Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Camphor: A bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA. It is used topically as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Spermatocidal Agents: Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.HIV Fusion Inhibitors: Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.HIV Integrase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV INTEGRASE, an enzyme required for integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Thymidine Monophosphate: 5-Thymidylic acid. A thymine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.HIV Envelope Protein gp41: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.Trichosanthin: Plant-derived ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) purified from the Chinese medicinal herb tian-hua-fen which is obtained from the root tubers of Trichosanthes kirilowii. It has been used as an abortifacient and in the treatment of trophoblastic tumors. GLQ223 (Compound Q), a highly purified form of trichosanthin, has been proposed as antiviral treatment for AIDS.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Dideoxynucleosides: Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.

*  A Pilot Study of the Short-Term Effects of Antiretroviral Management Based on Plasma Genotypic Antiretroviral Resistance...

Use of any anti-HIV agents, other than drugs in the qualifying triple antiretroviral regimen, within the past 16 weeks.] ... Documentation of a 3-fold rise in plasma HIV RNA level (using the same assay) or a previously documented plasma HIV RNA at an ... Documentation of either a plasma HIV RNA , 50,000 copies/ml by the Roche Amplicor HIV-1 assay or , 25,000 copies/ml by the ... AS PER AMENDMENT 9/17/97: Documentation of either a plasma HIV RNA level ,20,000 copies/ml by the Roche Amplicor HIV-1 assay or ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000874?order=580

*  A Study to Compare Anti-HIV Drugs Given Twice a Day or Once a Day, With or Without Direct Observation - Full Text View -...

Anti-HIV Agents. Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors. Cytochrome ... Anti-HIV drug therapy works best when the drugs are taken exactly as prescribed by a doctor. Because anti-HIV therapy often ... Have not taken anti-HIV drugs for more than 7 days. *Agree to use acceptable methods of contraception during the study and for ... A Study to Compare Anti-HIV Drugs Given Twice a Day or Once a Day, With or Without Direct Observation. This study has been ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00036452?order=175

*  A Study to Demonstrate That Anti-HIV Drug Therapy Can be Stopped Without Causing Viral Resistance, and to Characterize Drug...

Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Inhibitors. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme ... Not all HIV-infected patients may require continuous and indefinite anti-HIV therapy. There is evidence that stopping anti-HIV ... In an earlier version, patients were ineligible if they had taken certain anti-HIV agents or stopped treatment for more than 7 ... Many patients stop anti-HIV therapy because of negative effects. This study will examine the body's ability to fight and ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00029341?order=210

*  Using Drug Levels and Drug Resistance Testing to Select Effective Anti-HIV Drug Combinations in Patients With Drug-resistant...

Anti-HIV Agents. Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors. Cytochrome ... Because people infected with HIV strains that are resistant to anti-HIV drugs have fewer effective treatment options, selecting ... Use of HIV vaccines, investigational agents, hydroxyurea, or therapy to affect the immune system within 60 days of study entry ... A combination of protease inhibitors (PIs), when added to a patient's current anti-HIV therapy, may decrease viral load and ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00027339?order=242

*  Alternative Dosing Strategy for Anti-HIV Drugs - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

... adjusting the doses of antiretroviral agents to achieve target concentrations in plasma is associated with an improved anti-HIV ... Anti-HIV drugs are usually given to patients at fixed, standardized doses. This study will investigate alternative ways of ... Alternative Dosing Strategy for Anti-HIV Drugs. This study has been completed. ... dosing anti-HIV drugs to improve viral control.. Study hypothesis: The optimal dosage regimen required to obtain the maximum ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00059384?order=480

*  A Pilot Project of Virologic, Pharmacologic and Immunologic Correlates of Gastrointestinal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Immune...

Anti-HIV Agents. Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. HIV Integrase Inhibitors. Integrase ... Maraviroc is a new ART agent from a novel class of HIV inhibitors, entry inhibitors, that results in rapid suppression of HIV ... Subjects are either normal control subjects without HIV or, are HIV positive and are about to start HIV medications. As part of ... HIV. HIV positive. Gastrointestinal Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT). GALT Immune Reconstruction. treatment naive. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00870363?order=391

*  Blood Levels of Anti-HIV Drugs Used in Combination Regimens in HIV Infected Children - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Anti-HIV Agents. Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors. Cytochrome ... HIV infected. *Currently receiving or about to initiate one of the following anti-HIV regimens: TDF with EFV or NVP, TDF and ... Blood Levels of Anti-HIV Drugs Used in Combination Regimens in HIV Infected Children. This study has been completed. ... The purpose of this study is to measure the blood levels of the following combinations of anti-HIV drugs in HIV infected ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00260078?order=446

*  A Pilot Project of Virologic, Pharmacologic and Immunologic Correlates of Gastrointestinal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Immune...

Maraviroc is a new ART agent from a novel class of HIV inhibitors, entry inhibitors, that results in rapid suppression of HIV ... anti-HIV) medications. Biopsies (small snips of tissue) will be taken from the part of the intestines just below the stomach, ... Subjects are either normal control subjects without HIV or, are HIV positive and are about to start HIV medications. As part of ... To correlate the level of HIV RNA per gram of duodenal tissue versus plasma HIV load and drug regimen received [ Time Frame: ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00870363

*  T-20 With Anti-HIV Combination Therapy for Patients With Prior Anti-HIV Drug Treatment and/or Drug Resistance to Each of the...

... for Patients With Prior Anti-HIV Drug Treatment and/or Drug Resistance to Each of the Three Classes of Approved Anti-HIV Drugs ... ClinicalTrials.gov summary of T-20 With Anti-HIV Combination Therapy ... HIV-1 Drug Therapy, Combination Drug Resistance, Microbial RNA, Viral Membrane Fusion Anti-HIV Agents Viral Load Additional ... Have received anti-HIV drugs for at least 6 months and/or have shown resistance to each of the 3 types of anti-HIV drugs as ...
https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/clinical-trials/details/NCT00008528

*  A Study of MKC-442 in Combination With Other Anti-HIV Drugs - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov

... administration of a combination of two or more available antiretroviral agents by prescription may be given with MKC-442. ... A Study of MKC-442 in Combination With Other Anti-HIV Drugs. This study has been completed. ... HIV infection with HIV-1 RNA greater than or equal to 5,000 by Roche Amplicor method within 30 days of entry. ... A Study of MKC-442 in Combination With Other Anti-HIV Drugs. ... and Hydroxyurea in HIV-Infected Patients Who Are Protease ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00002412

*  Safety and Effectiveness of Adding PMPA Prodrug to an Anti-HIV Drug Combination to Treat HIV-Infected Patients - Full Text View...

Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors ... a new anti-HIV drug) to an anti-HIV drug combination taken by patients who have taken anti-HIV drugs in the past. Genetic ... Have been taking the same anti-HIV drug combination (made up of no more than 3 anti-HIV drugs) for at least 8 weeks prior to ... Safety and Effectiveness of Adding PMPA Prodrug to an Anti-HIV Drug Combination to Treat HIV-Infected Patients. This study has ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00002415?order=32

*  Bee Venom: The Next Anti-HIV Agent? A Proof-of-Con | SparkPeople

The Next Anti-HIV Agent? A Proof-of-Concept Study Says Yes Nano, team37262board ... The Next Anti-HIV Agent? A Proof-of-Concept Study Says Yes from poz.com March 13, 2013 Bee Venom: ... The Next Anti-HIV Agent? A Proof-of-Concept Study Says Yes from poz.com March 13, 2013 Bee Venom: The Next Anti-HIV Agent? A ... HIV, on the other hand, would fit in between these bumpers and the melittin would fuse with its viral envelope, rupture the ...
sparkpeople.com/myspark/team_messageboard_thread.asp?board=0x37262x52541601

*  In Vitro Evaluation of Experimental Agents for AntiHIV Activity - Current Protocols

This unit presents an assay that has proven useful as an initial screening test is an HIV cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition ... strains of HIV are utilized as target cells. Additional protocols assess the antiHIV activity of certain candidate agents by ... In Vitro Evaluation of Experimental Agents for AntiHIV Activity. Douglas D. Richman1, Victoria A. Johnson2, Douglas M. Mayers3 ... In vitro inhibition of HIV‐1 replication by C2 symmetry‐based HIV protease inhibitors as single agents or in combinations. ...
currentprotocols.com/WileyCDA/CPUnit/refId-im1209.html?quicktabs_cp=cited

*  Novel polypeptide anti-HIV agent containing the same - Patent application

... and an anti-HIV compound: 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) used as a medicine as a control anti-HIV agent. TABLE-US-00007 ... it can be considered to have an anti-HIV virus activity. It can be also considered, in addition to anti-HIV virus agent, to ... Anti-HIV Activity and Cytotoxicity, [0138]HIV-1 (IIIB) strain obtained from MOLT/HIV-1 (IIIB) cell previously infected by HIV-1 ... Patent application title: Novel polypeptide anti-HIV agent containing the same. Inventors: Nobutaka Fujii Agents: JORDAN AND ...
patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20100222256

*  DSpace at KIST: Discovery of new anti-HIV agents from natural products

Discovery of new anti-HIV agents from natural products. Title. Discovery of new anti-HIV agents from natural products. Authors ... HIV. Issue Date. 2002-10. Publisher. 제 8 차 학술심포지엄 ( 의약품 개발과 안정성 평가 ). Citation. , 21-22. URI. http://pubs.kist.re.kr/handle/ ...
pubs.kist.re.kr/handle/201004/16094

*  Comparing the Safety, Effectiveness, and Tolerability of Three Anti-HIV Drug Regimens for Treatment-Naive Patients - Full Text...

Anti-HIV Agents. Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors. Cytochrome ... The purpose of this study is to compare three different anti-HIV drug regimens as first-time treatments for HIV infection. ... Comparing the Safety, Effectiveness, and Tolerability of Three Anti-HIV Drug Regimens for Treatment-Naive Patients. This study ... HIV Protease Inhibitors. Drug Therapy, Combination. Delayed Action Preparations. Treatment Naive. HIV-1. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00050895?order=228

*  Treatment With Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Plus Combination Anti-HIV-Drug Therapy (HAART) for Patients Formerly in ACTG 328 - Full...

Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Anti-HIV Agents. Antimetabolites. Antineoplastic Agents. ... Treatment With Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Plus Combination Anti-HIV-Drug Therapy (HAART) for Patients Formerly in ACTG 328. This ... Are taking certain investigational anti-HIV drugs.. *Are taking indinavir and any of the following within 2 weeks of study ... This study examines the long-term effects of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in combination with anti-HIV drugs, or highly active ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000923?order=379

*  Safety and Effectiveness of Giving Indinavir, Ritonavir, Stavudine, and Lamivudine to HIV-Infected Patients Who Have Never...

Anti-HIV Agents. Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors. Cytochrome ... HIV Protease Inhibitors. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Ritonavir. Lamivudine. Indinavir. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. Anti-HIV ... to HIV-positive patients who have never received anti-HIV therapy. This study will look at the effectiveness of this drug ... and Lamivudine to HIV-Infected Patients Who Have Never Received Anti-HIV Drugs. The recruitment status of this study is unknown ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00002451?order=12

*  Safety and Effectiveness of a Combination Anti-HIV Drug Treatment - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Inhibitors. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme ... HIV Protease Inhibitors. Hydroxyurea. RNA, Viral. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. Anti-HIV Agents. Viral Load. abacavir. ... The purpose of this study is to see if it is safe and effective to give HIV-positive patients a combination of anti-HIV drugs ( ... Have been taking anti-HIV drugs for more than 1.5 years without an effect on HIV levels. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00005018?order=346

*  A Study to Compare the Effectiveness of Two Anti-HIV Drug Combinations - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Anti-HIV Agents. HIV Protease Inhibitors. Protease Inhibitors ... HIV Protease Inhibitors. Lamivudine. Indinavir. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. Anti-HIV Agents. Nelfinavir. ... Are HIV positive.. *Have a viral load (level of HIV in your blood) of at least 10,000 copies/ml within 45 days of study entry. ... The purpose of this study is to compare two different anti-HIV drug combinations, one that contains nelfinavir (NFV) and one ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00002430?order=89

*  HIV Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Brain Function in Patients Receiving Anti-HIV Drugs - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

... which are used to determine the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral agents in CSF and to determine levels of blood cells, ... HIV can be detected in the brain and CSF early in HIV disease. Anti-HIV drugs probably reduce HIV in the CSF. This may be ... The purpose of this study is to see whether anti-HIV drugs that reduce HIV in the blood also reduce HIV in the cerebrospinal ... HIV Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Brain Function in Patients Receiving Anti-HIV Drugs. This study has been completed. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00001103?order=64

*  Effectiveness of a New Anti-HIV Drug (AG1549) Plus Viracept (Nelfinavir) Plus Combivir (Zidovudine/Lamivudine) in HIV-Infected...

Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Anti-HIV Agents. Antimetabolites. HIV Protease Inhibitors. ... HIV Protease Inhibitors. Lamivudine. Disease Progression. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. Anti-HIV Agents. Viral Load. ... Effectiveness of a New Anti-HIV Drug (AG1549) Plus Viracept (Nelfinavir) Plus Combivir (Zidovudine/Lamivudine) in HIV-Infected ... Other anti-HIV drugs are allowed only if taken for no more than 30 days with the last dose taken more than 6 months prior to ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00004999?order=204

*  Effects of Two Anti-HIV Drug Combinations on the Immune Systems of HIV-Infected Patients Who Have Never Received Anti-HIV Drugs...

Anti-HIV Agents. Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors. Cytochrome ... Effects of Two Anti-HIV Drug Combinations on the Immune Systems of HIV-Infected Patients Who Have Never Received Anti-HIV Drugs ... HIV Protease Inhibitors. Ritonavir. Lamivudine. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. Anti-HIV Agents. ABT 378. abacavir. ... Have ever taken any anti-HIV drugs. (Seven days or less of treatment will be allowed if it was received more than 30 days ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00004855?order=146

*  Lopinavir/r or Fosamprenavir/r Switch to Atazanavir/r or Darunavir/r - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Anti-HIV Agents. Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors. Cytochrome ... No evidence of HIV protease resistance as defined by the Stanford HIV database ... MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS Drug Information available for: Lopinavir Atazanavir Darunavir Fosamprenavir Atazanavir ... For participants with HIV taking either lopinavir or fosamprenavir who have elevated triglycerides, this trial will study the ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00756730?order=381

*  HIV & AIDS Information :: HATIP #98, 21st December 2007 - Managing meningitis in people with HIV in resource-limited settings:...

Newsletter on the practical aspects of delivering HIV treatment in resource-limited settings. ... The cost of anti-fungal agents, the numbers of patients with cryptococcal meningitis, and the need for continual therapy and ... How HIV works What is HIV? , What is AIDS? , How HIV causes disease ... We can end HIV soon if people have equal access to HIV drugs as treatment and as PrEP, and have free choice over whether to ...
aidsmap.com/Managing-meningitis-in-people-with-HIV-in-resource-limited-settings-a-clinical-review/page/1256395/

Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections: The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) is an annual scientific meeting devoted to the understanding, prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and the opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. Thousands of leading researchers and clinicians from around the world convene in a different location in North America each year for the Conference.CamphorVpx: Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains, but that is absent from HIV-1. It is similar in structure to the protein Vpr that is carried by SIV and HIV-2 as well as HIV-1.Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors: Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NtRTIs) began in the 1980s when the AIDS epidemic hit Western societies. NRTIs inhibit the reverse transcriptase (RT), an enzyme that controls the replication of the genetic material of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Spermicide: Table 26–1 = Table 3–2 Percentage of women experiencing an unintended pregnancy during the first year of typical use and the first year of perfect use of contraception, and the percentage continuing use at the end of the first year. United States.Discovery and development of integrase inhibitors: The first human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) case was reported in the United States in the early 1980s. Many drugs have been discovered to treat the disease but mutations in the virus and resistance to the drugs make development difficult.Thymidine monophosphateEnvelope glycoprotein GP120: Envelope glycoprotein GP120 (or gp120) is a glycoprotein exposed on the surface of the HIV envelope. The 120 in its name comes from its molecular weight of 120 kDa.Trichosanthin: Trichosanthin is a ribosome-inactivating protein.AbacavirAntiviral drug: Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics for bacteria, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses.

(1/7501) Short course antiretroviral regimens to reduce maternal transmission of HIV.

 (+info)

(2/7501) HIV-associated nephropathy is a late, not early, manifestation of HIV-1 infection.

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) can be the initial presentation of HIV-1 infection. As a result, many have assumed that HIVAN can occur at any point in the infection. This issue has important implications for appropriate therapy and, perhaps, for pathogenesis. Since the development of new case definitions for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and better tools to assess infection, the relationship of HIVAN to the time of AIDS infection has not been addressed. In this study, we reassessed the stage of infection at the time of HIVAN diagnosis in 10 patients, and we reviewed all previously published cases applying the new case definitions to assess stage of infection. METHODS: HIVAN was confirmed by kidney biopsy in HIV seropositive patients with azotemia and/or proteinuria. CD4+ cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA copy number were measured. We also reviewed all published cases of HIVAN to determine if AIDS-defining conditions, by current Centers for Disease Control definitions, were present in patients with biopsy-proven HIVAN. RESULTS: Twenty HIV-1 seropositive patients with proteinuria and an elevated creatinine concentration were biopsied. HIVAN was the single most common cause of renal disease. CD4+ cell count was below 200/mm3 in all patients with HIVAN, fulfilling Centers for Disease Control criteria for an AIDS-defining condition. HIV-1 plasma RNA was detectable in all patients with HIVAN. In reviewing previous reports, an AIDS-defining condition was present in virtually all patients with HIVAN. CONCLUSION: HIVAN develops late, not early, in the course of HIV-1 infection following the development of AIDS. This likely accounts for the poor prognosis noted in previous publications and has implications for pathogenesis. In addition, given the detectable viral RNA levels, highly active antiretroviral therapy is indicated in HIVAN. Highly active antiretroviral therapy may improve survival as well as alter the natural history of HIVAN.  (+info)

(3/7501) Clinical experience and choice of drug therapy for human immunodeficiency virus disease.

To determine if providers experienced in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease preferred different treatment regimens than providers with less experience, we analyzed data from a national survey of primary care providers' preferred regimens for the management of 30 HIV-related medical conditions. We mailed questionnaires to 999 correct addresses of providers in > 20 cities in the United States in May 1996. We received 524 responses (response rate, 52%). We found a statistically significant association between the number of HIV-infected patients cared for by the provider and the likelihood that the provider would report prescribing highly active antiretroviral therapy and multidrug combinations for treatment of opportunistic infections. Providers with few HIV-infected patients were substantially less likely to report using new therapeutic regimens or new diagnostic tools. We concluded that the preferred regimens of experienced providers are more likely to be consistent with the latest information on treatment for HIV disease than are those of less experienced providers.  (+info)

(4/7501) Issues in the treatment of active tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

Most HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis can be treated satisfactorily with standard regimens with expectations of good results. Treatment of tuberculosis in these patients has been complicated by the introduction of HAART, which relies on drugs that interfere with the most potent class of antituberculous medications. Rifampin-free regimens or regimens that employ rifabutin may be acceptable strategies for patients who are receiving protease inhibitors, although these regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in patients with AIDS. At present, there is good reason to believe that a 6-month course of a rifabutin-containing regimen or a 9-12-month course of a regimen of streptomycin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide should be adequate therapy for most patients with drug-susceptible disease. As the treatment of HIV infection with antiretroviral agents evolves, the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS is likely to evolve as well. This will require careful coordination of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies.  (+info)

(5/7501) Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by combination of transcription inhibitor K-12 and other antiretroviral agents in acutely and chronically infected cells.

8-Difluoromethoxy-1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-7-[4-(2-methoxyp hen yl)-1- piperazinyl]-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (K-12) has recently been identified as a potent and selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription. In this study, we examined several combinations of K-12 and other antiretroviral agents for their inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in acutely and chronically infected cell cultures. Combinations of K-12 and a reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor, either zidovudine, lamivudine, or nevirapine, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 replication in acutely infected MT-4 cells. The combination of K-12 and the protease inhibitor nelfinavir (NFV) also synergistically inhibited HIV-1, whereas the synergism of this combination was weaker than that of the combinations with the RT inhibitors. K-12 did not enhance the cytotoxicities of RT and protease inhibitors. Synergism of the combinations was also observed in acutely infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The combination of K-12 and cepharanthine, a nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 production in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated U1 cells, a promonocytic cell line chronically infected with the virus. In contrast, additive inhibition was observed for the combination of K-12 and NFV. These results indicate that the combinations of K-12 and clinically available antiretroviral agents may have potential as chemotherapeutic modalities for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.  (+info)

(6/7501) A multiple drug interaction study of stavudine with agents for opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

The effects of multiple opportunistic infection medications on stavudine pharmacokinetics were evaluated. Ten patients with CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/mm3 received stavudine (40 mg twice daily) in combination with one to three other drugs used to treat opportunistic infections. Serial blood samples for stavudine concentrations were collected after 1 week of therapy on each regimen and assayed for stavudine by using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method. Although the maximum concentration of drug in serum was significantly decreased when the drug was given in combination with three opportunistic infection medications, the area under the concentration-time curve did not significantly differ across various treatment regimens. Stavudine exposure was not significantly altered by multiple concomitant medications. Side effects were minor throughout the 3-month study period. The tolerability of stavudine, combined with its lack of drug interactions, makes it an attractive agent for use as part of a combination regimen.  (+info)

(7/7501) Lack of absorption of didanosine after rectal administration in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

The feasibility of rectal administration of didanosine (DDI) was studied in six human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. After oral intake of a DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area) combined with an antacid (Maalox), pharmacokinetic parametric values were in accordance with previously published data; the mean +/- standard deviation for terminal half-life was 59.5 +/- 15.0 min, that for peak concentration was 5.2 +/- 3.9 mumol/liter, and that for the area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) was 494 +/- 412 min.mumol/liter. After rectal administration of a similarly prepared DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area), plasma DDI levels were below the detection limit (0.1 mumol/liter) at all time points in five of the six patients, and in the remaining patient the AUC after rectal application was only 5% of that after oral administration. We conclude that oral administration of DDI cannot be easily replaced by rectal application.  (+info)

(8/7501) Suppression of replication of multidrug-resistant HIV type 1 variants by combinations of thymidylate synthase inhibitors with zidovudine or stavudine.

The replication of recombinant multidrug-resistant HIV-1 clones modeled on clinically derived resistant HIV-1 strains from patients receiving long-term combination therapy with zidovudine (AZT) plus 2',3'-dideoxycytidine was found to regain sensitivity to AZT and stavudine (D4T) as a consequence of a pharmacologically induced decrease in de novo dTMP synthesis. The host-cell system used was phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells; dTMP and dTTP depletion were induced by single exposures to a low level of the thymidylate synthase inhibitor 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or its deoxynucleoside, 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine. The host-cell response to the latter was biphasic: a very rapid decrease in the rate of de novo dTMP formation and, consequently, in intracellular dTTP pools, followed by slower recovery in both indices over 3 to 24 h. With the additional presence of AZT or D4T, however, replication of the multidrug-resistant HIV-1 strains remained inhibited, indicating dependence of HIV DNA chain termination by AZT-5'-monophosphate or 2',3'-didehydro-2', 3'-dideoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate in these resistant strains on simultaneous inhibition of host-cell de novo synthesis of thymidine nucleotides. No effect on viability of control (uninfected) phytohemagglutinin-stimulated/peripheral blood mononuclear cells was noted on 6-day exposures to 5-FU or 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine alone or in combination with AZT or D4T, even at drug levels severalfold higher than those used in the viral inhibition studies. These studies may provide useful information for the potential clinical use of AZT/5-FU or D4T/5-FU combinations for the prevention or reversal of multidrug resistance associated with long-term dideoxynucleoside combination therapy.  (+info)



antiretroviral


  • Elvitegravir is a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) used for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in antiretroviral treatment-experienced adults. (drugbank.ca)
  • Although available as a single dose tablet, elvitegravir must be used in combination with an HIV protease inhibitor coadministered with ritonavir and another antiretroviral drug. (drugbank.ca)
  • Elvitegravir in combination with an HIV protease inhibitor coadministered with ritonavir and with other antiretroviral drug(s) is indicated for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in antiretroviral treatment-experienced adults. (drugbank.ca)
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been widely used by HIV-infected people in North America, Europe, and Australia since about 1997. (ox.ac.uk)

integrase inhibitor


  • 27, 2012-- Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Nasdaq:GILD) announced today it has submitted a New Drug Application (NDA) to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ) for marketing approval of elvitegravir, an integrase inhibitor for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in treatment-experienced adults. (gilead.com)

HAART


  • The presence of a pool of cells latently infected by HIV-1 in patients taking HAART and with a viral load below 50 copies/mL is the main limitation to eradication of the virus from the body. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) incidence and mortality rates have fallen markedly in association with the use of HAART, but its impact on the incidence of cancer in HIV-infected people is less clear. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Since the widespread use of HAART, there have been substantial reductions in the incidence Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in HIV-infected people but, so far, no substantial change in the incidence of other cancers. (ox.ac.uk)

adult


  • The drug gained approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on August 27, 2012 for use in adult patients starting HIV treatment for the first time as part of the fixed dose combination known as Stribild. (drugbank.ca)

infection


  • Because integrase is necessary for viral replication, inhibition prevents the integration of HIV-1 DNA into the host genome and thereby blocks the formation of the HIV-1 provirus and resulting propagation of the viral infection. (drugbank.ca)

viral


  • The study has also been designed to enable us to understand the biochemical and molecular mechanisms by which certain drugs can induce viral reactivation in vitro as a previous step to a clinical trial aimed at reactivating viral latency and eradicating HIV-1 from the body. (clinicaltrials.gov)

human


  • Unlike other classes, integrase inhibitors interfere with HIV replication by blocking the ability of the virus to integrate into the genetic material of human cells. (gilead.com)
  • BACKGROUND: The risk of Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is increased in people infected with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV). (ox.ac.uk)

study


  • Rate ratios were estimated, comparing incidence rates from 1997 through 1999 with rates from 1992 through 1996, after adjustment for study, age, sex, and HIV transmission group. (ox.ac.uk)