Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Thalictrum: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain isoquinoline alkaloids and triterpene glycosides.Propiolactone: Disinfectant used in vapor form to sterilize vaccines, grafts, etc. The vapor is very irritating and the liquid form is carcinogenic.Spiroplasma: A genus of gram-negative, helical bacteria, in the family SPIROPLASMATACEAE, order Entomoplasmatales, causing disease in PLANTS. It has been isolated from TICKS; INSECTS; and PLANTS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Defensins: Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

*  Effect of Antibiotic Rotation in the ICU on the Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistant Gram-negative Colonisation - Full Text View ...

Anti-Bacterial Agents. Antibiotics, Antitubercular. Anti-Infective Agents. Antitubercular Agents. To Top ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01293071?recr=Open&cond="Anti-Bacterial Agents"&rank=19

*  University of Copenhagen-HEALTH

Role in DanCARD: developing novel potent anti-gram-negative agents based on the antimicrobial peptide anoplin. ... Peter's role is to investigate alternative treatment strategies against bacterial pathogens of veterinary relevance. This ... PRH has headed the Antibacterial Peptide Group at UC-LIFE since 2001.. PRHs current research efforts lie within antimicrobial ... The aim of Marits research is to optimize and implement the use of older antimicrobial agents such as nitrofurantoin, ...
https://dancardproject.dk/Partners/University of Copenhagen - SUND.aspx

*  Welcome to CDC stacks | Socioeconomic and behavioral factors leading to acquired bacterial resistance to antibiotics in...

Anti-Bacterial Agents Bacteria Bacterial Infections Developing Countries Drug Resistance, Microbial Health Behavior Humans ... In developing countries, acquired bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents is common in isolates from healthy persons and ... Socioeconomic and behavioral factors leading to acquired bacterial resistance to antibiotics in developing countries. ...
https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/14782

*  Antimicrobial Resistance and Stewardship

Non-Antibiotic Antibacterial Agents: Mode of Action and Resistance. *Nosocomial Infections *Novel Drug Delivery Systems ... Antibiotics are a type of antimicrobials that are used in treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. They may kill or ... Physicians must ensure the patient has a bacterial infection before prescribing antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance invoke ...
https://omicsonline.org/conferences-list/antimicrobial-resistance-and-stewardship

*  Sunlight converts common anti-bacterial agent to dioxin

Sunlight can convert triclosan, a common disinfectant used in anti-bacterial soaps, into a form of dioxin, and this process may ...
innovations-report.com/html/reports/environment-sciences/report-17839.html

*  Sunlight converts common anti-bacterial agent...( S. Geological Survey published a widely...)

... anti-bacterial,agent,to,dioxin,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news, ... Researchers discover new oceanic bacterial photopigment that converts light into biochemical energy. 4. New process converts ...
news.bio-medicine.org/biology-news-2/Sunlight-converts-common-anti-bacterial-agent-to-dioxin-5066-2/

*  Graphene May Serve as Ultimate Anti-Bacterial Surface Agent | Medgadget

Graphene May Serve as Ultimate Anti-Bacterial Surface Agent. July 21st, 2010 Editors Nanomedicine ... Abstract in ACS NANO: Graphene-Based Antibacterial Paper. Press statement by the American Chemical Society: New antibacterial ... Given the superior antibacterial effect of GO and the fact that GO can be mass-produced and easily processed to make ... In this work, we report the antibacterial activity of two water-dispersible graphene derivatives, graphene oxide (GO) and ...
https://medgadget.com/2010/07/graphene_may_serve_as_ultimate_antibacterial_surface_agent.html

*  Imidazo- and triazoloquinolones as antibacterial agents. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships.

25110714 - Incorporating amino acids composition and functional domains for identifying bacterial .... 4068024 - Role of the ... 0/Anti-Infective Agents; 0/Imidazoles; 0/Quinolones; 0/Triazoles From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library ... Anti-Infective Agents / chemical synthesis*, pharmacology. Bacteria / drug effects*. Gram-Negative Bacteria / drug effects. ... 5-fluoro-imidazoquinolones 31 a-d showed potent and well-balanced antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram- ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Imidazo-triazoloquinolones-as-antibacterial-agents/8582014.html

*  Kibdelomycin is a bactericidal broad-spectrum aerobic antibacterial agent. | Sigma-Aldrich

Kibdelomycin is a recently discovered natural-product antibiotic that inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting the bacterial DNA ... Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 2015-4-8 Kibdelomycin is a bactericidal broad-spectrum aerobic antibacterial agent.. [ ... Bacterial resistance to antibiotics continues to grow and pose serious challenges, while the discovery rate for new antibiotics ... It was reported to be a broad-spectrum aerobic Gram-positive agent with selective inhibition of the anaerobic bacterium ...
sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/25845866

*  EP2006063552 QUINOLINE DERIVATIVES AS ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS

EN)Use of a compound for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of a bacterial infection provided that the bacterial ... 1. (WO2007000434) QUINOLINE DERIVATIVES AS ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS PCT Biblio. Data. Description. Claims. National Phase. Notices ... EN) QUINOLINE DERIVATIVES AS ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS. (FR) DERIVES DE QUINOLINE EN TANT QU'AGENTS ANTIBACTERIENS. ... The compounds themselves are also claimed as well as their combinations with other antibacterial agents.. (FR)La présente ...
https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2007000434

*  In Vitro Activity of TR-700, the Active Ingredient of the Antibacterial Prodrug TR-701, a Novel Oxazolidinone Antibacterial...

... agents active against gram-positive bacterial infections that can be used for both inpatient and outpatient therapy. ... Test agents. TR-700 was provided by Trius Therapeutics (San Diego, CA). The sources of the other agents were Pfizer Inc., New ... These results indicate that TR-700 is a promising new oxazolidinone antibacterial agent with greater in vitro potency than ... a Novel Oxazolidinone Antibacterial Agent Ronda Schaadt, Debora Sweeney, Dean Shinabarger, and Gary Zurenko* ...
pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2715649/?lang=en-ca

*  Halogenated biphenols as antibacterial agents

The next day, bacterial colonies were counted and took the decimal logarithm (log10) [this number] and calculated the reduction ... Other optional additives include antimicrobial (e.g., antibacterial) agent. Can be used any antimicrobial agent acceptable for ... an emulsifying agent, a gel-forming polymer, a preserving agent, a pH control agent and additionally methylpyrrolidone with ... A sample list of other suitable antibacterial agents is provided in U.S. patent No. 5776435, Gaffar, et al., issued July 7, ...
russianpatents.com/patent/254/2549543.html

*  Sugars in human mother's milk are new class of antibacterial agents

... milk do not just provide nutrition for babies but also help protect them from bacterial infections, mak... ... So far, dual pennyless down a bacterial biofilms and killed a bacteria, 4 pennyless down a biofilms yet did not kill a germ and ... In a past, scientists have strong their hunt for a source of a antibacterial properties on a proteins it contains. However, an ... The simple proclivity for a investigate was a flourishing problem of bacterial insurgency to antibiotics, that a Center for ...
en.mugtama.com/varieties/item/15307-sugars-in-human-mother-s-milk-are-new-class-of-antibacterial-agents.html

*  Articles treated with antibacterial agents : Outline of a strategy to reduce unjustified use

Mostly there is no information on the antibacterial agents used or on their efficacy. Does this relate to bacterial resistance ... Can we know if an article contains antibacterial agents? New rules in EU legislation apply for treated articles. When ... The release of antibacterial agents from these articles creates a constant low exposure for microorganisms. This may help ... An outline for a strategy to prevent unjustified antibacterial articles was elaborated at a Nordic workshop, initiated by the ...
elibrary.imf.org/view/IMF931/22047-9789289327244/22047-9789289327244/22047-9789289327244.xml

*  Books by Subject - Lane Medical Library - Stanford University School of Medicine

Anti-Bacterial Agents. *Digital. Antibiotic and antifungal therapies in dermatology. edited by Jón Hjaltalín Ólafsson, Roderick ... Miscellaneous antibacterial agents -- 32. Antifungal agents -- 33. Antimycobacterial agents -- 34. Anthelmintics -- 35. ... Antiprotozoal agents -- 36. Antiretroviral agents -- 37. Other antiviral agents -- 38. Sepsis -- 39. Abdominal and other ... Antimicrobial agents and the kidneys -- 6. Drug interactions involving anti-infective agents -- 7. Antibiotics and the immune ...
lane.stanford.edu/biomed-resources/ebsubjectbrowse.html?m=Anti-Bacterial Agents

*  Modern Infilled Synthetic Turf Fields Don't Harbor Staph Bacteria or Cause MRSA, Studies Say

Treatment with Anti-Bacterial Agents not recommended. Treating infill artificial turf surfaces with antimicrobial agents is not ... This should not be interpreted, however, as preventing the use of cleansing agents such as detergents and soaps to clean infill ... provided that such cleaning is performed in accordance with the recommendations of the applicable turf and cleaning agent ...
momsteam.com/print/7384

*  Therapeutic manipulation of the enteric microflora in inflammatory bowel diseases: antibiotics, probiotics, and prebiotics. -...

Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology*. *Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use. *Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects* ... These agents likely will become an integral component of treating IBD in combination with traditional anti-inflammatory and ... Current clinical trials do not fulfill evidence-based criteria for using these agents in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but ... Clinical and experimental studies suggest that the relative balance of aggressive and protective bacterial species is altered ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15168372?access_num=15168372&link_type=MED&dopt=Abstract

*  Classic reaction kinetics can explain complex patterns of antibiotic action. - PubMed - NCBI

Anti-Bacterial Agents. Grant support. *R37 AI-042347/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States ... The y-axis shows the average bacterial density over 12 h as observed by turbidity measurements in microtiter plates. Bacterial ... Different mechanisms can lead to bacterial killing. Bacterial cells are shown as black oval, target molecules, are shown as ... A bacterial cell with target molecules, T (in this case ribosomes, blue crescents) and antibiotic molecules A (red circles) are ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=25972005

*  Overview on cranberry and urinary tract infections in females. - PubMed - NCBI

Anti-Bacterial Agents. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Lippincott Williams & Wilkins - Ovid Insights ... As to the traditional use of cranberry and its A-type proanthocyanidins' ability to inhibit adherence of the bacterial P ... that are among the most common bacterial infections in women. ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20495471

*  Bacterial meningitis in infants two to six weeks old. - PubMed - NCBI

Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use. *Bacterial Infections/diagnosis. *Bacterial Infections/drug therapy ... Bacterial meningitis in infants two to six weeks old.. Benderly A, Shehadeh N, Grief Z, Hayek T, Erde P, Etzioni A. ... Seventeen patients with bacterial meningitis were diagnosed and treated. Bacteria recovered from the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF ... We reviewed our experience with bacterial meningitis in older neonates (2 to 6 weeks of age) during a five-year period. ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3539885

*  Impact of early daycare on healthcare resource use related to upper respiratory tract infections during childhood: prospective...

Anti-Bacterial Agents. Grant support. *NIHR-RP-011-045/Department of Health/United Kingdom ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24965189?access_num=24965189&link_type=MED&dopt=Abstract

*  EARNEST Rifabutin Pharmacokinetics (PK) Substudy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors. Anti-Bacterial ... This substudy is specifically for people who are already taking anti-TB drugs in EARNEST, or who need to start anti-TB drugs ... Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections. Bacterial Infections. Ritonavir. Lopinavir. Rifabutin. HIV Protease Inhibitors. Protease ... Some of the drugs used to treat HIV (anti-retrovirals, or ARVs) can affect the blood levels of other drugs used to treat TB - ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01663168?order=209

*  Strategies To Prevent Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy Related Events in Heart Transplant Recipients - Full Text View -...

Anti-Bacterial Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic. Antineoplastic Agents. Antifungal Agents. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01305395?show_rss=Y&sel_rss=mod14&show_desc=Y

*  Sirolimus for Eosinophil-Associated Gastrointestinal Disorders - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Anti-Bacterial Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic. Antineoplastic Agents. Antifungal Agents. ... Anti-IL-5 (mepolizumab) therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Dec;118(6):1312-9. Epub 2006 Nov 7. ... Anti-interleukin-5 antibody treatment (mepolizumab) in active eosinophilic oesophagitis: a randomised, placebo-controlled, ... Have used any investigational agent within 6 months of the screening visit. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01814059?term=NIAID&recr=Open&no_unk=Y&cond=allergic OR allergy OR hypersensitivity&rank=8

*  Concentration of Antimicrobials in Catheter-lock Solutions - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Anti-Bacterial Agents. Vancomycin. Linezolid. Daptomycin. Tigecycline. Minocycline. Teicoplanin. Calcium heparin. Heparin. Anti ... Fibrinolytic Agents. Fibrin Modulating Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Protein Synthesis Inhibitors. ... Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 May;50(5):1865-8. Fennell JP, O'Donohoe M, Cormican M, Lynch M. Linezolid lock prophylaxis of ... Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009 Nov;34(5):482-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2009.06.020. Epub 2009 Aug 26. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01592032?recr=Open&cond="Anti-Bacterial Agents"&rank=15

BacitracinThalictrum heliophilum: Thalictrum heliophilum is a species of flowering plant in the buttercup family known by the common names sun-loving meadowrue and Cathedral Bluff meadow-rue. It is endemic to Colorado in the United States, where it is known from three counties.Scripps Health: Scripps Health is a nonprofit health care system based in San Diego, California. The system includes four hospitals and 19 outpatient facilities, and treats a half-million patients annually through 2,600 affiliated physicians.Spiroplasma: Spiroplasma is a genus of Mollicutes, a group of small bacteria without cell walls. Spiroplasma shares the simple metabolism, parasitic lifestyle, fried-egg colony morphology and small genome of other Mollicutes, but has a distinctive helical morphology, unlike Mycoplasma.PhytomedicineExogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Anaerobacter: Anaerobacter are a genus of Gram-positive bacteria related to Clostridium. They are anaerobic chemotrophs and are unusual spore-formers as they produce more than one spore per bacterial cell (up to five spores).Theta defensin: Theta-defensins (θ-defensins. retrocyclins) are a family of mammalian antimicrobial peptides.Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria: MDRGN bacteria is an abbreviation for multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria. For hospitalized patients, and especially patients in intensive care units, these bacterial infections pose a serious and (as of 2010) rapidly emerging threat.SaPI: SaPIs (Staphylococcus aureus or superantigen pathogenicity islands) are a family of mobile genetic elements resident in the genome of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Much like bacteriophages, SaPIs can be transferred to uninfected cells and integrate into the host chromosome.ATC code S01: ==S01A Anti-infectives==List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Coles Phillips

(1/41157) Tobramycin, amikacin, sissomicin, and gentamicin resistant Gram-negative rods.

Sensitivities to gentamicin, sissomicin, tobramycin, and amikacin were compared in 196 gentamicin-resistant Gram-negative rods and in 212 similar organisms sensitive to gentamicin, mainly isolated from clinical specimens. Amikacin was the aminoglycoside most active against gentamicin-resistant organisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Providencia spp, and Citrobacter spp being particularly susceptible. Most of the gentamicin-resistant organisms were isolated from the urine of patients undergoing surgery. Gentamicin was the most active antibiotic against gentamicin-sensitive E coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia spp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Pseudomonas spp were most susceptible to tobramycin.  (+info)

(2/41157) Modified peptidoglycan transpeptidase activity in a carbenicillin-resistant mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 18s.

A carbenicillin-resistant mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 18s was found to possess peptidoglycan transpeptidase activity significantly more resistant to inhibition by benzyl penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, and cephaloridine than that of the parent strain. The mutant was more resistant than the parent strain to all of the beta-lactam antibiotics tested, and 50% inhibition values for these compounds against membrane-bound model transpeptidase activity paralleled this increase. The resistance of the mutant to kanamycin, streptomycin, and chloramphenicol was unchanged.  (+info)

(3/41157) Various forms of chemically induced liver injury and their detection by diagnostic procedures.

A large number of chemical agents, administered for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, can produce various types of hepatic injury by several mechanisms. Some agents are intrinsically hepatotoxic, and others produce hepatic injury only in the rare, uniquely susceptible individual. Idiosyncrasy of the host is the mechanism for most types of drug-induced hepatic injury. It may reflect allergy to the drug or a metabolic aberation of the host permitting the accumulation of hepatotoxic metabolites. The syndromes of hepatic disease produced by drugs have been classified hepatocellular, hepatocanalicular, mixed and canalicular. Measurement of serum enzyme activities has provided a powerful tool for studies of hepatotoxicity. Their measurement requires awareness of relative specificity, knowledge of the mechanisms involved, and knowledge of the relationship between known hepatotoxic states and elevated enzyme activities.  (+info)

(4/41157) Prodigious substrate specificity of AAC(6')-APH(2"), an aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance determinant in enterococci and staphylococci.

BACKGROUND: High-level gentamicin resistance in enterococci and staphylococci is conferred by AAC(6')-APH(2"), an enzyme with 6'-N-acetyltransferase and 2"-O-phosphotransferase activities. The presence of this enzyme in pathogenic gram-positive bacteria prevents the successful use of gentamicin C and most other aminoglycosides as therapeutic agents. RESULTS: In an effort to understand the mechanism of aminoglycoside modification, we expressed AAC(6')-APH(2") in Bacillus subtilis. The purified enzyme is monomeric with a molecular mass of 57 kDa and displays both the expected aminoglycoside N-acetyltransferase and O-phosphotransferase activities. Structure-function analysis with various aminoglycosides substrates reveals an enzyme with broad specificity in both enzymatic activities, accounting for AAC(6')-APH(2")'s dramatic negative impact on clinical aminoglycoside therapy. Both lividomycin A and paromomycin, aminoglycosides lacking a 6'-amino group, were acetylated by AAC(6')-APH(2"). The infrared spectrum of the product of paromomycin acetylation yielded a signal consistent with O-acetylation. Mass spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the products of neomycin phosphorylation indicated that phosphoryl transfer occurred primarily at the 3'-OH of the 6-aminohexose ring A, and that some diphosphorylated material was also present with phosphates at the 3'-OH and the 3"'-OH of ring D, both unprecedented observations for this enzyme. Furthermore, the phosphorylation site of lividomycin A was determined to be the 5"-OH of the pentose ring C. CONCLUSIONS: The bifunctional AAC(6')-APH(2") has the capacity to inactivate virtually all clinically important aminoglycosides through N- and O-acetylation and phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups. The extremely broad substrate specificity of this enzyme will impact on future development of aminoglycosides and presents a significant challenge for antibiotic design.  (+info)

(5/41157) Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group.

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the glycopeptide vancomycin has been the only uniformly effective treatment for staphylococcal infections. In 1997, two infections due to S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were identified in the United States. METHODS: We investigated the two patients with infections due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides, as defined by a minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of 8 to 16 microg per milliliter. To assess the carriage and transmission of these strains of S. aureus, we cultured samples from the patients and their contacts and evaluated the isolates. RESULTS: The first patient was a 59-year-old man in Michigan with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure. Peritonitis due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus peritonitis associated with dialysis. The removal of the peritoneal catheter plus treatment with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole eradicated the infection. The second patient was a 66-year-old man with diabetes in New Jersey. A bloodstream infection due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. This infection was eradicated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Both patients died. The glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus isolates differed by two bands on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. On electron microscopy, the isolates from the infected patients had thicker extracellular matrixes than control methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. No carriage was documented among 177 contacts of the two patients. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides emphasizes the importance of the prudent use of antibiotics, the laboratory capacity to identify resistant strains, and the use of infection-control precautions to prevent transmission.  (+info)

(6/41157) Bioterrorism alleging use of anthrax and interim guidelines for management--United States, 1998.

From October 30 through December 23, 1998, CDC received reports of a series of bioterroristic threats of anthrax exposure. Letters alleged to contain anthrax were sent to health clinics on October 30, 1998, in Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee. During December 17-23 in California, a letter alleged to contain anthrax was sent to a private business, and three telephone threats of anthrax contamination of ventilation systems were made to private and public buildings. All threats were hoaxes and are under investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and local law enforcement officials. The public health implications of these threats were investigated to assist in developing national public health guidelines for responding to bioterrorism. This report summarizes the findings of these investigations and provides interim guidance for public health authorities on bioterrorism related to anthrax.  (+info)

(7/41157) Acinetobacter bacteremia in Hong Kong: prospective study and review.

The epidemiological characteristics of 18 patients with acinetobacter bacteremia were analyzed. Patients (mean age, 55.5 years) developed bacteremia after an average of 14.1 days of hospitalization. Fifteen of 16 patients survived bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Cultures of blood from the remaining two patients yielded Acinetobacter lwoffii. Most patients (78%) resided in the general ward, while four patients (22%) were under intensive care. Genotyping by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction analysis and the temporal sequence of isolation were more useful than phenotyping by antimicrobial susceptibility in the determination of the source of bacteremia, and the intravascular catheter was the leading infection source (39% of cases). The possibility of an association of glucose with the pathogenesis of acinetobacter infection was raised.  (+info)

(8/41157) Malaria prophylaxis using azithromycin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Irian Jaya, Indonesia.

New drugs are needed for preventing drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against P. falciparum in malaria-immune Kenyans was 83%. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesian adults with limited immunity. After radical cure therapy, 300 randomized subjects received azithromycin (148 subjects, 750-mg loading dose followed by 250 mg/d), placebo (77), or doxycycline (75, 100 mg/d). The end point was slide-proven parasitemia. There were 58 P. falciparum and 29 P. vivax prophylaxis failures over 20 weeks. Using incidence rates, the protective efficacy of azithromycin relative to placebo was 71.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.3-83.8) against P. falciparum malaria and 98.9% (95% CI, 93.1-99.9) against P. vivax malaria. Corresponding figures for doxycycline were 96.3% (95% CI, 85.4-99.6) and 98% (95% CI, 88.0-99.9), respectively. Daily azithromycin offered excellent protection against P. vivax malaria but modest protection against P. falciparum malaria.  (+info)



converts common anti-bacterial agent


antibiotics


  • Bacterial resistance to antibiotics continues to grow and pose serious challenges, while the discovery rate for new antibiotics declines. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Does this relate to bacterial resistance to antibiotics? (imf.org)
  • Antibiotics can selectively decrease tissue invasion and eliminate aggressive bacterial species or globally decrease luminal and mucosal bacterial concentrations, depending on their spectrum of activity. (nih.gov)
  • We show that chemical binding kinetics alone are sufficient to explain these three phenomena, using single-cell data and time-kill curves of Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae exposed to a variety of antibiotics in combination with a theoretical model that links chemical reaction kinetics to bacterial population biology. (nih.gov)

Antimicrobial


  • Initially, CA-MRSA isolates were more susceptible than HA-MRSA to classes of antimicrobial agents such as tetracyclines, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, or quinolones ( 12 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Antimicrobial agents and the kidneys -- 6. (stanford.edu)
  • Introduction to antibiotic resistance/ Richard Bax, David Griffin -- The origins of antibiotic resistance/ Gerard D. Wright -- Surveillance programmes and antibiotic resistance: worldwide and regional monitoring of antibiotic resistance trends/ Stephen Hawser -- Current and future challenges in the development of antimicrobial agents/ Robert P. Rennie -- The role of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria in antibiotic resistance: Ajax' shield or Achilles' heel? (stanford.edu)
  • Treating infill artificial turf surfaces with antimicrobial agents is not recommended, as the medical and scientific communities have not documented any benefit in their use, and there are potential disadvantages. (momsteam.com)

infections


  • As a result, there is a need for new intravenous (i.v.) and oral (p.o.) agents active against gram-positive bacterial infections that can be used for both inpatient and outpatient therapy. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This book is an up-to-date practical guide to the treatment of both common and unusual bacterial, fungal, and protozoal skin infections. (stanford.edu)
  • Bacterial infections of the central nervous system -- 51. (stanford.edu)
  • Finding optimal dosing strategies for treating bacterial infections is extremely difficult, and improving therapy requires costly and time-intensive experiments. (nih.gov)
  • Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) has been used for decades to prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs) that are among the most common bacterial infections in women. (nih.gov)

antibiotic


  • Kibdelomycin is a recently discovered natural-product antibiotic that inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting the bacterial DNA replication enzymes DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Antibiotic and chemotherapy : anti-infective agents and their use in therapy. (stanford.edu)
  • To date, an incomplete mechanistic understanding of drug effects has limited our ability to make accurate quantitative predictions of drug-mediated bacterial killing and impeded the rational design of antibiotic treatment strategies. (nih.gov)

anaerobic


  • It was reported to be a broad-spectrum aerobic Gram-positive agent with selective inhibition of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium difficile. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The in vitro activity of TR-700 was evaluated against 1,063 bacterial clinical isolates including staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci, Moraxella catarrhalis , Haemophilus influenzae , and a variety of anaerobic bacterial species. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)

clinical


  • Given the superior antibacterial effect of GO and the fact that GO can be mass-produced and easily processed to make freestanding and flexible paper with low cost, we expect this new carbon nanomaterial may find important environmental and clinical applications. (medgadget.com)
  • Clinical and experimental studies suggest that the relative balance of aggressive and protective bacterial species is altered in these disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Current clinical trials do not fulfill evidence-based criteria for using these agents in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but multiple nonrigorous studies and widespread clinical experience suggest that metronidazole and/or ciprofloxacin can treat Crohn's colitis and ileocolitis (but not isolated ileal disease), perianal fistulae and pouchitis, whereas selected probiotic preparations prevent relapse of quiescent ulcerative colitis and relapsing pouchitis. (nih.gov)
  • As to the traditional use of cranberry and its A-type proanthocyanidins' ability to inhibit adherence of the bacterial P fimbriae in a dose-dependent manner, clinical trials have been conducted on different subpopulations. (nih.gov)

resistance


  • This may help accelerating the development of bacterial resistance. (imf.org)

Bacteria


  • Among the compounds prepared, 4-(cyclic amino)-5-fluoro-imidazoquinolones 31 a-d showed potent and well-balanced antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results indicate that TR-700 is a promising new oxazolidinone antibacterial agent with greater in vitro potency than linezolid against clinically important gram-positive bacteria. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • There is an urgent need for antibacterial medications and compositions containing these funds, which are effective against common oral pathogens and skin bacteria. (russianpatents.com)

soaps


  • Sunlight can convert triclosan, a common disinfectant used in anti-bacterial soaps, into a form of dioxin, and this process may produce some of the dioxin found in the environment, according to research at the University of Minnesota. (innovations-report.com)
  • This should not be interpreted, however, as preventing the use of cleansing agents such as detergents and soaps to clean infill turf surfaces, provided that such cleaning is performed in accordance with the recommendations of the applicable turf and cleaning agent manufacturers, says the CDC. (momsteam.com)

species


  • Alternatively, administration of beneficial bacterial species (probiotics), poorly absorbed dietary oligosaccharides (prebiotics), or combined probiotics and prebiotics (synbiotics) can restore a predominance of beneficial Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species. (nih.gov)

efficacy


  • Mostly there is no information on the antibacterial agents used or on their efficacy. (imf.org)

treatment


  • The invention also relates to an antibacterial composition and treatment methods. (russianpatents.com)

activity


  • In this work, we report the antibacterial activity of two water-dispersible graphene derivatives, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets. (medgadget.com)
  • The imidazoquinolones 30-32 were equal or superior to the corresponding triazoloquinolone analogues 33-35 in in vitro antibacterial activity. (biomedsearch.com)

traditional


  • These agents likely will become an integral component of treating IBD in combination with traditional anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. (nih.gov)

contains


  • In a past, scientists have strong their hunt for a source of a antibacterial properties on a proteins it contains. (mugtama.com)
  • Can we know if an article contains antibacterial agents? (imf.org)

Articles


  • A wide range of antibacterial consumer articles can be found on the Internet. (imf.org)
  • The release of antibacterial agents from these articles creates a constant low exposure for microorganisms. (imf.org)
  • An outline for a strategy to prevent unjustified antibacterial articles was elaborated at a Nordic workshop, initiated by the Swedish presidency of the Nordic Council of Ministers. (imf.org)