No data available that match "Aminopropionitrile"
No data available that match "Aminopropionitrile"
(1/87) The smooth muscle cell. III. Elastin synthesis in arterial smooth muscle cell culture.
Primate arterial smooth muscle cells and skin fibroblasts were examined for their ability to synthesize elastin in culture. In the presence of the lathyrogen beta-aminopropionitrile, the smooth muscle cells incorporate [3H]lysine into a lysyl oxidase substrate that was present in the medium and associated with the cell layer. A component having a mol wt of 72,000 and an electrophoretic mobility similar to that of authentic tropoelastin was isolated from the labeled smooth muscle cells by coacervation and fractionation with organic solvents. In the absence of beta-aminopropionitrile, long-term cultures of smooth muscle cells incorporated [14C]lysine into desmosine and isodesmosine, the cross-link amino acids unique to elastin. In contrast, no desmosine formation occurred in the fibroblast cultures. These characteristics demonstrate that arterial smooth muscle cells are capable of synthesizing both soluble and cross-lined elastin in culture. (+info)
(2/87) Lysyl oxidase activates the transcription activity of human collagene III promoter. Possible involvement of Ku antigen.
Lysyl oxidase is an extracellular enzyme that controls the maturation of collagen and elastin. Lysyl oxidase and collagen III often show similar expression patterns in fibrotic tissues. Therefore, we investigated the influence of lysyl oxidase overexpression on the promoter activity of human COL3A1 gene. Our results showed that when COS-7 cells overexpressed the mature form of lysyl oxidase, the activity of the human COL3A1 promoter was increased up to an average of 12 times when tested by luciferase reporter assay. The effect was specific, because other promoters were not affected. Moreover, lysyl oxidase effect was abolished by beta-aminopropionitrile, a specific inhibitor of its catalytic activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed a binding activity in the region from -101 to -77 that was significantly increased by lysyl oxidase overexpression. The binding was specifically competed by the cold probe, and the mutagenesis of this region abolished both the binding activity in gel retardation and lysyl oxidase stimulation of COL3A1 promoter in transfection experiments. We identified the binding activity as Ku antigen in its two components: Ku80 and Ku70. This study suggests a new coordinated mechanism by which lysyl oxidase might control the development of fibrosis. (+info)
(3/87) Collagen synthesis in capsules surrounding dimethylbenzanthracene-induced rat breast tumors and the effect of pretreatment with beta-aminopropionitrile.
Collagen synthesis is increased over three-fold in capsules surrounding dimethylbenzanthracene-induced rat breast tumors compared to the tumor parenchyma and over six-fold compared to normal breast connective tissue. Increased collagen synthesis is independent of the rate of tumor growth and final tumor size. Pretreatment of animals with beta-aminopropionitrile to inhibit collagen cross-linking caused an 82% decrease in tumor formation and a significant reduction in tumor volume (approximately 0.4 cu cm) compared to controls (approximately 10 cu cm). The four small tumors that did develop in the lathyritic animals had increased collagen synthesis in the interior tumor stroma and reduced collagen synthesis in the tumor capsule. These findings suggest that the collagenous capsule surrounding dimethylbenzanthracene tumors functions as a physical barrier to protect the tumor from the immune system of the host. The apparent antitumor effects of beta-aminopropionitrile may be due to immunopotentiation and/or cytotoxic actions of the drug. (+info)
(4/87) Analysis of the combined osteolathyritic effects of beta-aminopropionitrile and diethyldithiocarbamate on xenopus development.
In order to examine the mechanistic basis between combined effects and mechanisms of action, two osteolathyrogens, beta-aminopropionitrile (betaAPN) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DTC), were tested together on Xenopus embryos. In a separate test, DTC was also tested with copper sulfate to determine the importance of copper in DTC-induced osteolathyrism. Frog embryos (Xenopus laevis) were exposed for 96 h, with daily solution removal and replacement. Preserved tadpoles were evaluated for osteolathyritic lesions. For the betaAPN:DTC test, a 1.2-factor matrix design was used, producing two single chemical and seven mixture-response curves. The chi(2) goodness-of-fit test was used to compare the experimental mixture-response curves with theoretical effects for two combined effects models, dose-addition and independence. All seven mixture curves were consistent with expected results for dose-addition, but the correlations were generally not high. For the DTC:copper test, the three mixture-response curves generated showed that added copper increased the DTC-alone EC(50), but there was no corresponding right shift at the top of the response curves, as observed previously with betaAPN and copper. In the betaAPN:DTC and DTC:copper tests, DTC alone showed a biphasic concentration-osteolathyrism curve, and the slope of the response curve for DTC alone in each test was statistically different than the slope for the betaAPN alone response curve. Taken together, the results suggest the potential for a second osteolathyritic effect of DTC that affected the combined toxicity enough to produce a dose-addition correlation without the chemicals necessarily having the same mechanism. (+info)
(5/87) Amine oxidase-like activity of polyphenols. Mechanism and properties.
Polyphenols in several oxidation systems gained amine oxidase-like activity, probably due to the formation of the corresponding quinones. In the presence of Cu(II), o- and p-phenolic compounds exhibited amine oxidase-like activity, whereas only the o-phenolic compounds showed the activity in the presence of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. The activity was determined by measuring the conversion of benzylamine to benzaldehyde by HPLC. Moreover, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid, which are plant polyphenols, converted the lysine residue of bovine serum albumin to alpha-amino-adipic semialdehyde residue, indicating lysyl oxidase-like activity. We also characterized the activity of pyrocatechol, hydroquinone, and pyrogallol in the presence of Cu(II). The oxidative deamination was accelerated at a higher pH, and required O2 and transition metal ions. Furthermore, EDTA markedly inhibited the reaction but not beta-aminopropionitrile, which is a specific inhibitor of lysyl oxidase. Catalase significantly inhibited the oxidation, implying the participation of hydroxyl radical in the reaction, but superoxide dismutase stimulated the oxidation, probably due to its radical formation activity. We discussed the mechanism of the oxidative deamination by polyphenols and the possible significance of the activity for biological systems. (+info)
(6/87) The effect of beta aminoproprionitrile (BAPN) on experimental amyloidosis.
Experimental amyloidosis was induced in mice with repeated injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) reinforced with bacterial vaccine. BAPN administered in a mixture with CFA or on its own before the injection of CFA reduced the incidence of amyloidosis. The reduction in the incidence of amyloidosis following the administration of BAPN may be due to its inhibitory effect on the oxidative deamination of amino acids, which presumably inhibit cross-linking of amyloid fibrils or interfere with metabolic pathways which involve the formations of mucopolysaccharide formation. It is suggested that the defective formation of the mucopolysaccharide-amyloid protein complex inhibits amyloid deposition and induces the activity of beta glucuronidase observed in the present study. The reduced incidence of amyloidosis following BAPN adminsitration cannot be due to lysosomal enzyme degradation of the amyloid as the activity of cathepsin D and acid phosphatase is decreased during this process. (+info)
(7/87) A molecular role for lysyl oxidase in breast cancer invasion.
We identified previously an up-regulation in lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression,an extracellular matrix remodeling enzyme, in a highly invasive/metastatic human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, compared with MCF-7, a poorly invasive/nonmetastatic breast cancer cell line. In this study, we demonstrate that the mRNA expression of LOX and other LOX family members [lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL), LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4] was observed only in breast cancer cells with a highly invasive/metastatic phenotype but not in poorly invasive/nonmetastatic breast cancer cells. LOX and LOXL2 showed the strongest association with invasive potential in both highly invasive/metastatic breast cancer cell lines tested (MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T). To determine whether LOX is directly involved in breast cancer invasion, LOX antisense oligonucleotides were transfected into MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells, and found to inhibit invasion through a collagen IV/laminin/gelatin matrix in vitro compared with LOX sense oligonucleotide-treated and untreated controls. In addition, treatment of MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells with beta-aminopropionitrile (an irreversible inhibitor of LOX enzymatic activity) decreased invasive activity. Conversely, MCF-7 cells transfected with the murine LOX gene demonstrated a 2-fold increase in invasiveness that was reversible by the addition of beta-aminopropionitrile in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, endogenous LOX mRNA expression was induced when MCF-7 cells were cultured in the presence of fibroblast conditioned medium or conditioned matrix, suggesting a role for stromal fibroblasts in LOX regulation in breast cancer cells. Moreover, the correlation of LOX up-regulation and invasive/metastatic potential was additionally demonstrated in rat prostatic tumor cell lines, and human cutaneous and uveal melanoma cell lines. These results provide substantial new evidence that LOX is involved in cancer cell invasion. (+info)
(8/87) An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, not an angiotensin II type-1 receptor blocker, prevents beta-aminopropionitrile monofumarate-induced aortic dissection in rats.
OBJECTIVE: Cystic medial degeneration (CMD) is a histologic abnormality that is common in aortic diseases such as aortic dilation, aneurysm, or dissection. Although little is known about the mechanism underlying CMD, we have previously demonstrated that angiotensin II signaling via angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) plays a central role in apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) occurring in CMD associated with Marfan syndrome. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of angiotensin II signaling in THE pathogenesis of aortic diseases associated with CMD. METHOD: We investigated the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), temocapril (n = 15), angiotensin II receptor type-1 (AT1R) blocker, CS-866 (n = 15), and vehicle control (n = 17) on 0.25% beta-aminopropionitrile monofumarate (BAPN)-induced aortic dissection and histopathologic findings in a rat model. RESULTS: Temocapril significantly prevented aortic dissection (P <.05), CMD (P <.01), and VSMC apoptosis (P <.01) compared with vehicle control in BAPN-fed rats. However, CS-866 did not show any preventive effect. Reversed transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that expression of both AT1R and AT2R was detected in control rat aortas, and that AT2R expression was significantly upregulated in the aortas of BAPN-fed rats (P <.01). Blood pressure was significantly and equally lowered in both temocapril and CS-866 groups compared with control. CONCLUSIONS: Differential expression of angiotensin II receptors and AT2R signaling are involved in the pathogenesis of CMD and aortic dissection in BAPN-fed rats. ACEIs might be of clinical value for the prevention and treatment of aortic diseases related to CMD. (+info)