Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Animal Care Committees: Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).Animals, LaboratoryAnimal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Animal Rights: The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Housing, AnimalVeterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Animal Use Alternatives: Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.Ethology: The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.Foot Dermatoses: Skin diseases of the foot, general or unspecified.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Ethics: The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Animal Identification Systems: Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Handling (Psychology): Physical manipulation of animals and humans to induce a behavioral or other psychological reaction. In experimental psychology, the animal is handled to induce a stress situation or to study the effects of "gentling" or "mothering".Animals, ZooAbattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.United StatesBreeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Aid to Families with Dependent Children: Financial assistance provided by the government to indigent families with dependent children who meet certain requirements as defined by the Social Security Act, Title IV, in the U.S.

*  Widow leaves millions to animal welfare - Redorbit

About half the money goes to the Dogs Trust and most of the rest to other animal welfare organizations. ... widow in Scotland learned Friday that she had been a millionaire and that she had left those millions for animal welfare. ...
redorbit.com/news/oddities/1614061/widow_leaves_millions_to_animal_welfare/

*  IFAW - International Fund for Animal Welfare

International Fund for Animal Welfare , 290 Summer Street, Yarmouth Port, MA 02675 , USA. IFAW is a 501(c)3 nonprofit ...
ifaw.org/united-states/node/64/theme/publications?page=2

*  Primates | IFAW - International Fund for Animal Welfare

International Fund for Animal Welfare , 87-90 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7UD , United Kingdom. © IFAW is a company limited ... With illegal wildlife trade being one of the most serious threats to biodiversity, the International Fund for Animal Welfare ... Two western hoolock gibbons under long-term care at the wildlife rescue centre run by the International Fund for Animal Read ...
ifaw.org/united-kingdom/taxonomy/term/30

*  Category:Wildlife conservation organizations - Wikipedia

For organizations that are involved in animal welfare (e.g., prevention of abuse of individual animals, or promotion of laws ... protecting the health and safety of animals in care of humans, see: Category: Animal welfare organizations. ... For organizations dedicated to the conservation of particular species of animals, see: Category: Animal conservation ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Wildlife_conservation_organizations

*  Food Processing Industry Audits - News and Events - NSF International

... animal welfare and food defense. ...
nsf.org/newsroom/news-cat/category/processing-audits?date=07-2012

*  Review

Challenge 5: Welfare and sustainability. Professor Marian Stamp Dawkins, professor of animal behaviour, department of zoology, ... "Good welfare has a commercial value.". "We should see welfare as having an input into the bird's immune system.". "By observing ... Peter Oostenbach, associate director of global policy animal health, MSD Animal Health. "Reduced veterinary use of antibiotics ... particularly as over-use of antibiotics is seen as intrinsically linked to animal welfare.". "Within the Tesco supply chain, ...
poultrysummit-europe.nl/review/

*  Anna Light - My Care2

Animal Welfare Activities: astronomy, Amusement Parks, Journal Keeping, travel, singing, photography, Listening to Music, arts/ ... X Files, The Simpsons, LOST, history channel, Grey's Anatomy, Discovery Channel, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Animal Planet, ...
care2.com/c2c/people/profile.html?pid=340608213

*  Post Punk Kitchen Forum • View topic - feeding pets meat + animal welfare

I think that is probably often true, though if labels just say 'animal' or 'meat' anything and don't specify what animal, it's ... I think that is probably often true, though if labels just say 'animal' or 'meat' anything and don't specify what animal, it's ... I try to check if the protein it contains is D-E-F-I-N-I-T-E-L-Y animal based, not plant based. Ideally I would make my own raw ... Sometimes I do have moments where I'm like, wow, I am funding the slaughter of a whole lot of animals to keep this one animal ...
forum.theppk.com/viewtopic.php?p=590623

*  Recent Articles | Animal Welfare, Immunology And Cell & Molecular Biology | The Scientist Magazine®

tags: animal welfare x immunology x cell & molecular biology x The Scientist. » animal welfare, immunology and cell & molecular ...
the-scientist.com/?articles.list/categoryNo/2625/category/The-Scientist/tagNo/1865,12,4/tags/animal-welfare,immunology,cell--amp--molecular-biology/

*  Press Release/ GenScript Received OLAW Approval for Animal Welfare Assurance - Pharma/BioTech/Nutrition - GenScript Corporation...

received the approval of Animal Welfare Assurance from the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) of the U.S. National ... Institutes of Health (NIH) for its animal facility on 9 November ... received the approval of Animal Welfare Assurance from the ... received the approval of Animal Welfare Assurance from the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) of the U.S. National ... Our purpose of having Animal Welfare Assurance is to reinforce our principle on laboratory animal welfare, so that we can ...
przoom.com/news/81528/GenScript-Received-OLAW-Approval-for-Animal-Welfare-Assurance/

*  FL - Cruelty, Humane Slaughter - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes/Humane Slaughter Laws | Animal Legal & Historical Center

... and welfare. ... Local Animal Control:. 828.27 . Local animal control or cruelty ... 3) A person who commits multiple acts of animal cruelty or aggravated animal cruelty against an animal may be charged with a ... A person who commits animal cruelty or aggravated animal cruelty against more than one animal may be charged with a separate ... or to harass an animal with one or more animals for the purpose of training an animal for, or to cause an animal to engage in, ...
https://animallaw.info/statute/fl-cruelty-humane-slaughter-consolidated-cruelty-statuteshumane-slaughter-laws

*  Animal Welfare :: Care2 Groups (Animals & Pets)

And to provide more people with information about animal welfare. Not to mention, help stop animal cruelty. (Animals & Pets) ... Animal Welfare. This is a group for people who want to help homeless and abandoned animals find caring and loving homes. ...
care2.com/c2c/group/HSOTC

*  Animal Welfare Committee

... and interpret relevant information on animal welfare issues of importance to the veterinary profession, and to develop ... Animal Welfare Committee. Charge/Objective:. To gather, study, and interpret relevant information on animal welfare issues of ... humane or animal welfare organizations, zoo and wildlife medicine, Association of Avian Veterinarians, the Student AVMA, and ... and to develop position statements on animal welfare issues for consideration by the Board of Directors. ...
https://avma.org/Members/Volunteer/BecomeAVolunteer/Pages/awc.aspx

*  Part C - Chapter 12: Food Animal Humane Handling and Slaughter - Animal Welfare Requirements - Food - Canadian Food Inspection...

... and guidelines regarding the regulatory requirements related to animal welfare. ... 12.11 Facility Design / Equipment and Animal Welfare. For the effective implementation of any animal welfare control plan and ... Chapter 12: Food Animal Humane Handling and Slaughter - Animal Welfare Requirements Part C: Poultry and Rabbit Species This ... The establishment operator has a written Animal Welfare Control Program that includes: *animal handling and gas stunning ...
inspection.gc.ca/food/meat-and-poultry-products/manual-of-procedures/chapter-12/animal-welfare-requirements/eng/1392144659190/1392144660111?chap=3

*  Wildlife Services Continues Killing Spree | Animal Welfare Institute

When an animal, attracted by the bait, tugs on the device, sodium cyanide powder is propelled into the animal's mouth. Once ... Animal Welfare Institute, 900 Pennsylvania Ave., SE, Washington, DC 20003. Phone: (202) 337-2332 ... Because the bait attracts a broad range of animals, however, M-44s are responsible for many non-target animal fatalities, as ... exposing livestock to Compound 1080's dangerous effects and threatening any animal who encounters the leaked substance. ...
awionline.org/awi-quarterly/2012-summer/wildlife-services-continues-killing-spree

*  Poison-Free Poultry | Animal Welfare Institute

Animal Welfare Institute has sought to alleviate the suffering inflicted on animals by people. We seek better treatment of ... Animal Welfare Institute, 900 Pennsylvania Ave., SE, Washington, DC 20003. Phone: (202) 337-2332 ... but animal welfare is compromised as well. Animals who innocently eat feed laced with drugs to make them grow unnaturally fast ... It is reckless to add a known carcinogen to animal feed. By ending this unnecessary and dangerous practice, H.R. 3624 will ...
awionline.org/awi-quarterly/2010-winter/poison-free-poultry

*  Animal welfare - Massey University

... and develop ethical principles to guide human-animal interactions and biotechnology. ... Massey University's Animal Welfare group promotes the humane and responsible care of animals through scientific research and ... Animal welfare science. The assessment of animal welfare using a range of techniques including behaviour, physiology, health ... This is a sensitive and important welfare issue for the dairy industry and animal welfare organisations. The transport and ...
massey.ac.nz/massey/learning/colleges/college-of-sciences/research/veterinary-animal-biomedical-research/veterinary-sciences-research/animal-welfare/animal-welfare_home.cfm

*  Trapped in Debate | Animal Welfare Institute

Animal Welfare Institute has sought to alleviate the suffering inflicted on animals by people. We seek better treatment of ... Animal Welfare Institute, 900 Pennsylvania Ave., SE, Washington, DC 20003. Phone: (202) 337-2332 ... 3 The measure was the first ever international agreement that comprehensively addressed animal welfare issues specific to ... Animal advocates hoped Regulation 3254/91 would provide the necessary impetus to finally end use of leghold traps within the U. ...
awionline.org/awi-quarterly/2009-summer/trapped-debate

*  Animal Welfare and Behaviour | Bristol Veterinary School | University of Bristol

Research in Animal Welfare and Behaviour spans fundamental studies of cognition and emotion, through validation of animal ... companion animal behaviour; welfare on farm and implementation of welfare solutions; and statistical and mathematical ... Establishing the quantitative relationship between the two main animal welfare assessment methodologies, including the first ... assured standards and knowledge transfer to improve animal welfare in the UK, Europe and developing countries. ...
bristol.ac.uk/vetscience/research/welfare-behaviour/

*  Honey Suckle | Animal Welfare Society (AWS) | West Kennebunk, Maine Animal Welfare Society

The Animal Welfare Society exists to provide humane shelter and care to animals and to further the cause of responsible animal ... Open for Animal Admissions:. Sun - Tues and Thurs - Fri: by appointment only. Call (207) 985-3244 for scheduling and ...
animalwelfaresociety.org/success_stories/honey-suckle/

*  PROF. MBITHI PETER M.F., Vice Chancellor

Improvements of animal welfare may be achieved through (a) assessment of animal welfare, (b) identification of risk factors ... animal "well-being" refers to the current state of the animal, but animal welfare is a more general term referring to past, ... Ethological parameters include individual animal behavior, animal-to-animal interaction, human-animal interaction, agonistic ... animal behavior and animal needs based on the five freedoms is paramount in assessing as well as enforcing animal welfare. ...
https://profiles.uonbi.ac.ke/pmbithi

*  Shun Lee West Restaurant Shuns Shark Fin Soup | Animal Welfare Institute

Animal Welfare Institute has sought to alleviate the suffering inflicted on animals by people. We seek better treatment of ... The Animal Welfare Institute was founded in 1951 and is dedicated to alleviating suffering inflicted on animals by humans. The ... Washington, D.C. -- The Animal Welfare Institute and Humane Society International applaud Shun Lee West restaurant, of New York ... Animal Welfare Institute, 900 Pennsylvania Ave., SE, Washington, DC 20003. Phone: (202) 337-2332 ...
awionline.org/content/shun-lee-west-restaurant-shuns-shark-fin-soup

*  We campaign to better the welfare of all animals | RSPCA

Will you add your voice for better animal welfare? ... We campaign on a wide range of animal-related issues. Millions ... Campaign for animal welfare. We aim to prompt political and behavioural change on a range of animal welfare-related issues. But ... Will you add your voice to our campaigns for better animal welfare? Sign up to our campaign newsletter for regular updates ... Dog welfare campaigns Love dogs? So do we! But, not all are so lucky. Take part in our campaigns to protect dog welfare. ...
https://rspca.org.uk/getinvolved/campaign

*  Zoo consultant touts animal welfare efforts - City Insider

... but he recently told the Animal Control and Welfare Commission that steps to improve animal welfare have already been taken ... Zoo consultant touts animal welfare efforts. By Neal Riley on September 20, 2012 at 5:55 PM ... The commission has a history of contention with the zoo on animal welfare issues, proposing in 2008 that it be turned into an ... "You don't need every kind of animal, but the animals you do have need to live well," he said. ...
blog.sfgate.com/cityinsider/2012/09/20/zoo-consultant-touts-animal-welfare-efforts/

*  Animal welfare - European Commission

Animal welfare: How to make an informed choice, 2010. *Animal welfare: Ensuring the humane and responsible treatment of farmed ... Animal welfare With the support and close co-operation of the Member States, the European Commission has been promoting animal ... pay full regard to the welfare requirements of animals, while respecting the legislative or administrative provisions and ... welfare for over 40 years gradually improving the lives of farm animals. An important step in 1998 was Council Directive 98/58/ ...
https://ec.europa.eu/food/animals/welfare_en

Israel and animal welfare: Israel's protection of animal welfare rests upon the Animal Welfare Law, 1994 which is composed of an Animal Protection Law and an Animal Experimentation Law. The law was originally introduced by Abraham Poraz in 1993 and passed by the Knesset on January 11, 1994.Circulation plan: A circulation plan is a schematic empirical projection/model of how pedestrians and/or vehicles flow through a given area, like, for example, a neighborhood or a Central Business District (CBD). Circulation plans are used by city planners and other officials to manage and monitor traffic and pedestrian patterns in such a way that they might discover how to make future improvements to the system.College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand: The College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand was founded in 1964. It is a part of AAU, Anand, Gujarat, India.Massachusetts Animal Rights Coalition: The Massachusetts Animal Rights Coalition (MARC), is a non-profit volunteer-run animal rights organization based in Massachusetts, United States. MARC is the largest and most active animal rights group in Massachusetts and operates as a tax exempt 501(c)(3) corporationhttp://corp.Sunshine Social Welfare Foundation: Sunshine Social Welfare Foundation (Chinese: 陽光社會福利基金會) is a charity established in 1981 in Taiwan to provide comprehensive services for burn survivors and people with facial disfigurement.Interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs: The interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs is an ongoing process affecting the population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia. The current population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia is now probably higher than in the past.Animal euthanasia: Animal euthanasia (euthanasia from ; "good death") is the act of putting an animal to death or allowing it to die as by withholding extreme medical measures. Reasons for euthanasia include incurable (and especially painful) conditions or diseases,2000 Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia lack of resources to continue supporting the animal, or laboratory test procedures.International Workshop on Nitride Semiconductors: The International Workshop on Nitride Semiconductors (IWN) is a biennial academic conference in the field of group III nitride research. The IWN and the International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS) are held in alternating years and cover similar subject areas.International Life Sciences Institute: The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) is a nonprofit [501c3]IRS 501c3 Definition1985 IRS ILSI Tax Code Determination science organization founded in 1978 and headquartered in Washington, DC. It is a member organization whose members are primarily food and beverage, agricultural, chemical, and pharmaceutical companies.Gestation crate: A gestation crate, also known as a sow stall, is a metal enclosure used in intensive pig farming, in which a female breeding pig (sow) may be kept during pregnancy and for most of her adult life.Wilson G.Harry Spira: Harold R. "Harry" Spira, BVSc MRCVS MACVSc HDA was an Australian veterinarian, geneticist and dog fancier who was instrumental in the development of dog breeding programs which used artificial insemination and frozen semen.The Detroit Project: The Detroit Project was a group that lobbies American automakers to build cars and SUVs that have higher fuel efficiency and use alternative fuels. The group also lobbied politicians to take action to reducing United States petroleum dependence.Zugunruhe: Zugunruhe (pronounced ) is a German compound word consisting of Zug (move, migration) and Unruhe (anxiety, restlessness).Pacific ElectricFoundation Course for Agricultural Research ServiceIndian Veterinary Research InstituteUnited States Animal Identification Plan: United States Animal Identification Plan (USAIP) — Officials from approximately 70 animal industry organizations and government agencies have been working since early 2002 on a plan for a national system to identify that might follow food animals from birth to slaughter. The primary purpose is to trace animals back from slaughter through all premises within 48 hours of an animal disease outbreak, in order to determine the disease’s origin and to contain it quickly.Santa Fe College Teaching ZooJet aeratorsThe Gentlemen's Alliance CrossEuropean Union climate and energy package: The European plan on climate change consists of a range of measures adopted by the members of the European Union to fight against climate change. The plan was launched in March 2007, and after months of tough negotiations between the member countries, it was adopted by the European Parliament on December 2008.ToxicitySubtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Andrew Dickson WhiteBeef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Plant breeding

(1/550) Effect of pen size on behavioral, endocrine, and immune responses of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves.

Female water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves (n = 28) aged 7 to 10 d were divided into four groups of seven animals each to examine the effects of space allowance (Group A: 2.6 indoor m2 + 2.0 outdoor m2/calf; Group B: 2.6 indoor m2/calf; Group C: 1.5 indoor m2/calf; Group D: 1.0 indoor m2/calf) on behavioral, endocrine, and immune variables for a period of 60 d. Animals were offered 7 L/d of a commercial acidified milk substitute. The calves averaged 45.9 kg initially and 92.4 kg finally. The behavior observations were conducted 7 d after grouping and fortnightly thereafter. At wk 4 and 8, the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test was performed to induce aspecific delayed hypersensitivity. At wk. 1 and 3, calves were injected i.m. with keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Antibody titers were determined at weekly intervals for 7 wk. Calves in pens with greater space allowance (Groups A and B) were less active than Groups C and D (P<.001). The latter groups were also observed feeding more often at wk 7 (P<.01). Calves provided with an outdoor paddock spent less time standing than Groups C and D (P<.01), and lay with a greater number of outstretched legs (P<.001). Groups C and D showed a lower reaction to PHA in both skin tests than did Groups A and B (P<.001 and P<.05, respectively). Group A showed an antibody response consistently higher than groups B, C, and D (P<.01, P<.05, and P<.05, respectively). At the end of the experimental period, the calves were subjected to an isolation test lasting 10 min. Group D showed a longer duration of movement with respect to Groups A and B (P<.01); animals from Group C walked more than did Group A (P<.05). Cortisol concentration evaluated 0, 10, 45, 90, 150, and 225 min after separation from the group was higher in Groups C and D than in Groups A and B (P<.01). For all animals, the highest cortisol level was observed immediately after the isolation test (P<.001). Space restriction resulted in evidence of stress in the animals as shown by alterations in a number of physiological responses. However, the use of small groups of only seven animals per pen may have affected their reactions to space restriction. It is possible that using larger groups could change these conclusions.  (+info)

(2/550) Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of carfentanil-xylazine and medetomidine-ketamine used for immobilization of mule deer and mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids.

Three mule deer and 4 mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids were immobilized in a crossover study with carfentanil (10 microg/kg) + xylazine (0.3 mg/kg) (CX), and medetomidine (100 microg/kg) + ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) (MK). The deer were maintained in left lateral recumbency for 1 h with each combination. Deer were immobilized with MK in 230+/-68 s (mean +/- SD) and with CX in 282+/-83 seconds. Systolic, mean and diastolic arterial pressure were significantly higher with MK. Heart rate, PaO2, PaCO2, pH, and base excess were not significantly different between treatments. Base excess and pH increased significantly over time with both treatments. Both treatments produced hypoventilation (PaCO2 > 50 mm Hg) and hypoxemia (PaO2 < 60 mm Hg). PaO2 increased significantly over time with CX. Body temperature was significantly (P<0.05) higher with CX compared to MK. Ventricular premature contractions, atrial premature contractions, and a junctional escape rhythm were noted during CX immobilization. No arrhythmias were noted during MK immobilization. Quality of immobilization was superior with MK, with no observed movement present for the 60 min of immobilization. Movement of the head and limbs occurred in 4 animals immobilized with CX. The major complication observed with both of these treatments was hypoxemia, and supplemental inspired oxygen is recommended during immobilization. Hyperthermia can further complicate immobilization with CX, reinforcing the need for supplemental oxygen.  (+info)

(3/550) Headroom requirements for horses in transit.

Horses intended for slaughter in Western Canada are frequently transported in double-deck trailers, where headroom may be restricted. Poll and withers height was estimated from type photographs of various horse breeds. The headroom required by Canadian legislation and codes of practice may not be sufficiently restrictive to protect the welfare of sport type horses when transported.  (+info)

(4/550) Comparison of minimum space allowance standards for transportation of cattle by road from 8 authorities.

Space allowance for animals in transit is a consistent concern in many countries developing codes of practice and regulations to assure humane treatment of food producing animals. Describing minimum space allowance requirements for cattle in transit has proven to be difficult, as the space required increases as the animal grows. Loading pressure, defined as weight of live animal per unit area, has proven to be a clear method of communicating with transporters and inspection staff what the maximum safe stocking limit is based on individual animal weight. The loading density recommendations in the Canadian code of practice for beef cattle are compared with other standards by using loading pressure charts as a visual aid. Loading pressure charts are recommended in preference to a tabular format to describe the minimal space allowed per animal for cattle transported by road.  (+info)

(5/550) Principles in laboratory animal research for experimental purposes.

The present work contains information about proper husbandry and care of laboratory animals, microbiological monitoring of their health and protecting them against suffering and distress. The author also gives some advice on the improvement and unification of experimental research results through the standardisation of laboratory animals used for the experiments as well as imposing proper conditions for animal husbandry.  (+info)

(6/550) The "new perception" of animal agriculture: legless cows, featherless chickens, and a need for genuine analysis.

A growing popular literature has created a "New Perception" of animal agriculture by depicting commercial animal production as 1) detrimental to animal welfare, 2) controlled by corporate interests, 3) motivated by profit rather than by traditional animal care values, 4) causing increased world hunger, 5) producing unhealthy food, and 6) harming the environment. Agricultural organizations have often responded with public relations material promoting a very positive image of animal agriculture and denying all six of the critics' claims. The public, faced with these two highly simplistic and contradictory images, needs knowledgeable research and analysis to serve as a basis for public policy and individual choice. Scientists and ethicists could provide such analysis. In some cases, however, scientists and ethicists have themselves produced misleading, polarized, or simplistic accounts of animal agriculture. The problems in such accounts include the repetition of unreliable information from advocacy sources, use of unwarranted generalizations, simplistic analysis of complex issues, and glossing over the ethical problems. The New Perception debate raises important and complex ethical issues; in order to provide useful guidance, both scientists and ethicists must consider these issues as research problems that are worthy of genuine investigation and analysis.  (+info)

(7/550) Perspectives on hepatitis B studies with chimpanzees.

Chimpanzees have been shown to be exquisitely susceptible to human hepatitis viruses, without themselves developing clinical illness, thus providing an important model for studies on these agents. Chimpanzees have contributed substantially to human welfare by making possible the development of hepatitis B vaccines, which now prevent development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in millions of people. They have provided a means to evaluate the efficacy of virus inactivation strategies, which have made blood derivatives formerly contaminated with blood-borne viruses (hepatitis B, C, and human immunodeficiency viruses) safe with respect to their transmission. In exchange for these contributions, humans owe chimpanzees lifelong retirement in sanctuaries that offer socialization and environmental enrichment.  (+info)

(8/550) Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in animal research.

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging can be used to investigate, noninvasively, a wide range of biological processes in systems as diverse as protein solutions, single cells, isolated perfused organs, and tissues in vivo. It is also possible to combine different NMR techniques enabling metabolic, anatomical, and physiological information to be obtained in the same experiment. This review provides a simple overview of the basic principles of NMR and outlines both the advantages and disadvantages of NMR spectroscopy and imaging. A few examples of potential applications of NMR spectroscopy and imaging are presented, which demonstrate the range of questions that can be asked using these techniques. The potential impact of using NMR techniques in a biomedical research program on the total number of animals required for specific investigations, as well as the number of animals used in research, are discussed. The article concludes with a personal perspective on the impact of continuing improvements in NMR technology for future applications in animal research.  (+info)



issues


  • He served as National expert of the Greek Ministry of Agriculture on Laboratory Animal Welfare issues in the Council of Europe and in the European Union (1991-1994). (labroots.com)
  • GEARI (the Group for the Education of Animal - Related Issues) is a non-profit educational group dedicated to assisting you in your search for information on animal rights-related issues, the environment and human health. (blogspot.com)