication


  • This is the first time that I have been on any medication for Anxiety. (healingwell.com)

symptoms


  • Most people develop symptoms of anxiety disorders before age 21 and women are 60% more likely to be diagnosed with an anxiety disorder than men. (nami.org)
  • Anxiety disorders are a group of related conditions, and each with unique symptoms. (nami.org)
  • Different anxiety disorders have various symptoms. (nami.org)
  • The physical symptoms of an anxiety disorder can be easily confused with other medical conditions like heart disease or hyperthyroidism. (nami.org)

worse


  • I have been on Ciapralex for about three weeks now and have noticed that my anxiety is worse than before. (healingwell.com)
  • And when my anxiety ramps up it makes everything worse. (healingwell.com)

adults


  • An estimated 40 million adults in the U.S., or 18%, have an anxiety disorder. (nami.org)

social


  • Unlike shyness, this disorder causes intense fear, often driven by irrational worries about social humiliation-"saying something stupid," or "not knowing what to say. (nami.org)
  • Someone with social anxiety disorder may not take part in conversations, contribute to class discussions, or offer their ideas, and may become isolated. (nami.org)
  • Social anxiety disorder or as it is sometimes called, social phobia, can persist into adulthood. (healthcentral.com)

mental


  • Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health concern in the United States. (nami.org)
  • Today marks the end of National Children's Mental Health Awareness Week (May 1-7) and as part of this awareness we are going to talk about children and anxiety disorders. (healthcentral.com)
  • The combined prevalence of the group of disorders known as anxiety disorders is higher than that of virtually all other mental disorders of childhood and adolescence (Costello et al. (healthcentral.com)

include


  • Another class of medications are the SNRIs which include Cymbalta and Effexor and other medications such as tricyclic antidepressants and MAO inhibitors may also be helpful in treating anxiety. (go.com)

children


  • Approximately 8% of children and teenagers experience the negative impact of an anxiety disorder at school and at home. (nami.org)
  • 1996)." The estimated prevalence of anxiety disorders in children ages 9-17 is 13 percent. (healthcentral.com)

support


  • Some families will have a higher than average numbers of members experiencing anxiety issues, and studies support the evidence that anxiety disorders run in families. (nami.org)

cause


  • However, when feelings of intense fear and distress are overwhelming and prevent us from doing everyday things, an anxiety disorder may be the cause. (nami.org)
  • It is common for an anti depressant to cause increased anxiety in the beginning but this should go away. (healingwell.com)

school


  • I really do wish that snaping one's fingers would work lol but have you ever tryed learning CBT as we see so miny ppl in school coming down with anxiety now, maybe your school library or better yet your school cansler(sp) can help you and I'm going to bump up Vic's post on CBT for you. (healingwell.com)

Although


  • Hey Angela, I can see a difference with Celexa although I still have moments of anxiety and panic it's just not constant. (healingwell.com)

common


  • Driving in heavy traffic is a common source of anxiety, but it keeps us alert and cautious to better avoid accidents. (nami.org)

time


  • Early intervention for anxiety disorders in childhood is critical so that anxiety does not become unmanageable by the time the individual reaches adulthood. (healthcentral.com)
  • If you suspect that your child may have an anxiety disorder it is time to reach out for help. (healthcentral.com)

major


  • Apart from these major classes of medications, the benzodiazepines, such as Xanax, Klonapin or Valium, may all be helpful in treating anxiety disorders. (go.com)

constant


  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): If your child has generalized anxiety disorder he or she may worry excessively and seek constant reassurance. (healthcentral.com)