No data available that match "Animal Migration"

*  PPT - Animal Migration PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3afad6-MjNhY

How do we know where animals go? Slide 9 Slide 10 How do we know where animals go? How do ... - A free PowerPoint PPT ... Types of Migration Types of Migration How do animals migrate? ... Animal Migration. 1. Animal Migration 2. What is migration?* ... Animal Migration. Description:. Types of Migration Types of Migration How do animals migrate? How do we know where animals go? ... Animals in Winter - Migration Migration means to move to warmer ... Animals in Winter Migration Whales Butterflies and Birds ...

*  The Verge: This animated globe showing animal migration routes is mesmerizing | ResearchBuzz: Firehose

Animals have don't need passports or visas, and they don't care about countries' borders - and that's vividly illustrated by ... It shows migration routes for about 150 species based on tracking data shared by over 11,000 researchers from around… ... This animated globe showing animal migration routes is mesmerizing. ' ... migrating animals, migration New-to-me, from The Verge: This animated globe showing animal migration routes is mesmerizing. " ...

*  ANIMAL MIGRATION in Eagle River, AK - Sep 29, 2012 2:00 PM | Eventful

ANIMAL MIGRATION on Sep 29, 2012 in Eagle River, AK(Anchorage metro area) at Eagle River Nature Center. Jr. Naturalist Program ... ANIMAL MIGRATION. Jr. Naturalist Program (K-6th). Fall is the time of year when many animals head south to escape Alaskas harsh ... Sorry, you missed ANIMAL MIGRATION at Eagle River Nature Center.. Demand that Eagle River Nature Center gets added to the next ... We're generating custom event recommendations for you based on ANIMAL MIGRATION right now! ...

*  Ecology & Conservation - Oxford University Press

Add Animal Migration to Cart. E.J. Milner-Gulland, John M. Fryxell, and Anthony R.E. Sinclair ...

*  Migration Safari tours | Migration of wildebeest

Maps showing the movement of the wildebeest migration in Tanzania and Kenya. Wildebeest Migration / ... TANZANIA AND KENYA WILDEBEEST ANIMAL MIGRATION PATTERNS. The annual migration of the animals, (wildebeest and zebra) takes ... Below is a rough idea of how the animals move over the course of each year, by following the movement of the arrows. Migration ... The flow of animals moves from a southerly to a northerly and westerly direction as the herds head north towards the Mara River ...

*  500 Elephants Get New Home in Massive African Relocation - NBC Bay Area

As development squeezes Africa's wildlife areas, a man-made animal migration tries to save elephants. By Christopher Torchia. ... As development squeezes Africa's wildlife areas, this kind of man-made animal migration is increasingly seen as a conservation ... Many animals can adapt to a new habitat if it is roughly the same as the old one. ... Its leader, Kester Vickery, said the key to successful relocations of what he called a "higher-thinking kind of animal" is to ...

*  Rapid population decline in migratory shorebirds relying on Yellow Sea tidal mudflats as stopover sites | Nature Communications

Animals that undergo long-distance migrations spend most of their time in widely separated breeding and non-breeding habitats. ... Animal migrations are among the greatest spectacles of the natural world, yet they are increasingly imperilled by human ... Migratory animals must undertake energetically demanding migrations covering thousands of kilometres between breeding and non- ... Going, going, gone: is animal migration disappearing?. PLoS Biol. 6, 1361-1364 (2008). ...

*  eel | fish |

migration (in migration (animal): Catadromous fish) *respiration (in respiratory system: Fishes) Additional Reading. ... Abundant Animals: The Most Numerous Organisms in the World. Success consists of going from failure to failure without a loss of ... Fightin' Fauna: 6 Animals of War. Throughout recorded history, humans have excelled when it comes to finding new and inventive ... animal. (kingdom Animalia), any of a group of multicellular eukaryotic organisms (i.e., as distinct from bacteria, their ...

*  Feedback | Answers in Genesis

Animal Migrations. June 8, 2012. Bodie Hodge, AiG-U.S., answers a reader's questions about how animals migrated to different ...||-last_published&item_start=48&item_level=layman&item_template=db/related-content-nodes/post-list-stacked-item&item_visibility__in=1||3&item_count=24&item_type__is_content_collection=0&item_OR={publication_parent%3D15330%26also_included_in%3D15330}

*  The magnetic compass of domestic chickens, Gallus gallus | Journal of Experimental Biology

In Animal Migration, Navigation, and Homing (ed. K. Schmidt-Koenig and W. T. Keeton), pp. 302-310. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer ... The experiments comply with the rules and regulations of animal welfare and animal experimentation in Australia. ... Test animals, imprinting and housing. We used brown-layer chicks from Nulkaba Hatchery, Cessnock, NSW, Australia. The chicks ... Kirschvink, J. L. and Gould, J. L. (1981). Biogenetic magnetite as a basis for magnetic field detection in animals. BioSystems ...

*  Data from: Migration strategy and pathogen risk: non-breeding distribution drives malaria prevalence in migratory waders - Dryad

Pathogen exposure has been suggested as one of the factors shaping the myriad of migration strategies observed in nature. Two hypotheses relate migration strategies to pathogen infection: the 'avoiding the tropics hypothesis' predicts that pathogen prevalence and transmission increase with decreasing non-breeding (wintering) latitude, while the "habitat selection hypothesis" predicts lower pathogen prevalence in marine than in freshwater habitats. We tested these scarcely investigated hypotheses by screening wintering and resident wading shorebirds (Charadriiformes) for avian malaria blood parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus spp.) along a latitudinal gradient in Australia. We sequenced infections to determine if wintering migrants share malaria parasites with local shorebird residents, and we combined prevalence results with published data in a global comparative analysis. Avian malaria prevalence in Australian waders was 3.56% and some parasite lineages were shared ...

*  Variation of fuelling rates among sites, days and individuals in migrating passerine birds. - Zurich Open Repository and...

1. The seasonal migration of birds is divided into alternating phases of stopover and flight. The fuel deposition rate at stopover sites is the crucial factor determining overall speed of migration and its success. Therefore, field data about the variation in fuel deposition rates at different levels (among sites, seasons, days, individuals) are essential to explain the observed behavioural reactions to environmental variability and migration strategies. 2. Fuel deposition rates of four species of passerine migrant birds captured at 14 stopover sites from northern Europe to sub-Saharan Africa during autumn and spring were analysed. Plasma concentrations of triglycerides and β-hydroxy-butyrate were used to estimate relative fuel deposition rates (named fattening index). 3. The largest variation in fattening indices was between sites which was only weakly explained by geographical position relative to ecological barriers and did not differ between spring and ...

*  In the migratory marathon, parasitized monarchs drop out early ( It seems survival of the fittest affec...)

It seems survival of the fittest affect every organism on Earth e...A little-studied outcome of animal migration is whether these long jou...These results published in the March issue of Ecology Letters could ...Study results suggest that if migration is lost from this system rema...,In,the,migratory,marathon,,parasitized,monarchs,drop,out,early,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters

*  Environment, migratory tendency, phylogeny and basal metaboclic rate in birds

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) represents the minimum maintenance energy requirement of an endotherm and has farreaching consequences for interactions between animals and their environments. Avian BMR exhibits considerable variation that is independent of body mass. Some long-distance migrants have been found to exhibit particularly high BMR, traditionally interpreted as being related to the energetic demands of long-distance migration. Here we use a global dataset to evaluate differences in BMR between migrants and non-migrants, and to examine the effects of environmental variables. The BMR of migrant species is significantly higher than that of non-migrants. Intriguingly, while the elevated BMR of migrants on their breeding grounds may reflect the metabolic machinery required for long-distance movements, an alternative (and statistically stronger) explanation is their occupation of predominantly cold high-latitude breeding areas. Among several environmental predictors, average ...

*  Seasonal Movements of Interest Rates

James Poterba is President of the National Bureau of Economic Research. He is also the Mitsui Professor of Economics at M.I.T ...

*  US Avian Flu Outbreak Feared by Poultry Industry as Fall Migration Looms | Fox News

It has been more than two months since the last report of avian influenza was reported in the United States, but there is concern for a renewed outbreak in the U.S. as birds begin to migrate toward the East Coast.

*  Pluvialis apricaria | CMS

The Convention on Migratory Species (UNEP/CMS), also known as the Bonn Convention, aims to conserve terrestrial, aquatic and avian migratory species throughout their range.. ...

*  Especies | CMS

The Convention on Migratory Species (UNEP/CMS), also known as the Bonn Convention, aims to conserve terrestrial, aquatic and avian migratory species throughout their range.. ...

*  Dr. Sylvia Stell, MD - Columbia City, IN - Obstetrics & Gynecology |

Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Sylvia Stell, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.

*  Bryna Kranzler « Community News « Sylvia Browder's

An Interview with Bryna Kranzler: Author & Freelance Writer Sylvia: Hi Bryna, it is such a pleasure to interview you. Please give our readers a brief…

*  FAQ's Nutritional Facts « Community News « Sylvia Browder's

We frequently hear good fat and bad fat. What is the difference? Good fat and bad fat has been referred to for many years. Unfortunately, there has been the…

No data available that match "Animal Migration"

(1/1226) How the clear-sky angle of polarization pattern continues underneath clouds: full-sky measurements and implications for animal orientation.

One of the biologically most important parameters of the cloudy sky is the proportion P of the celestial polarization pattern available for use in animal navigation. We evaluated this parameter by measuring the polarization patterns of clear and cloudy skies using 180 degrees (full-sky) imaging polarimetry in the red (650 nm), green (550 nm) and blue (450 nm) ranges of the spectrum under clear and partly cloudy conditions. The resulting data were compared with the corresponding celestial polarization patterns calculated using the single-scattering Rayleigh model. We show convincingly that the pattern of the angle of polarization (e-vectors) in a clear sky continues underneath clouds if regions of the clouds and parts of the airspace between the clouds and the earth surface (being shady at the position of the observer) are directly lit by the sun. The scattering and polarization of direct sunlight on the cloud particles and in the air columns underneath the clouds result in the same e-vector pattern as that present in clear sky. This phenomenon can be exploited for animal navigation if the degree of polarization is higher than the perceptual threshold of the visual system, because the angle rather than the degree of polarization is the most important optical cue used in the polarization compass. Hence, the clouds reduce the extent of sky polarization pattern that is useful for animal orientation much less than has hitherto been assumed. We further demonstrate quantitatively that the shorter the wavelength, the greater the proportion of celestial polarization that can be used by animals under cloudy-sky conditions. As has already been suggested by others, this phenomenon may solve the ultraviolet paradox of polarization vision in insects such as hymenopterans and dipterans. The present study extends previous findings by using the technique of 180 degrees imaging polarimetry to measure and analyse celestial polarization patterns.  (+info)

(2/1226) Speeds and wingbeat frequencies of migrating birds compared with calculated benchmarks.

Sixteen species of birds passing Falsterbo in southwest Sweden during the autumn migration season were observed using short-range optical methods. Air speeds and wingbeat frequencies were measured, reduced to sea level, and compared with benchmark values computed by Flight.bas, a published flight performance program based on flight mechanics. The benchmark for air speed was the calculated sea-level value of the minimum power speed (V(mp)). The mean speeds of three raptor species that flew by flap-gliding were below V(mp), apparently because the flap-glide cycle involved slowing down below V(mp) when gliding and accelerating back up to V(mp) when flapping. The mean speeds of 11 species that flew by continuous flapping were between 0.82V(mp) and 1.27V(mp). Two passerine species that flew by bounding had mean speeds of 1.70V(mp) and 1.96V(mp), but these high mean speeds reflected their ability to fly faster against head winds. These results do not support predictions from optimal migration theory, which suggest that migrating birds 'should' fly faster, relative to V(mp). However, observations were restricted for technical reasons to birds flying below 200 m and may not represent birds that were seriously committed to long-distance migration. The benchmark wingbeat frequency (f(ref)) was derived from dimensional reasoning, not from statistical analysis of observations. Observed wingbeat frequencies ranged from 0.81f(ref) to 1.05f(ref), except in the two bounding species, whose wingbeat frequencies appeared anomalously high. However, the mechanics of bounding with a power fraction q imply that gravity during the flapping phase is increased by a factor 1/q, and when the value of gravity was so adjusted in the expression for f(ref), the wingbeat frequencies of the two bounding species were predicted correctly as a function of the power fraction. In small birds with more muscle power than is required to fly at speeds near V(mp), bounding is an effective method of adjusting the specific work in the muscle fibres, allowing conversion efficiency to be maximised over a wide range of speeds.  (+info)

(3/1226) Light-dependent magnetoreception in birds: the behaviour of European robins, Erithacus rubecula, under monochromatic light of various wavelengths and intensities.

To investigate how magnetoreception is affected by the wavelength and intensity of light, we tested European robins, Erithacus rubecula, under monochromatic lights of various wavelengths at two intensities using oriented behaviour as an indicator of whether the birds could derive directional information from the geomagnetic field. At a quantal flux of 7 x 10(15) quanta s(-1) m(-2), the birds were well oriented in their migratory direction east of North under 424 nm blue, 510 nm turquoise and 565 nm green light, whereas they were disoriented under 590 nm yellow light. Increasing the intensity of light at the same wavelengths more than sixfold to 43 x 10(15) quanta s(-1) m(-2) resulted in a change in behaviour: under bright blue and green light, the birds now showed a preference for the East-West axis, with the majority of headings at the western end; under bright turquoise light, they oriented unimodally towards a direction slightly west of North. Under bright yellow light, the birds continued to be disoriented. These findings suggest a rather complex relationship between the receptors involved in magnetoreception. Magnetoreception appears to follow rules that are different from those of vision, suggesting that light-dependent magnetoreception may involve receptors and neuronal pathways of its own.  (+info)

(4/1226) Effects of duration and time of food availability on photoperiodic responses in the migratory male blackheaded bunting (Emberiza melanocephala).

The effects of the duration and time of food availability on stimulation of the photoperiodic responses (fattening and gain in body mass, and growth and development of testes) were investigated in the migratory blackheaded bunting (Emberiza melanocephala). Two experiments were performed. Experiment I examined the effects of a reduction in the duration of food supply in buntings that were subjected to long day lengths (16h:8h L:D) and received food ad libitum (group I) or for restricted durations, coinciding with the end of the lights-on period, of 8h (group II) and 4h (group III). Buntings of group I gained in body mass, whereas there was a mixed response in group II (half the birds gained and half lost body mass), and all birds of group III lost body mass. There was no effect on testis growth in groups I and II, but testes grew more slowly in group III. Experiment 2 investigated the effects of both the duration and the time of food availability. Of five groups of birds, group I was exposed to an 8h:16h L:D photoperiod, and groups II-V were exposed to 16h:8h L:D. Whereas birds of groups I and II received food ad libitum, those of groups III-V were fed only for 5 h, at zt 0-5 (group III), zt 5.5-10.5 (group IV) or zt 11-16 (group V), where zt = zeitgeber time and zt 0 refers to the beginning of the lights-on period. Apart from duration, the timing of food availability also had an effect on photoperiodic stimulation under the 16h:8h L:D photoperiod. Birds that were fed ad libitum fattened and gained in body mass, whereas among restricted feeding groups, only birds in the group fed during the first 5 h (zt 0-5, group III) showed a significant increase in body mass (albeit considerably lower than in the ad libitum group). Birds fed during the middle 5h (zt 5.5-10.5, group IV) showed an intermediate response, and those fed during the last 5h (zt 11-16, group V) lost body mass. Testicular growth was suppressed in birds that were fed for 5 h in the evening, but not in those fed for the same period in the morning or in the middle of the long day. Taken together, these results show that the duration of food supply and/or the time of day at which food is available affect photoperiodic stimulation of fattening and gain in body mass as well as the growth and development of gonads in the blackheaded bunting.  (+info)

(5/1226) Complex bird clocks.

The circadian pacemaking system of birds comprises three major components: (i) the pineal gland, which rhythmically synthesizes and secretes melatonin; (ii) a hypothalamic region, possibly equivalent to the mammalian suprachiasmatic nuclei; and (iii) the retinae of the eyes. These components jointly interact, stabilize and amplify each other to produce a highly self-sustained circadian output. Their relative contribution to overt rhythmicity appears to differ between species and the system may change its properties even within an individual depending, for example, on its state in the annual cycle or its photic environment. Changes in pacemaker properties are partly mediated by changes in certain features of the pineal melatonin rhythm. It is proposed that this variability is functionally important, for instance, for enabling high-Arctic birds to retain synchronized circadian rhythms during the low-amplitude zeitgeber conditions in midsummer or for allowing birds to adjust quickly their circadian system to changing environmental conditions during migratory seasons. The pineal melatonin rhythm, apart from being involved in generating the avian pacemaking oscillation, is also capable of retaining day length information after isolation from the animal. Hence, it appears to participate in photoperiodic after-effects. Our results suggest that complex circadian clocks have evolved to help birds cope with complex environments.  (+info)

(6/1226) Juvenile hormone regulation of longevity in the migratory monarch butterfly.

Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America are well known for their long-range migration to overwintering roosts in south-central Mexico. An essential feature of this migration involves the exceptional longevity of the migrant adults; individuals persist from August/September to March while their summer counterparts are likely to live less than two months as adults. Migrant adults persist during a state of reproductive diapause in which both male and female reproductive development is arrested as a consequence of suppressed synthesis of juvenile hormone. Here, we describe survival in monarch butterflies as a function of the migrant syndrome. We show that migrant adults are longer lived than summer adults when each are maintained under standard laboratory conditions, that the longevity of migrant adults is curtailed by treatment with juvenile hormone and that the longevity of summer adults is increased by 100% when juvenile hormone synthesis is prevented by surgical removal of its source, the corpora allatum. Thus, monarch butterfly persistence through a long winter season is ensured in part by reduced ageing that is under endocrine regulation, as well as by the unique environmental properties of their winter roost sites. Phenotypic plasticity for ageing is an integral component of the monarch butterflies' migration-diapause syndrome.  (+info)

(7/1226) Deriving dispersal distances from genetic data.

Dispersal is one of the most important factors determining the genetic structure of a population, but good data on dispersal distances are rare because it is difficult to observe a large sample of dispersal events. However, genetic data contain unbiased information about the average dispersal distances in species with a strong sex bias in their dispersal rates. By plotting the genetic similarity between members of the philopatric sex against some measure of the distance between them, the resulting regression line can be used for estimating how far dispersing individuals of the opposite sex have moved before settling. Dispersers showing low genetic similarity to members of the opposite sex will on average have originated from further away. Applying this method to a microsatellite dataset from lions (Panthera leo) shows that their average dispersal distance is 1.3 home ranges with a 95% confidence interval of 0.4-3.0 home ranges. These results are consistent with direct observations of dispersal from our study population and others. In this case, direct observations of dispersal distance were not detectably biased by a failure to detect long-range dispersal, which is thought to be a common problem in the estimation of dispersal distance.  (+info)

(8/1226) Unexpected coherence and conservation.

The effects of migration in a network of patch populations, or metapopulation, are extremely important for predicting the possibility of extinctions both at a local and a global scale. Migration between patches synchronizes local populations and bestows upon them identical dynamics (coherent or synchronous oscillations), a feature that is understood to enhance the risk of global extinctions. This is one of the central theoretical arguments in the literature associated with conservation ecology. Here, rather than restricting ourselves to the study of coherent oscillations, we examine other types of synchronization phenomena that we consider to be equally important. Intermittent and out-of-phase synchronization are but two examples that force us to reinterpret some classical results of the metapopulation theory. In addition, we discuss how asynchronous processes (for example, random timing of dispersal) can paradoxically generate metapopulation synchronization, another non-intuitive result that cannot easily be explained by the standard theory.  (+info)


  • Migratory animals are threatened by human-induced global change. (
  • However, little is known about how stopover habitat, essential for refuelling during migration, affects the population dynamics of migratory species. (
  • Migratory animals must undertake energetically demanding migrations covering thousands of kilometres between breeding and non-breeding sites, and many interrupt their journeys to rest and refuel at stopover sites along the way. (
  • Although the Yellow Sea region is a migration bottleneck for many EAAF shorebirds, species vary in their reliance on migratory stopover sites in this area. (
  • Here, we measure abundance and population trends for ten EAAF shorebird taxa for which expert-defined migratory connectivity networks were available 22 to test if taxa that rely heavily on Yellow Sea tidal mudflats to stage their long-distance migrations are experiencing the most rapid population declines. (
  • The reason for this bias towards migrating species appears to be based on the fact that, during the migration season, orientation in the migratory direction is a very reliable behaviour that provides an excellent tool for analysing the underlying compass mechanism. (
  • Using a genetic cross of clonal lines derived from migratory and nonmigratory life-history types of Onchorhynchus mykiss (steelhead and rainbow trout, respectively), we have dissected the genetic architecture of the complex physiological and morphological transformation that occurs immediately prior to seaward migration (termed smoltification). (
  • In this study, we describe the genetic architecture of proximate physiological and morphological traits associated with migration vs. residency in Oncorhynchus mykiss , a species that consists of both migratory (steelhead trout) and nonmigratory (rainbow trout) life-history types. (


  • The annual migration to permanent water holes of vast herds of herbivores (wildebeest, gazelles and zebras), followed by their predators, is one of the most impressive natural events in the world. (
  • The annual animal migration - especially migration of the wildebeest - occurs between June and September with millions of animals taking part. (


  • Serengeti National Park is at the heart the larger Serengeti ecosystem, which is defined by the area covered by the annual migration. (
  • It is the migration for which Serengeti is perhaps most famous. (


  • Graeme's background in the sensory ecology of animal-animal predation allow this book to utilize the extensive theoretical developments associate with this field, and translate these into plant-animal interactions. (


  • Decline rate was unaffected by shared evolutionary history among taxa and was not predicted by migration distance, breeding range size, non-breeding location, generation time or body size. (
  • The genetic architecture of migration and the evolutionary forces that have shaped polyphenism in migration and residency have not been elucidated for any species. (
  • Plant-Animal Communication is a timely summary of the latest research and ideas on the ecological and evolutionary foundations of communication between plants and animals, including discussions of fundamental concepts such as deception, reliability, and camouflage. (


  • Animals that undergo long-distance migrations spend most of their time in widely separated breeding and non-breeding habitats. (

poorly understood

  • Despite the central theme of migration to the evolution of these fishes, the genetic architecture of migration-related processes is poorly understood. (


  • It shows migration routes for about 150 species based on tracking data shared by over 11,000 researchers from around the world. (
  • A US Court of Appeals ruled that the Interior Department acted prematurely in removing the animals from the endangered species list. (


  • Students will learn about animal behavior which pertains to hibernation, migration, food and reproduction. (


  • Across all animal taxa, proximate mechanisms or features such as energetic and morphological changes are intricately tied to the ultimate decision to migrate ( D ingle 2006 ). (


  • As development squeezes Africa's wildlife areas, this kind of man-made animal migration is increasingly seen as a conservation strategy in Malawi, one of the continent's most densely populated countries, and beyond. (



  • Broadly, it consists of development and early growth in the open ocean: the planktonic (free-floating) dispersal of eggs and larvae, metamorphosis, juvenile and adult growth, and the migration of maturing adults to an oceanic spawning area. (
  • Prior to seaward migration, juvenile salmonids transform from dark-colored parr, adapted to life in a freshwater stream environment, to silvery smolts, physiologically and morphologically adapted to life in the ocean ( H oar 1976 ). (


  • The Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA), measuring 8,300 square kilometres, is also the only place on earth where mankind and wild animals co-exist in harmony. (


  • Bernard Lakowski and Siegfried Hekimi of McGill University, Quebec, presented evidence that four genes, named the Clock genes , interact to determine the life span of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a microscopic, wormlike soil animal used extensively in genetic studies. (


  • The birds congregate at high densities on tidal mudflats in the Yellow Sea region of East Asia, using them as staging sites 14 to refuel as they complete tight annual schedules of migration, reproduction and moult 15 . (


  • Even the fastest animal in the world, the cheetah, flames out after a few hundred yards. (
  • It introduces how the sensory world of animals shapes the various modes of communication employed, laying out the basics of vision, scent, acoustic, and gustatory communication. (


  • MIGRATION is a pervasive theme in the diversification and evolution of animals. (


  • When thousands of animals die during mass migrations, ecosystems accommodate the corpses and new cycles are set in motion. (


  • Fall is the time of year when many animals head south to escape Alaskas harsh winters. (


  • Why do they do it What are the costs and benefits Join us in a discussion and migration game to learn more about what our departing animals face in their journey south. (


  • Plant-animal interactions are particularly diverse due to the complex nature of their mutualistic and antagonistic relationships. (
  • His main research interests are the sensory ecology of plant-animal interactions in the three fields covered in this book, seed dispersal, plant defence and carnivory. (


  • With a perpetual urge to roam over open, expansive terrain from elevations between 3,000 to nearly 6,000 feet, it only makes sense that the pronghorn antelope performs the longest land migration in the continental United States. (


  • Migration has been described as a "syndrome" or a complex suite of integrated physiological, morphological, and behavioral traits that together with environment promotes the drive to move over long distances ( D ingle 2006 ). (


  • The pink lines follow the movement of animals covering at least 310 miles in one direction for at least 45 days, combining about 8,000 tracks collected over a period of about 10 years. (