Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Anthropology, Medical: Field of social science that is concerned with differences between human groups as related to health status and beliefs.Anthropology, Cultural: It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.Forensic Anthropology: Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)Sex Determination by Skeleton: Validation of the sex of an individual by means of the bones of the SKELETON. It is most commonly based on the appearance of the PELVIS; SKULL; STERNUM; and/or long bones.Forensic Dentistry: The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Interdisciplinary Studies: Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Social Marginalization: Individuals or groups, excluded from participation in the economic, social, and political activities of membership in a community.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)

*  An Anthropology of Biomedicine | Medical Anthropology | Social & Cultural Anthropology | General & Introductory Anthropology |...

An Anthropology of Biomedicine is an exciting new introduction to biomedicine and its global implications. Focusing on the ways ... Research Centre and the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology in Halle, Germany. He was recently awarded the Aurora ... is the Marjorie Bronfman Professor Emerita in the Department of Social Studies of Medicine and the Department of Anthropology ...

*  Department of Anthropology

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*  Cultural Anthropology

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*  Anthropology (ANTHRO)

Anthropology and Photography (3 s.h.) F. (Formerly: ANTHRO 0239.). Prerequisite: Anthropology 1062 (R060) or 1061 (C061) and ... Anthropology and Art (3 s.h.) F S. (Formerly: ANTHRO 0224.). This course examines the anthropology of art and 'artworlds.' ... Anthropology and Social Policy (3 s.h.) F. (Formerly: ANTHRO 0215.). An examination of the place of anthropology within the ... Economic Anthropology (3 s.h.) (Formerly: ANTHRO 0222.). Economic Anthropology is the study of how economic systems articulate ...

*  Anthropology

... College of Natural and Behavioral Sciences. Department of Anthropology. Bachelor of Arts. General Anthropology ... Minor in Anthropology (15 units). The minor consists of five courses in anthropology. In consultation with an advisor, a ... ANT 345 Medical Anthropology (3).. Cross-cultural survey of critical problems common to anthropology and health-related fields ... Explores careers in Anthropology, examines distinctions between academic and applied Anthropology, reviews career options ...

*  Anthropology

... College of Natural and Behavioral Sciences. Department of Anthropology. Bachelor of Arts. General Anthropology ... Minor in Anthropology (15 units). The minor consists of five courses in anthropology. In consultation with an advisor, a ... ANT 345 Medical Anthropology (3).. Cross-cultural survey of critical problems common to anthropology and health-related fields ... ANT 390 Applied Anthropology (3).. Course examines the application of anthropology to the solution of contemporary social ...

*  Anthropology Courses | CSUSM

ANTH 200 Cultural Anthropology. A general survey of cultural anthropology, which is one of the main branches of general ... ANTH 350 Visual Anthropology. Course explores the field of visual anthropology, including but not limited to the examination of ... ANTH 305 Medical Anthropology. General survey of medical anthropology including the study of specific medical cultures, ... ANTH 460 Anthropology and Cultural Competency. Examines the relationship between concepts of cultural competency and realities ...

*  Bernard Perley | Anthropology

Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 24(2), 247-249. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology. ... Anthro 641 - Seminar in Anthropology - Repatriation: New Solutions, Old Problems. Anthro 804 - Linguistic Anthropology. Anthro ... Anthro 361 - Applications in Linguistic Anthropology. Anthro 540 - Applications in Anthropology: Native American Oral ... These explorations integrated the fields of linguistics, sociolinguistics, linguistic anthropology, cultural anthropology, and ...

*  Wiley: Anthropology of Consciousness

A publication of the Society for the Anthropology of Consciousness, Anthropology of Consciousness (AOC) publishes articles from ... Anthropology of Consciousness publishes semiannually and consists of peer-reviewed full length articles and book reviews, as ...

*  holtb | Department of Anthropology

Department of Anthropology , 217 Machmer Hall, 240 Hicks Way , Amherst, Massachusetts, 01003, USA. Phone: (413) 545-2221 Email: ...

*  Archaeology, anthropology | Rocky Mountain Research Station

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*  Department of Anthropology - Durham University

Department of Anthropology. * Undergraduate Study. * Anthropology is the study of all aspects of humanity, from our ... Founded in 1967, the Department of Anthropology at Durham is now one of the largest integrated anthropology departments in the ... evolutionary anthropology, and the anthropology of health. Our 40 academics and over 30 postdoctoral researchers employ a wide ... Department of Anthropology Durham University Dawson Building, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE Tel: +44 (0) 191 334 1612 Fax: +44 (0 ...

*  Cultural Anthropology | NSF - National Science Foundation

The Cultural Anthropology Program participates in this NSF-wide activity offering prestigious awards in support of the early ... The Cultural Anthropology Program supports the dissemination of the most current research tools available for social science ... Cultural Anthropology Scholars Target Dates:. January 16 and August 16 annually for Faculty Scholars proposals. ... There are no deadlines or target dates associated with these types of awards and the Cultural Anthropology program funding for ...

*  Archaeology and Anthropology - The New York Times

Commentary and archival information about archaeology and anthropology from The New York Times. ... Commentary and archival information about archaeology and anthropology from The New York Times. ... News about Archaeology and Anthropology, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. ...

*  Project MUSE - Biological Anthropology and Ethics

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*  Anthropology & Sociology | Courses | Amherst College

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*  Yale University Publications in Anthropology - Google Books

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*  Biological Anthropology - Michael Alan Park - Google Books

... teaching courses in general anthropology, human evolution, biocultural diversity, human ecology, forensic anthropology, and the ... He is the author or co-author of four current texts in anthropology as well as technical and popular articles. ... Michael Alan Park (Ph.D. Indiana, 1979) is a professor of anthropology at Central Connecticut State University, where he has ... frequency amino acids animals apes areas Asia Australopithecus baboons basic behavior bioanthropology biological anthropology ...

*  Jan/Feb Gazette: Gazetteer: Anthropology

... unparalleled in the history of Anthropology. It sparked a slew of e-mail and Web sites devoted to the controversy, as well as ... anthropology professors at Cornell and the University of Hawaii, respectively. The e-mail laid out Tierney s accusations and ...

*  Petition · Support Anthropology in Florida ·

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*  Anthropology: Year In Review 1994 |

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*  Biological Anthropology | General & Introductory Anthropology | Subjects | Wiley

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*  Drury University: Anthropology Course Descriptions

Often cross-listed and interdisciplinary, Anthropology courses at Drury stress social science methodologies, with emphasis on ... Anthropology is the study of human culture. Often cross-listed and interdisciplinary, Anthropology courses at Drury stress ... HomeAcademicsSchool of Humanities & Social SciencesDepartment of Political Science and International AffairsAnthropology Course ... ANTH 111: Introduction to Anthropology. 3 hours.. A survey that builds on basic anthropological concepts, methodologies and ...

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Medical Anthropology Quarterly: Medical Anthropology Quarterly (MAQ) is an international peer-reviewed academic journal published for the Society for Medical Anthropology by the American Anthropological Association. It publishes research and theory about human health and disease from all areas of medical anthropology.Negroid: Negroid (also known as Congoid) is a term that is used by forensic and physical anthropologists to refer to individuals and populations that share certain morphological and skeletal traits that are frequent among most populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. The term is commonly associated with notions of racial typology, which are disputed by many anthropologists.Dell Hymes: Dell Hathaway Hymes (June 7, 1927, Portland, OregonNovember 13, 2009, Charlottesville, Virginia) was a linguist, sociolinguist, anthropologist, and folklorist who established disciplinary foundations for the comparative, ethnographic study of language use. His research focused upon the languages of the Pacific Northwest.Mass graveProto-Greek language: The Proto-Greek language is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean, the classical Greek dialects (Attic-Ionic, Aeolic, Doric and Arcado-Cypriot), and ultimately Koine, Byzantine and modern Greek. The unity of Proto-Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants, speaking the predecessor of the Mycenaean language, entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Neolithic era or the Bronze Age.Alexander Walker (physiologist): Alexander Walker (1779—1852) was a Scottish physiologist, aesthetician, encyclopaedist, translator, novelist, and journalist.Q Division Studios: Q Division Studios is a recording studio located in Somerville, Massachusetts, United States, at the heart of the Boston area's music scene. Founded in 1986, Q Division was originally located at 443 Albany Street in Boston, but moved to its current two-studio facility in 2000.NeurogeneticsDavid Glass (sociologist): 1970sMedical sign: A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a physician during a physical examination of a patient. For example, whereas paresthesia is a symptom (only the person experiencing it can directly observe their own tingling feeling), erythema is a sign (anyone can confirm that the skin is redder than usual).Pothy: Pothy is a small town near Thalayolaparambu, Kottayam district in Kerala, India. It is 2 km far from Thalayolaparambu, 10 km far from Vaikom, 35 km far from Ernakulam & Kottayam.Newington Green Unitarian ChurchThe Flash ChroniclesAndrew Dickson White

(1/125) Freezer anthropology: new uses for old blood.

Archived blood fractions (plasma, settled red cells, white cells) have proved to be a rich and valuable source of DNA for human genetic studies. Large numbers of such samples were collected between 1960 and the present for protein and blood group studies, many of which are languishing in freezers or have already been discarded. More are discarded each year because the usefulness of these samples is not widely understood. Data from DNA derived from 10-35-year-old blood samples have been used to address the peopling of the New World and of the Pacific. Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from studies using this source DNA support a single wave of migration into the New World (or a single source population for the New World), and that Mongolia was the likely source of the founding population. Data from Melanesia have shown that Polynesians are recent immigrants into the Pacific and did not arise from Melanesia.  (+info)

(2/125) Folkecology and commons management in the Maya Lowlands.

Three groups living off the same rainforest habitat manifest strikingly distinct behaviors, cognitions, and social relationships relative to the forest. Only the area's last native Maya reveal systematic awareness of ecological complexity involving animals, plants, and people and practices clearly favoring forest regeneration. Spanish-speaking immigrants prove closer to native Maya in thought, action, and social networking than do immigrant Maya. There is no overriding "local," "Indian," or "immigrant" relationship to the environment. Results indicate that exclusive concern with rational self-interest and institutional constraints do not sufficiently account for commons behavior and that cultural patterning of cognition and access to relevant information are significant predictors. Unlike traditional accounts of relations between culture, cognition, and behavior, the models offered are not synthetic interpretations of people's thoughts and behaviors but are emergent cultural patterns derived statistically from measurements of individual cognitions and behaviors.  (+info)

(3/125) The early Upper Paleolithic human skeleton from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) and modern human emergence in Iberia.

The discovery of an early Upper Paleolithic human burial at the Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal, has provided evidence of early modern humans from southern Iberia. The remains, the largely complete skeleton of a approximately 4-year-old child buried with pierced shell and red ochre, is dated to ca. 24,500 years B.P. The cranium, mandible, dentition, and postcrania present a mosaic of European early modern human and Neandertal features. The temporal bone has an intermediate-sized juxtamastoid eminence. The mandibular mentum osseum and the dental size and proportions, supported by mandibular ramal features, radial tuberosity orientation, and diaphyseal curvature, as well as the pubic proportions align the skeleton with early modern humans. Body proportions, reflected in femorotibial lengths and diaphyseal robusticity plus tibial condylar displacement, as well as mandibular symphyseal retreat and thoracohumeral muscle insertions, align the skeleton with the Neandertals. This morphological mosaic indicates admixture between regional Neandertals and early modern humans dispersing into southern Iberia. It establishes the complexities of the Late Pleistocene emergence of modern humans and refutes strict replacement models of modern human origins.  (+info)

(4/125) Why hunter-gatherer populations do not show signs of pleistocene demographic expansions.

The mitochondrial DNA diversity of 62 human population samples was examined for potential signals of population expansions. Stepwise expansion times were estimated by taking into account heterogeneity of mutation rates among sites. Assuming an mtDNA divergence rate of 33% per million years, most populations show signals of Pleistocene expansions at around 70,000 years (70 KY) ago in Africa and Asia, 55 KY ago in America, and 40 KY ago in Europe and the Middle East, whereas the traces of the oldest expansions are found in East Africa (110 KY ago for the Turkana). The genetic diversity of two groups of populations (most Amerindian populations and present-day hunter-gatherers) cannot be explained by a simple stepwise expansion model. A multivariate analysis of the genetic distances among 61 populations reveals that populations that did not undergo demographic expansions show increased genetic distances from other populations, confirming that the demography of the populations strongly affects observed genetic affinities. The absence of traces of Pleistocene expansions in present-day hunter-gatherers seems best explained by the occurrence of recent bottlenecks in those populations, implying a difference between Pleistocene (approximately 1,800 KY to 10 KY ago) and Holocene (10 KY to present) hunter-gatherers demographies, a difference that occurred after, and probably in response to, the Neolithic expansions of the other populations.  (+info)

(5/125) A finding of oligocene primates on the European continent.

In this paper, we provide evidence that contrary to the current view, primates on the European continent did survive the dramatic extinction/origination event across the Eocene/Oligocene boundary 34 million years ago that severely affected the Eurasian mammal communities (the European "Grande Coupure" and the Asian "Mongolian Remodeling"). The survival of a mouse-sized omomyid for at least 2 million years, recorded in two localities of the Lower Stampian (Lower Oligocene) in a well dated stratigraphic series of fluviatile sediments in the north oriental sector of the Ebro Basin (Northeastern Spain), reflects the size-related survival pattern described recently for other coeval mammalian taxa.  (+info)

(6/125) Mid-Pleistocene Acheulean-like stone technology of the Bose basin, South China.

Stone artifacts from the Bose basin, South China, are associated with tektites dated to 803,000 +/- 3000 years ago and represent the oldest known large cutting tools (LCTs) in East Asia. Bose toolmaking is compatible with Mode 2 (Acheulean) technologies in Africa in its targeted manufacture and biased spatial distribution of LCTs, large-scale flaking, and high flake scar counts. Acheulean-like tools in the mid-Pleistocene of South China imply that Mode 2 technical advances were manifested in East Asia contemporaneously with handaxe technology in Africa and western Eurasia. Bose lithic technology is associated with a tektite airfall and forest burning.  (+info)

(7/125) Reflexivity--a strategy for a patient-centred approach in general practice.

Reflexivity as a strategy in general practice can be used to implement a patient-centred approach in the consultation. General practice has long represented a tradition attempting to integrate both illness and disease. For the GP, it is natural to focus on the patient's whole situation, and the GP's experience with patients is often based on a long-term relationship. Reflexivity implies having a self-conscious account of the production of knowledge as it is being produced. We believe that GPs can gain access to additional knowledge by consciously using reflexivity as a strategy in the consultation. In the present article, we discuss reflexivity in relation to the notions of empathy, personal experience and self-knowledge. By using reflexivity in order to rely on personal experience, the GP can gain access to patients' understanding of their health. Reflexivity can be a valuable concept for the GP in patient-centred medicine and can contribute to bridging the gap between the patient's perspective and the doctor's understanding of the patient's health.  (+info)

(8/125) Stable isotope evidence for increasing dietary breadth in the European mid-Upper Paleolithic.

New carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values for human remains dating to the mid-Upper Paleolithic in Europe indicate significant amounts of aquatic (fish, mollusks, and/or birds) foods in some of their diets. Most of this evidence points to exploitation of inland freshwater aquatic resources in particular. By contrast, European Neandertal collagen carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values do not indicate significant use of inland aquatic foods but instead show that they obtained the majority of their protein from terrestrial herbivores. In agreement with recent zooarcheological analyses, the isotope results indicate shifts toward a more broad-spectrum subsistence economy in inland Europe by the mid-Upper Paleolithic period, probably associated with significant population increases.  (+info)


  • It introduces the field of Anthropology in general and, subsequently, the sub-fields of the discipline (Social-cultural Anthropology, Linguistics, Biological Anthropology, Archaeology), and the specialized tracks that exist within the department (Human Biology and Visual Anthropology). (
  • The Department of Anthropology offers undergraduate students course work in the four anthropological subdisciplines: ethnology, archaeology, physical anthropology and anthropological linguistics. (
  • Majors may choose between the General Anthropology concentration or the Archaeology concentration. (
  • The major concentration in Archaeology is designed to provide the undergraduate student with a strong background in general anthropology, archaeology and cultural preservation. (
  • News about Archaeology and Anthropology, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. (
  • Archaeology, which studies past human cultures through investigation of physical evidence, is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States, while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right or grouped under other related disciplines, such as history. (
  • Arctic Anthropology is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on the archaeology, ethnology, and physical anthropology of arctic and subarctic peoples. (
  • American anthropology is organized into four fields, each of which plays an important role in research on culture: biological anthropology linguistic anthropology cultural anthropology archaeology Research in these fields has influenced anthropologists working in other countries to different degrees. (

Department of Anthropology

  • The Department of Anthropology, in the College of Natural and Behavioral Sciences, offers a major and minor in the discipline. (
  • Founded in 1967, the Department of Anthropology at Durham is now one of the largest integrated anthropology departments in the UK carrying out innovative research on cutting edge topics spanning social anthropology, evolutionary anthropology, and the anthropology of health. (
  • further explanation needed] In the late 1970s, Michael Silverstein, a young student of Jakobson's at Harvard University, joined Singer in Chicago's Department of Anthropology. (


  • Goals of the major concentration in General Anthropology include providing the undergraduate student with a foundation in the fields of anthropology: applied, archaeological, biological, cultural, and linguistic. (
  • Offers an introduction to human origins from the perspective of biological anthropology. (
  • Perley's current research trajectory incorporates cognitive science, biological anthropology, narratology, and emergent languages (Perley et al. (
  • Biological or physical anthropology studies the biological development of humans. (
  • His interest was mainly in Biological anthropology, but a German philosopher specializing in psychology, Theodor Waitz, took up the theme of general and social anthropology in his six-volume work, entitled Die Anthropologie der Naturvölker, 1859-1864. (
  • This kinship-focused Darwinian anthropology was a significant intellectual forebear of evolutionary psychology, and both draw on biological theories of the evolution of social behavior (in particular inclusive fitness theory) upon which the field of sociobiology was founded. (
  • Instead of looking for the biology underlying biological roots of human behavior, biocultural anthropology attempts to understand how culture affects our biological capacities and limitations. (
  • Other anthropologists, both biological and cultural, have criticized the biocultural synthesis, generally as part of a broader critique of "four-field holism" in U.S. anthropology (see anthropology main article). (
  • Typically such criticisms rest on the belief that biocultural anthropology imposes holism upon the biological and cultural subfields without adding value, or even destructively. (


  • These explorations integrated the fields of linguistics, sociolinguistics, linguistic anthropology, cultural anthropology, and indigenous studies into research and programmatic projects designed to promote indigenous language revitalization. (
  • 2013b) in exploring the intersections of cognition, metaphors, narrative, and linguistic anthropology as an integrated approach to language revitalization (Perley 2011b). (
  • Journal of Linguistic Anthropology , 24 (2), 247-249. (
  • Journal of Linguistic Anthropology. (
  • Linguistic anthropology studies how language affects social life. (
  • Linguistic study of cognitive anthropology may be broken down into three subfields: semantics, syntactics, and pragmatics. (

medical anthropology

  • Students have the opportunity to develop a focused minor in consultation with an advisor in specialized areas such as medical anthropology, New World cultures, physical anthropology, cognitive anthropology, etc. (
  • Course includes examination of the role of medical anthropology in cross-cultural medicine. (
  • musicology and medical anthropology are examples of current, well-defined specialities. (

anthropological theory and methods

  • The General Anthropology concentration stresses the application of anthropological theory and methods to real world conditions through field research, data collection, and area studies. (

Society for the Anthropology

  • A publication of the Society for the Anthropology of Consciousness , Anthropology of Consciousness ( AOC ) publishes articles from multidisciplinary perspectives that focus on the study of consciousness and/or its practical application to contemporary issues. (


  • The transformation of cultural ecology into ecological anthropology took place in the 1960s through the 1980s by anthropologists John Bennett, Roy A. Rappaport, Andrew P. Vayda, and others. (
  • Social and cultural anthropologists, and some who integrate the two, are found in most institutes of anthropology. (
  • Many anthropologists consider biocultural anthropology as the future of anthropology because it serves as a guiding force towards greater integration of the subdisciplines. (
  • By the late 1960s, political anthropology was a flourishing subfield: in 1969 there were two hundred anthropologists listing the subdicipline as one of their areas of interests, and a quarter of all British anthropologists listed politics as a topic that they studied. (
  • Most anthropologists who use the phrase "digital anthropology" are specifically referring to online and Internet technology. (


  • Postmodern theory (PM) in anthropology originated in the 1960s along with the literary postmodern movement in general. (
  • By the 1960s this transition work developed into a full-fledged subdiscipline which was canonized in volumes such as Political Anthropology (1966) edited by Victor Turner and Marc Swartz. (
  • The focus on conflict and social reproduction was carried over into Marxist approaches that came to dominate French political anthropology from the 1960s. (


  • Cognitive anthropology has strong ties to ethnoscience and linguistics. (
  • From a linguistics stand-point, cognitive anthropology uses language as the doorway to study cognition. (


  • Contextualism Susan Gal Symbolic anthropology Winfried Nöth (1995) Handbook of semiotics p.103 Singer, M. B. (1978). (
  • citation needed] In contrast to cultural anthropology, culture and its continuity (including narratives, rituals, and symbolic behavior associated with them) have been traditionally seen more as the dependent 'variable' (cf. explanandum) by social anthropology, embedded in its historical and social context, including its diversity of positions and perspectives, ambiguities, conflicts, and contradictions of social life, rather than the independent (explanatory) one (cf. explanans). (
  • Toward a convergence of cognitive and symbolic anthropology. (

Human Biology

  • Nutritional anthropology is the interplay between human biology, economic systems, nutritional status and food security, and how changes in the former affect the latter. (
  • Biocultural anthropology attempts to understand challenges to human biology in an ever increasing and diversified cultural environment. (


  • Comparative and evolutionary, scientific and humanistic, Anthropology provides a unique opportunity for broadening and integrating one's view of human existence. (
  • Anthropology is the study of all aspects of humanity, from our evolutionary origins to our extraordinary social and cultural diversity. (
  • Cognitive anthropology is an approach within cultural anthropology in which scholars seek to explain patterns of shared knowledge, cultural innovation, and transmission over time and space using the methods and theories of the cognitive sciences (especially experimental psychology and evolutionary biology) often through close collaboration with historians, ethnographers, archaeologists, linguists, musicologists and other specialists engaged in the description and interpretation of cultural forms. (
  • Darwinian anthropology describes an approach to anthropological analysis which employs various theories from Darwinian evolutionary biology. (
  • Where anthropology was traditionally geared towards historical and evolutionary trends, what psychology concerned itself with was more ahistorical and acultural in nature. (


  • Michael Alan Park (Ph.D. Indiana, 1979) is a professor of anthropology at Central Connecticut State University, where he has been on the faculty since 1973, teaching courses in general anthropology, human evolution, biocultural diversity, human ecology, forensic anthropology, and the evolution of human behavior. (
  • Biocultural anthropology can be defined in numerous ways. (
  • What's Cultural about Biocultural Research," Written by William W. Dressler, connects the cultural perspective of biocultural anthropology to "cultural consonance" which is defined as "a model to assess the approximation of an individuals behavior compared to the guiding awareness of his or her culture. (
  • Paul Baker, an anthropologist at Penn State whose work focused upon human adaptation to environmental variations, is credited with having popularized the concept of "biocultural" anthropology as a distinct subcategory of anthropology in general. (


  • By majoring or minoring in Anthropology, a student gains a better understanding of people's behavior within cultural settings. (
  • A general survey of cultural anthropology, which is one of the main branches of general Anthropology. (
  • The comparative, cross-cultural method distinctive to anthropology is used to explore the diverse ideas and behavior that characterize humanity and the human condition. (
  • The primary objective of the Cultural Anthropology Program is to support basic scientific research on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability. (
  • Anthropological research spans a wide gamut, and contemporary cultural anthropology is an arena in which diverse research traditions and methodologies are valid. (
  • Recognizing the breadth of the field's contributions to science, the Cultural Anthropology Program welcomes proposals for empirically grounded, theoretically engaged, and methodologically sophisticated research in all sub-fields of cultural anthropology. (
  • Because the National Science Foundation's mandate is to support basic research, the NSF Cultural Anthropology Program does not fund research that takes as its primary goal improved clinical practice or applied policy. (
  • Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the norms and values of societies. (
  • Structural anthropology is a school of anthropology based on Claude Lévi-Strauss' idea that immutable deep structures exist in all cultures, and consequently, that all cultural practices have homologous counterparts in other cultures, essentially that all cultures are equitable. (
  • Economic anthropology is a field that attempts to explain human economic behavior in its widest historic, geographic and cultural scope. (
  • The new focus of environmental anthropology was cultural variation and diversity. (
  • The contemporary perspective of environmental anthropology, and arguably at least the backdrop, if not the focus of most of the ethnographies and cultural fieldworks of today, is political ecology. (
  • Social anthropology or anthroposociology is the dominant constituent of anthropology throughout the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and much of Europe (France in particular), where it is distinguished from cultural anthropology. (
  • In the United States, social anthropology is commonly subsumed within cultural anthropology (or under the relatively new designation of sociocultural anthropology). (
  • Some, such as the Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology (Oxford) changed their name to reflect the change in composition, others, such as Social Anthropology at the University of Kent became simply Anthropology. (
  • Cognitive anthropology studies a range of domains including folk taxonomies, the interaction of language and thought, and cultural models. (
  • In contrast to traditional ethnographic methods in cultural anthropology, cognitive anthropology primarily uses quantitative methodologies in order to study culture. (
  • In the introduction to their book The Anthropology of Globalization: a Reader, Inda and Rosaldo examine the dynamics of cultural customization in the face of globalization. (
  • Other major tenets of postmodernist anthropology are: an emphasis on including the opinions and perspectives of the people being studied, cultural relativism as a method of inquiry skepticism towards the claims of science to producing objective and universally valid knowledge the rejection of grand, universal schemes or theories which explain other cultures (Barrett 1996). (
  • Transpersonal anthropology is a subdiscipline of cultural anthropology. (
  • Transpersonal psychology Young, David E. and J.-G. Goulet (1994) Being Changed by Cross-cultural Encounters: The Anthropology of Extraordinary Experiences. (
  • Laughlin, Charles D. (1994) "Psychic Energy and Transpersonal Experience: A Biogenetic Structural Account of the Tibetan Dumo Practice," in Being Changed by Cross-cultural Encounters: The Anthropology of Extraordinary Experiences (ed. by D.E. Young and J.-G. Goulet). (
  • Psychological anthropology is an interdisciplinary subfield of anthropology that studies the interaction of cultural and mental processes. (


  • Sporadic use of the term for some of the subject matter occurred subsequently, such as the use by Étienne Serres in 1839 to describe the natural history, or paleontology, of man, based on comparative anatomy, and the creation of a chair in anthropology and ethnography in 1850 at the National Museum of Natural History (France) by Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau. (


  • The phrase "semiotic anthropology" was first used by Milton Singer (1978). (
  • Campbell, R.L. and P.S. Staniford (1978) "Transpersonal Anthropology. (


  • A session on anthropology was organized at the Ninth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences in 1973, the proceedings of which were eventually published in 1979 as Political Anthropology: The State of the Art. (


  • Gone Anthropologist": Epistemic Slippage, Native Anthropology, and the Dilemmas of Representation. (
  • An Anthropologist practices anthropology. (


  • Social anthropology has historical roots in a number of 19th-century disciplines, including ethnology, folklore studies, and Classics, among others. (


  • Semiotic anthropology has its precursor in Malinowski's contextualism (which may be called anthropological semantics), which was later resumed by John Rupert Firth. (


  • An examination of theory and method in social anthropology as applied in the analysis of specific societies. (
  • Anthropology is the study of various aspects of humans within past and present societies. (
  • Social anthropology is distinguished from subjects such as economics or political science by its holistic range and the attention it gives to the comparative diversity of societies and cultures across the world, and the capacity this gives the discipline to re-examine Euro-American assumptions. (
  • Political anthropology concerns the structure of political systems, looked at from the basis of the structure of societies. (


  • Two additional theoretical and methodological frameworks surfaced in the 1980s and 90s which attempted to cast ecological anthropology in a more scientific light. (
  • During the 1970s and 1980s, psychological anthropology began to shift its focus towards the study of human behaviour in a natural setting. (


  • Sheppard has noted how transpersonal anthropology can be said to have begun in the USA in the 1970s. (
  • Interest in anthropology grew in the 1970s. (

cognitive science

  • Anthropology is one of six fields which contributed to the founding of cognitive science. (
  • However, anthropology has been criticised for being detached from cognitive science. (


  • The study of humans' relationship to a broader range of technology may fall under other subfields of anthropological study, such as cyborg anthropology. (


  • Within mainstream physical anthropology, scholars tend to think that a more restrictive definition is necessary. (


  • Our taught programmes offer students the opportunity to pursue general and specialist anthropology programmes at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, while our PhD students study topics from primate behaviour to rhetoric culture and indigenous knowledge to internet technologies. (


  • Anthropology and sociology emerged as distinct modes of inquiry in 19th-century Europe in response to several centuries of disorienting change. (
  • Anthropology and many other current fields are the intellectual results of the comparative methods developed in the earlier 19th century. (
  • Political anthropology has its roots in the 19th century. (


  • Long-term qualitative research, including intensive field studies (emphasizing participant observation methods) has been traditionally encouraged in social anthropology rather than quantitative analysis of surveys, questionnaires and brief field visits typically used by economists, political scientists, and (most) sociologists. (


  • Anthropology, or Anthropologie in some languages, refers primarily to a science. (


  • Laughlin, Charles D. (1994) "Transpersonal Anthropology, Then and Now. (
  • Laughlin, Charles D. (1994) "Apodicticity: The Problem of Absolute Certainty in Transpersonal Anthropology. (


  • Contemporary political anthropology can be traced back to the 1940 publication African Political Systems, edited by Meyer Fortes and E.E. Evans-Pritchard. (


  • In a move that would be influential for future anthropology, they focused on kinship as the key to understanding political organization, and emphasized the role of the 'gens' or lineage as an object of study. (


  • Anthropology studies the varied nature of human experience in American society and in the cultures of the world. (
  • For the most part, studies in economic anthropology focus on exchange. (
  • Sheppard explains how Edith Turner's interpretations of her husband's field studies among the Ndembu in Zambia can be interpreted as belonging to transpersonal anthropology, insofar as her interpretations of their healing rituals were transpersonal. (


  • Career paths and opportunities will be discussed and students will develop hypothetical course plans for a B.A. in Anthropology and subsequent career plans in conjunction with the faculty member/advisor in charge of the course. (


  • The Robert J. Franklin Anthropology Laboratory is equipped for student study of archaeological collections. (
  • In the episode, the study group attend their first series of classes in Anthropology 101, the course which they had decided to take together for the new semester. (
  • In the next Anthropology class, Jeff answers Professor Bauer's question by saying that the most important tool is respect, and that the study group needs each other and should respect each other more. (
  • Nevertheless, they laid the basis for political anthropology by undertaking a modern study inspired by modern science, and in particular Darwin. (
  • Digital anthropology is the anthropological study of the relationship between humans and digital-era technology. (


  • Environmental anthropology enters the field as an applied dimension built on the primary approaches within contemporary ecological anthropology. (
  • It thus may make more sense to consider psychoanalytic anthropology since the latter part of the 20th century as more a style or a set of research agendas that cut across several other approaches within anthropology. (


  • Social Anthropology 23, vol. 2. (
  • Darwinian anthropology was critiqued by Symonds for its agnosticism as to the psychological mechanisms governing how social behavior is actually expressed in the human species, and its reliance on interpreting inclusive fitness theory to simply imply that humans have evolved to be inclusive fitness maximizers. (


  • Anthropology of Consciousness publishes semiannually and consists of peer-reviewed full length articles and book reviews, as well as letters to the editor. (


  • More recently, Sheppard has published an article criticising transpersonal anthropology, at least as it has typically been practiced in contemporary scholarship. (


  • Symons made this observation in his 1989 Critique of Darwinian Anthropology: DA's central hypothesis is that "evolved behavioral tendencies" cause human "behavior to assume the form that maximizes inclusive fitness"(Irons 1979b, 33). (
  • Postmodernist Anthropology, Subjectivity, and Science: A Modernist Critique" (PDF). (


  • Each school within psychological anthropology has its own approach. (
  • Psychological Anthropology has been interwoven with anthropology since the beginning. (
  • most members of the "culture and personality school" of psychological anthropology did so. (


  • the difficulty in studying non-Western cultures that have been truly immune to Western influences and the question of the extent to which transpersonal anthropology has really addressed altered states of consciousness. (


  • Its origins as a sub-field of anthropology began with work by the Polish founder of anthropology Bronislaw Malinowski and the French Marcel Mauss on the nature of reciprocity as an alternative to market exchange. (
  • Environmental anthropology is a sub-specialty within the field of anthropology that takes an active role in examining the relationships between humans and their environment across space and time. (
  • Laughlin, who may be considered to be one of the founders of the field, has published extensively on the topic of Transpersonal Anthropology. (


  • MacDonald, J.L. (1981) "Theoretical Continuities in Transpersonal Anthropology. (


  • This slippage is a problem because during the formative years of modern primatology, some primatologists were trained in anthropology (and understood that culture refers to learned behavior among humans), and others were not. (

holistic perspective

  • What distinguishes anthropology from other disciplines concerned with people is its holistic perspective or encompassing view, and its central concern with the concept of culture. (


  • In 1647, the Bartholins, founders of the University of Copenhagen, defined l'anthropologie as follows: Anthropology, that is to say the science that treats of man, is divided ordinarily and with reason into Anatomy, which considers the body and the parts, and Psychology, which speaks of the soul. (


  • Steward's ecological anthropology was based on topography, climate, and resources and their accessibility to define culture. (
  • American anthropology has culture as its central and unifying concept. (


  • Though intimately connected in many ways, the fields of anthropology and psychology have generally remained separate. (